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Cognitive Neuroscience an Introduction


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This is an introduction to Cognitive neuroscience lecture delivered at IIIT Hyderabad Jan 2010

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Cognitive Neuroscience an Introduction

  1. 1. Cognitive Neurophysiology
  2. 2. Cognition <ul><li>Middle English  cognicion,  from Anglo-French, from Latin  cognition-, cognitio,  from cognoscere  to become acquainted with, know, from  co-  +  gnoscere  to come to know </li></ul><ul><li>The act or process of knowing ; perception. </li></ul><ul><li>the product of such a process; something thus known, perceived, </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty for processing information </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism become aware of or obtain knowledge (MeSH) </li></ul><ul><li>A conscious intellectual act , mental process of knowing learning, thinking, judging </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cognitive Science Neuro Science Psycology Philosophy Computer Science Genomics
  4. 4. Neuro Science Cognitive Neuroscience
  5. 5. Knowledge can be acquired by…. Surfing Diving
  6. 6. Begin with beginning <ul><li>Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing 1600 BC </li></ul><ul><li>the first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation </li></ul><ul><li>Head and spine trauma and their effect </li></ul>
  7. 7. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC) <ul><li>Brain as the site of sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization </li></ul>
  8. 8. Brain and Heart <ul><li>Hippocrates 460-377 BC </li></ul><ul><li>“ Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle 384-322 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>“ the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,” </li></ul><ul><li>“ brain could cool the passion of heart” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Galen 130-200 AD
  10. 10. Brain as hollow organ <ul><li>The first pair of ventricles were the seat of the “common senses”. They would make the analysis of the information originated in the sense organs. </li></ul><ul><li>The resultant images were carried to the middle ventricle, the seat of reason, thinking and wisdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Then came into action the last ventricle, the seat of memory” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519
  12. 12. Renaissance Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)
  13. 13. Descartes, Brain and Mind <ul><li>“ most active and quickest particles of the blood” were taken by the arteries from the heart to the brain, where they were transformed in a very subtle air or wind, a very pure and active flame: the “animal spirits”  </li></ul><ul><li>that filaments in the nerves (supposed to be tubes) could move little valvules, opening pores that would allow the flowing or the animal spirits.  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sleeping and Waking Descartes 1662
  15. 15. Phrenology 1806
  16. 16. Lobar Localization Paul Broca 1868
  17. 17. Bioelectricity
  18. 18. Discovery of Neuron Ramony Cajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble
  19. 19. Nerve Cell
  20. 20. Supporting cells
  21. 21. Ion distribution across cell membrane <ul><li>Effect of concentration difference </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical potential difference affecting negative ions </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure difference </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ion movement across cell
  23. 23. Resting membrane Potential
  24. 24. Action Potential
  25. 25. Propagation of AP
  26. 26. The Refractory Period
  27. 27. Synapse
  28. 28. Electrical synapse
  29. 29. Chemical Synapse
  30. 30. Neurotransmitter release
  31. 31. Post synaptic receptor
  32. 32. Depolarization of Post Synaptic Neuron
  33. 33. Repolarization
  34. 34. Excitatory and Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
  35. 35. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>The substance must be present within the presynaptic neuron </li></ul><ul><li>The substance must be released in response to presynaptic depolarization, and the release must be Ca2+-dependent . </li></ul><ul><li>Specific receptors for the substance must be present on the postsynaptic cell </li></ul>
  36. 36. Brain Development
  37. 37. Anatomical planes Anterior Posterior Lateral Medial Anatomical Planes
  38. 39. Cerebrum
  39. 40. Functional Organization
  40. 41. Functional Organization of NS
  41. 42. Motor System
  42. 43. Motor System
  43. 44. Autonomic Nervous System
  44. 45. Sensory System Pain temp touch Position and vibration sense
  45. 46. Smell and Taste
  46. 47. Hearing
  47. 48. Vision
  48. 49. Consciousness
  49. 50. Sleeping
  50. 51. Language and Communication
  51. 52. Memory
  52. 54. Intelligence
  53. 55. Thank You