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01 cognitive neuroscience introduction


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01 cognitive neuroscience introduction

  1. 1. Introduction to Cognitive Neurophysiology
  2. 2. What is Cognition? <ul><li>Middle English  cognicion,  from Anglo-French, from Latin  cognition-, cognitio,  from cognoscere  to become acquainted with, know, from  co-  +  gnoscere  to come to know </li></ul><ul><li>The act or process of knowing ; perception. </li></ul><ul><li>the product of such a process; something thus known , perceived, </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty for processing information </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism become aware of or obtain knowledge (MeSH) </li></ul><ul><li>A conscious intellectual act , mental process of knowing learning, thinking, judging </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Cognition? <ul><li>Part of speech: noun </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acknowledgment, apprehension, attention, awareness ,   cognizance,   comprehension , discernment,   insight intelligence,  knowledge , mind,  need,  note, notice,  observance, observation,  perception , percipience,  reasoning, recognition ,  regard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antonyms: ignorance, unawareness </li></ul><ul><li>Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2008 by the Philip Lief Group.  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Spectrum of Cognition Nano Meta Para Macro Micro
  5. 5. Cognitive Science Neuro Science Psycology Philosophy Computer Science Genomics
  6. 6. Philosophy : Mind behind Mind Psychology : Mind Neuroscience: Brain Three States of Cognition
  7. 7. Evolution & Cognition “ Cognition is survival instinct a consequence of carefully crafted modules dedicated to solving specific evolutionary problems”
  8. 8. Evolutionary Cognitive Science <ul><li>Conditioned taste aversion </li></ul><ul><li>Garcia discovered that animals learned to avoid novel food products that made them ill in as little as one learning conditioning trial, something that had not been demonstrated with any other stimulus class previously. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared learning </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman demonstrated a phenomenon in which it is easier to make associations between stimuli that possess a biological predisposition to be conditioned because of a role these stimuli played in an organism’s evolutionary history </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is the seat of Cognition? <ul><li>Trepanning done in South America over 10,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>To let the bad spirit out that tormented the brains </li></ul>
  10. 10. Surgical Papyrus <ul><li>Surgical Papyrus the oldest medical writing 1600 BC the first known descriptions of cranial sutures, the external brain surface, brain liquor (CSF) and intracranial pulsation </li></ul><ul><li>Head and spine trauma and their effect </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alcmaeon of Croton (500 BC) <ul><li>Brain as the site of sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Optic nerve as hollow carried the information to the brain where sensory modalities had its own localization </li></ul><ul><li>human soul was immortal and partook of the divine nature, because like the heavenly bodies it contained in itself a principle of motion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Brain vs. Heart <ul><li>Hippocrates 460-377 BC </li></ul><ul><li>“ Men ought to know that from the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grieves and tears ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle 384-322 B.C </li></ul><ul><li>“ the heart as the organ of thinking, of perception and feelings,” </li></ul><ul><li>“ brain could cool the passion of heart” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Galen 130-200 AD
  14. 14. Brain as hollow organ : Nemesius (circa 320),
  15. 15. Leonardo Da Vinci April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519
  16. 16. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)
  17. 17. Phrenology 1806
  18. 18. Lobar Localization Paul Broca 1868
  19. 19. Brodmann’s area
  20. 21. Emotion Localization
  21. 22. Modern Phrenology
  22. 23. Imaging of brain CT Scan
  23. 24. MRI Brain
  24. 25. fMRI
  25. 26. PET scan
  26. 27. Descartes, Brain and Mind (1596-1650)
  27. 28. Bioelectricity (1737-1798)
  28. 29. Discovery of Neuron Ramony Cajal and Camillo Golgi 1906 Noble
  29. 30. Nerve Cell
  30. 32. Study of Cognitive Neural Science <ul><li>Single cell recording of behaving animal </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular study of brain architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Study of behavior of patient with specific lesion the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging of brain of normal and abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Computer modeling </li></ul>
  31. 33. Objectives <ul><li>To know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of Nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve signal processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory processing : Physical, chemical, EM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor control mechanism voluntary and involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consciousness, sleep, emotion reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive function: Language, Memory… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of NS and Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Neurophilosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent development </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. 1 Functional Organization of NS
  33. 35. 1 Structural Organization of NS
  34. 36. 2 Nerve signal processing
  35. 37. 3. Sensory Signal Processing Laws of specific sense energies – Muller 1826 “ Each nerve fiber is activated primarily by a certain type of stimulus and each makes specific connections to structures in the central nervous system whose activity gives rise to specific sensations”
  36. 38. 4. Motor Control Voluntary Involuntary
  37. 39. 5. Consciousness, Sleep, Emotion Reproduction
  38. 40. 6. Higher Cognitive Functions: Language, Memory
  39. 41. 7. Brain Development and Genetics
  40. 42. 8 Cognitive Neurophilosophy
  41. 43. 9. Recent advances
  42. 44. Selected Reading