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10 Organic Chemistry Semester 1
Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>The study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>The stud...
Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Organic originally meant chemicals that came from  organisms </li></ul><ul><li>...
Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Hydrocarbon:  a compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen </li></ul>H - C C - H H...
Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Carbon has 4 valence electrons, thus forms 4 covalent bonds not only with other eleme...
Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Saturated  compounds have only  single  bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated  compoun...
Introduction to Hydrocarbons
<ul><li>Alkanes   -  </li></ul><ul><li>What they are  </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Naming </li></ul>
What are they? <ul><li>Alkanes :  hydrocarbons containing only carbon-carbon single bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the first ...
Alkanes <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases – liquids – solids </li></ul></ul>
Alkanes <ul><li>Many alkanes are used for fuels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methane, propane, butane, octane </li></ul></ul><ul...
Structures of Alkanes
Structure <ul><li>Combined with the -ane ending is a prefix for the number of carbons </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous series-...
Structure <ul><li>A straight chain looks like this: </li></ul><ul><li>Any smaller chain that takes the place of a hydrogen...
Showing structure <ul><li>You can show structure in three ways:  </li></ul><ul><li>a) the condensed structural formula </l...
Naming <ul><li>The name of the alkane varies according to the number of C atoms present  in the chain. </li></ul>
Naming Straight-Chain   Alkanes <ul><li>Names recommended by IUPAC (the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)...
Branched-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>A hydrocarbon substituent is called an  alkyl group . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use the same pr...
Branched-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>1. Count the number of Carbons in the main (parent) chain.  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Number so ...
Branched-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>From the name,  draw  the structure: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Find the parent, with the -ane </...
Review of alkanes <ul><li>What elements are present in an alkane </li></ul><ul><li>What is the prefix that means 4? 6? 1? ...
Alkenes <ul><li>Multiple bonds can also exist between the carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons containing carbon to...
Naming Alkenes <ul><li>Find longest parent that has the double bond in it </li></ul><ul><li>New ending: -ene </li></ul><ul...
Alkynes <ul><li>Hydrocarbons containing carbon to carbon  triple bonds  called alkynes </li></ul><ul><li>-C  C- </li></ul>...
Questions <ul><li>Draw a) line angle, b) condensed structure c) structural formulae for </li></ul><ul><li>3 methyl pent-2-...
Cyclic Hydrocarbons   (not assessed) <ul><li>The two ends of the carbon chain are  attached  in a  ring  in a  cyclic hydr...
Aromatic  Hydrocarbons  (not assessed) <ul><li>A special group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons is known as  arenes </li...
Aromatic Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Benzene is a six-carbon ring, with alternating double and single bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Ben...
General formulae <ul><li>Alkane C n H 2n+2   </li></ul><ul><li>Alkene C n H 2n </li></ul><ul><li>Alkyne C n H 2n-2   </li>...
Combustion  of hydrocarbons <ul><li>Complete combustion (excess air) </li></ul><ul><li>C n H 2n+2  + O 2   ->  CO 2  + H 2...
Summary – carbon chemistry <ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated – the alkanes – learn to C 10 </li></ul><ul><l...
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Organic chem

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Organic chem

  1. 1. 10 Organic Chemistry Semester 1
  2. 2. Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>The study of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>The study of organic chemistry of biological systems is called biochemistry. </li></ul><ul><li>Most organic compounds consist of carbon and hydrogen, but may contain other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen or halogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons are compounds with only C and H. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Organic originally meant chemicals that came from organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Today, organic chemistry is the chemistry of virtually all compounds containing the element carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Over a million organic compounds, with a dazzling array of properties </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Hydrocarbon: a compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen </li></ul>H - C C - H H - C - C - H H H H H H C C H H H H y d r o c a r b o n s A l k a n e s A l k e n e s A l k y n e s A r e n e s O n l y c a r b o n - c a r b o n s i n g l e b o n d s O n e o r m o r e c a r b o n - c a r b o n d o u b l e b o n d s O n e o r m o r e c a r b o n - c a r b o n t r i p l e b o n d s O n e o r m o r e b e n z e n e - l i k e r i n g s E t h a n e E t h e n e ( E t h y l e n e ) E t h y n e ( A c e t y l e n e ) B e n z e n e
  5. 5. Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Carbon has 4 valence electrons, thus forms 4 covalent bonds not only with other elements, but also forms bonds WITH OTHER CARBON ATOMS. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction to Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Saturated compounds have only single bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated compounds have both single and double bonds/triple bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated means that no more H atoms can be added to the chain. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction to Hydrocarbons
  8. 8. <ul><li>Alkanes - </li></ul><ul><li>What they are </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Naming </li></ul>
  9. 9. What are they? <ul><li>Alkanes : hydrocarbons containing only carbon-carbon single bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the first two alkanes are methane and ethane </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Alkanes <ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases – liquids – solids </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Alkanes <ul><li>Many alkanes are used for fuels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methane, propane, butane, octane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the number of carbons increases, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>so does the boiling and melting pt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first 4 are gases; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next ten are liquids; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher alkanes are solids </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Structures of Alkanes
  13. 13. Structure <ul><li>Combined with the -ane ending is a prefix for the number of carbons </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous series- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In alkanes, it is: -CH 2 - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkanes can be straight chain or branched chain structures </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Structure <ul><li>A straight chain looks like this: </li></ul><ul><li>Any smaller chain that takes the place of a hydrogen on a parent hydrocarbon is called, a substituent, or the branched part </li></ul>CH 3 – CH 2 – CH 2 – CH 2 – CH 3
  15. 15. Showing structure <ul><li>You can show structure in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>a) the condensed structural formula </li></ul><ul><li>b) the full structure </li></ul><ul><li>c) the line-angle formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a line represents a carbon-carbon bond and an angle represents a carbon atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a line ending in space represents a -CH 3 group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen atoms are not shown in line-angle formulas </li></ul></ul>C H 3 C H 2 C H 2 C H 3 C H 3 C H 2 C H 3 C H 3 C H 2 C H 2 C H 2 C H 3 C H 3 C H 2 C H 2 C H 3 C H 3 C H 2 C H 3 C H 3 C H 2 C H 2 C H 2 C H 3 P e n t a n e B u t a n e P r o p a n e P e n t a n e B u t a n e P r o p a n e C o n d e n s e d s t r u c t u r a l f o r m u l a
  16. 16. Naming <ul><li>The name of the alkane varies according to the number of C atoms present in the chain. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Naming Straight-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>Names recommended by IUPAC (the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>end with -ane, the root part of the name indicates the # of carbons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We sometimes still rely on common names, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some of which are well-known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ie polyethylene instead of polyethene) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ie Acetic acid instead of ethanoic acid) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Branched-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>A hydrocarbon substituent is called an alkyl group . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use the same prefixes to indicate the number of carbons, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but the -ane ending is now -yl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives much more variety to the organic compounds </li></ul>
  19. 19. Branched-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>1. Count the number of Carbons in the main (parent) chain. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Number so branches have low # </li></ul><ul><li>3. Give position number to branch </li></ul><ul><li>4. Prefix more than one branch (di, tri) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Use proper punctuation ( - , ) </li></ul><ul><li>longest chain is Heptane </li></ul><ul><li>side group is methyl </li></ul><ul><li>Position is #3 carbon </li></ul><ul><li>name is 3-methyl heptane </li></ul><ul><li>is an isomer of </li></ul><ul><li>octane C 8 H 18 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Branched-Chain Alkanes <ul><li>From the name, draw the structure: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Find the parent, with the -ane </li></ul><ul><li>2. Number carbons on parent </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identify substituent groups; attach </li></ul><ul><li>4. Add remaining hydrogens </li></ul>
  21. 21. Review of alkanes <ul><li>What elements are present in an alkane </li></ul><ul><li>What is the prefix that means 4? 6? 1? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of alkane are there </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a) line angle, b) condensed structure c) structural formulae for </li></ul><ul><li>i)propane ii)3methyl octane iii) 2ethyl butane </li></ul><ul><li>For iii) what is this more correctly named as. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Alkenes <ul><li>Multiple bonds can also exist between the carbon atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons containing carbon to carbon double bonds are called alkenes C=C C-C=C </li></ul><ul><li>Called “unsaturated” if they contain double or triple bonds </li></ul>
  23. 23. Naming Alkenes <ul><li>Find longest parent that has the double bond in it </li></ul><ul><li>New ending: -ene </li></ul><ul><li>Number the chain, so that the double bond gets the lower number </li></ul><ul><li>Name and number the substituents </li></ul>
  24. 24. Alkynes <ul><li>Hydrocarbons containing carbon to carbon triple bonds called alkynes </li></ul><ul><li>-C C- </li></ul><ul><li>Alkynes are not plentiful in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest is ethyne- common name acetylene (fuel for torches) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Questions <ul><li>Draw a) line angle, b) condensed structure c) structural formulae for </li></ul><ul><li>3 methyl pent-2-ene </li></ul><ul><li>1 bromo 3 ethyl hexane </li></ul><ul><li>Hept-4-yne </li></ul><ul><li>2,4 di methyl nonane </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cyclic Hydrocarbons (not assessed) <ul><li>The two ends of the carbon chain are attached in a ring in a cyclic hydrocarbon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>named as “cyclo- ____” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hydrocarbon compounds that do NOT contain rings are known as; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aliphatic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rings less than 5 are unstable as the bonds are stressed and will tend to easily break. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Aromatic Hydrocarbons (not assessed) <ul><li>A special group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons is known as arenes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contain single rings, or groups of rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>originally called “aromatic hydrocarbons”, because of pleasant odour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simplest arene is benzene (C 6 H 6 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term “aromatic” applies to materials with bonding like that of benzene </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Aromatic Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Benzene is a six-carbon ring, with alternating double and single bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Benzene derivatives possible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methylbenzene, 3-phenylhexane, ethylbenzene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other commonly known aromatics are: napthalene, toluene, xylene, phenol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many aromatics are known carcinogens. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. General formulae <ul><li>Alkane C n H 2n+2 </li></ul><ul><li>Alkene C n H 2n </li></ul><ul><li>Alkyne C n H 2n-2 </li></ul>
  30. 30. Combustion of hydrocarbons <ul><li>Complete combustion (excess air) </li></ul><ul><li>C n H 2n+2 + O 2 -> CO 2 + H 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>To balance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 1 x O 2 for every C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add ½ O 2 for every H 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try a few: CH 4 ; C 8 H 18 ; C 4 H 8 ; </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Summary – carbon chemistry <ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated – the alkanes – learn to C 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Structure, naming, branching </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated – alkenes & - kynes </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>combustion </li></ul>

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