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Cell culturing


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Cell culturing

  1. 1. Cell Culture
  2. 2. Culturing Cells Culturing cells has become integral to Biotechnology with numerous applications Cell culture techniques 1. Tissue of interest is carefully dissected to expose cells of the same type 2. Proteolytic (protein digesting) enzymes are added to digest the intercellular connective tissue to release cells. 3. Then placed in a medium with necessary sugars, salts and hormones or growth factors. Antibiotics are sometimes added to prevent bacterial growth.
  3. 3. The culture is then kept in a flask at 370C where they will grow for up to 30-40 generation – “Hayflick limit” These cells have been use for hundreds of years to grow yeast for beer, wine and bread production as well as making yoghurt
  4. 4. Plant Tissue Cultures Ref: Biology Key Ideas P72 Essentials Revision Workbook
  5. 5. Advantages to this technique There are several advantages of such culturing techniques:  The speed of propagation is not dependent on the full reproductive cycle of the organism.  Scientists and plant breeders can be much more selective about which plants or animals they are going to propagate.  Plants and animal tissue can be grown under sterile conditions which avoids the need for quarantine and disease checking.  They can assist in the propagation of endangered species where natural reproduction was not rapid enough.  Cells can be kept in a liquid nutrient medium in a cold storage indefinitely.
  6. 6. Contemporary uses  Cloning a eukaryotic gene in a bacterium for purposes of protein production e.g. insulin and growth hormone  Cloning whole organisms e.g. Dolly  Cloning stem cells to replace specialized cells e.g. pancreatic cells  Culturing skin cells after serious burns  Vaccine production  Testing pharmaceutical products to avoid ethical issues associated with testing on animals
  7. 7. Chemical interference with cell metabolism Drugs Drugs alter the physiological state of an organism. These include antibiotics which can kill pathogenic organisms, but also can lead to resistance. Social drugs such as nicotine and alcohol can have deleterious effects on cell function High concentrations of alcohol can upset cellular metabolism leading to cirrhosis of the liver
  8. 8. Illegal drugs such as marijuana, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy all interfere with cellular activity – particularly at nerve cells. The over prescription or inappropriate use of other drugs (to control pain, blood pressure and cholesterol) can lead to addiction and other mental or physical illnesses
  9. 9. Fuels When fuels such as coal, gas and petroleum burn they produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide which adversely affect cell metabolism. This can lead to hyperventilation and other respiratory problems. The accumulation of toxic gases such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide can cause irreversible damage to haemoglobin and other enzymes involved with cellular respiration.
  10. 10. Fertilisers Highly soluble in water they can be carried by our underground water supplies to rivers and seas leading to algal growths or “blooms” Other chemicals Arsenic and cyanide are metabolic poisons which act as inhibitors blocking or competing for active sites. Insecticides (DDT) can be detrimental if overused. They accumulate in soils and other organisms
  11. 11. CFC’s Destroy the ozone layer and in turn allows more UV light to reach living organisms. This increase in exposure can lead to an increase in cell mutations and skin cancer as well as damage to microscopic plankton in oceans, lakes and rivers.