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### 5.3 electric cells

• 2. Cells What is a battery? They work due to difference in electrolytic potential of chemicals. You place two terminals in an a electrolyte and the ions will be attracted to the opposite terminal.
• 3. Primary or secondary A primary cell cannot be recharged. A secondary cell can be recharged by applying an external voltage.
• 4. Electromotive Force Defining potential difference The coulombs entering a lamp have electrical potential energy, those leaving have very little potential energy. There is a potential difference (or p.d.) across the lamp, because the potential energy of each coulomb has been transferred to heat and light within the lamp. p.d. is measured in volts (V) and is often called voltage.
• 5. The p.d. between two points is the electrical potential energy transferred to other forms, per coulomb of charge that passes between the two points. Resistors and bulbs transfer electrical energy to other forms, but which components provide electrical energy?
• 6. A dry cell, a dynamo and a solar cell are some examples. Any component that supplies electrical energy is a source of electromotive force or e.m.f. It is measured in volts. The e.m.f. of a dry cell is 1.5 V, that of a car battery is 12 V
• 7. A battery transfers chemical energy to electrical energy, so that as each coulomb moves through the battery it gains electrical potential energy. The greater the e.m.f. of a source, the more energy is transferred per coulomb. In fact: The e.m.f of a source is the electrical potential energy transferred from other forms, per coulomb of charge that passes through the source.
• 9. The cell gives 1.5 joules of electrical energy to each coulomb that passes through it, but the electrical energy transferred in the resistor is less than 1.5 joules per coulomb and can vary. The circuit seems to be losing energy - can you think where?
• 10. The cell itself has some resistance, its internal resistance. Each coulomb gains energy as it travels through the cell, but some of this energy is wasted or `lost' as the coulombs move against the resistance of the cell itself. So, the energy delivered by each coulomb to the circuit is less than the energy supplied to each coulomb by the cell.
• 11. Very often the internal resistance is small and can be ignored. Dry cells, however, have a significant internal resistance. This is why a battery can become hot when supplying electric current. The wasted energy is dissipated as heat.
• 12. In the circuit below an electrical device (load) is connected in series with a cell of emf 2.5 V and internal resistance r. The current I in the circuit is 0.10 A. The power dissipated in the load is 0.23 W. Calculate (i) the total power of the cell; (ii) the resistance of the load; (iii) the internal resistance r of the cell. Question
• 13. solution (i) (2.5 x 0.10) = 0.25W; 1 (ii) 0.23 = I2 R; R = 0.23/0.12 = 23 Ω 2 (iii) power dissipated in cell = 0.02 W = I2 r; r=0.02/0.12 = 2.0 Ω or use E = IR + Ir 2.5 = 0.10 x23 + 0.10r; 2
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