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1. 1. Physics and PhysicalPhysics and Physical MeasurementMeasurement Topic 1.1 The Realm of PhysicsTopic 1.1 The Realm of Physics Range of magnitudes of quantities inRange of magnitudes of quantities in our universeour universe
2. 2. List as many physical quantitiesList as many physical quantities as you can…in two minutesas you can…in two minutes LengthLength MassMass TimeTime TemperatureTemperature EnergyEnergy VelocityVelocity AccelerationAcceleration ForceForce ChargeCharge CurrentCurrent AngleAngle FrequencyFrequency WavelengthWavelength ResistanceResistance Potential DifferencePotential Difference Specific heat capacitySpecific heat capacity
3. 3. Range of MagnitudesRange of Magnitudes You will need to be able to state (express)You will need to be able to state (express) quantities to the nearest order ofquantities to the nearest order of magnitudemagnitude That is to say to the nearest 10That is to say to the nearest 10xx
4. 4. Powers of TenPowers of Ten http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scihttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/sci
5. 5. Amend your listAmend your list For each of the quantities we listed you nowFor each of the quantities we listed you now estimate their size, it can be a rangeestimate their size, it can be a range Eg anglesEg angles 101000 to 10to 1022
6. 6. Range of magnitudes ofRange of magnitudes of quantities in our universe (1)quantities in our universe (1) Sizes (Distances)Sizes (Distances) • From 10From 10-15-15 mm (subnuclear particles)(subnuclear particles) • To 10To 10+26+26 mm (extent of the visible universe)(extent of the visible universe)
7. 7. Range of magnitudes ofRange of magnitudes of quantities in our universe (2)quantities in our universe (2) MassesMasses • From 10From 10-30-30 kgkg (electron mass)(electron mass) • To 10To 10+50+50 kgkg (mass of the universe)(mass of the universe)
8. 8. Range of magnitudes ofRange of magnitudes of quantities in our universe (3)quantities in our universe (3) TimesTimes • From 10From 10-23-23 ss (passage of light across a nucleus)(passage of light across a nucleus) • To 10To 10+18+18 ss (age of the universe)(age of the universe)
9. 9. RatiosRatios You will also be required to state (express) ratiosYou will also be required to state (express) ratios of quantities as differences of order of magnitudeof quantities as differences of order of magnitude Example:Example: The hydrogen atom has a diameter of 10The hydrogen atom has a diameter of 10-10-10 mm Whereas the nucleus is 10Whereas the nucleus is 10-15-15 mm The difference is 10The difference is 1055 • A difference of 5 orders of magnitudeA difference of 5 orders of magnitude
10. 10. Now try these ratiosNow try these ratios Mass of electron to your massMass of electron to your mass Radius of atom to your heightRadius of atom to your height Mass of electron to mass of uranium atomMass of electron to mass of uranium atom Radius of Earth to size of universeRadius of Earth to size of universe
11. 11. SolutionsSolutions Mass of electron to your massMass of electron to your mass 1010-30-30 / 10/ 1022 = 10= 10-32-32 so 32 orders of mag.so 32 orders of mag. Radius of atom to your heightRadius of atom to your height 1010-10-10 / 10/ 1000 = 10= 10-10-10 so 10 orders of mag.so 10 orders of mag. Mass of electron to mass of uranium atomMass of electron to mass of uranium atom 1010-30-30 / 10/ 10-25-25 = 10= 10-5-5 so 5 orders of mag.so 5 orders of mag. Radius of Earth to size of universeRadius of Earth to size of universe 101077 / 10/ 102626 = 10= 10-19-19 so 19 orders of mag.so 19 orders of mag.