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Nutrition and Reproduction Power point Dr P K Singh Vety. College, Patna, India

  1. Nutritional Strategies for Sustainable Dairy Development Dr. Pankaj Kumar SinghDr. Pankaj Kumar Singh Assistant Professor (Animal Nutrition)Assistant Professor (Animal Nutrition) Bihar Veterinary College, PatnaBihar Veterinary College, Patna 1
  2. Balanced Nutrition  Maintenance  Reproduction  Production  Health Many health, reproductive and production problems can be prevented with good nutrition.
  3. Factors affecting the fertility of farm animals: •Heredity/Genetics •Nutrition •Age •Climate •Disease •Management
  4. Poor nutrition • Delays puberty • Reduces conception rate • Increases pregnancy losses
  5. Stage of Production Vs Nutritional Requirements • As animals grow and mature, their nutritional needs change. – Younger animals need diets high in protein. – As the animal matures, the animal needs a diet higher in carbohydrates. Stage of Production Nutritional Requirements • Calving to breeding Highest • Breeding to weaning Moderate • Mid Gestation Lowest • Late Gestation High
  6. Nutritional factors affecting reproduction Energy Protein Minerals Vitamins
  7. Energy • the most important nutritional factor affecting reproduction • Two sources • the food ingested. • the energy stored in its body in the form of fat. • Energy balance: Positive Negative
  8. Negative energy balance: • High producing cows are in negative energy balance during early lactation because they cannot consume adequate feed to meet the nutrient requirements for high levels of milk production. • Energy stores in body tissues are mobilized and weight losses occur.
  9. Negative energy balance: • Puberty is determined by body weight not by age of the animal. • Generally the heavier the animal the more fertile, – but overfat animals may have difficulty mating, conceiving, and birthing. • Low Body Weight: – reach sexual maturity later – longer interval to first ovulation. – increased incidence of silent estrus. – Lower conception rates – Longer calving intervals
  10. The consequences of negative energy balance on reproduction in dairy cowsThe consequences of negative energy balance on reproduction in dairy cows Metabolic changesMetabolic changes Endocrine changesEndocrine changes Functional changesFunctional changes Impaired synthesis andImpaired synthesis and secretion of GnRH andsecretion of GnRH and LHLH •anoestrusanoestrus •poor follicular growth andpoor follicular growth and estrogenic capacityestrogenic capacity •delayed LH peak and ovulationdelayed LH peak and ovulation •poor oestruspoor oestrus •poor quality of oocytepoor quality of oocyte •increased early embryonicincreased early embryonic mortalitymortality Emergency energyEmergency energy production from adiposeproduction from adipose tissue and proteinstissue and proteins increased levels of triacylglycerolsincreased levels of triacylglycerols in circulation (impaired liverin circulation (impaired liver function)function) •increased levels of urea inincreased levels of urea in circulationcirculation impaired immune function ofimpaired immune function of endometrium and increasedendometrium and increased susceptibility to uterinesusceptibility to uterine infectionsinfections •uterine environment lessuterine environment less favourable for the embryofavourable for the embryo Increased metabolism ofIncreased metabolism of oestradiol andoestradiol and progesterone in the liverprogesterone in the liver decreased levels of oestradiol indecreased levels of oestradiol in general circulationgeneral circulation •decreased level of progesterone indecreased level of progesterone in general circulationgeneral circulation poor oestruspoor oestrus delayed LH peak and ovulationdelayed LH peak and ovulation •Early Embryonic MortalityEarly Embryonic Mortality
  11. Steaming up. • Under nutrition in late pregnancy, particularly in ewes carrying twins, may cause pregnancy toxaemia. This has given rise to the practice of steaming up. • Steaming up is feeding technique where females are put on a rising plane of nutrition in the latter stage of pregnancy. • It increases birth weight and milk production.
  12. Excess positive energy balance • Excessive energy intake during late lactation and the dry period –“fat cow” problems –lower reproductive efficiency in the next lactation. – Higher incidence of retained placenta – more uterine infections – more cystic ovaries – They also have a higher incidence of – poor reproductive performance.
  13. Protein • Protein is the second limiting nutrient in most rations. • It is the principal building block of most tissues. • The amount of crude protein in an energy sufficient diet ranges from 8 to 12% • Reduced feed intake results in both a protein and energy deficiency. • Large excesses of protein in the diet may also depress fertility. • Prolonged inadequate protein intake - reduce reproductive performance. • Reproductive performance may be impaired if protein is fed in amounts that greatly exceed the cow’s requirements.
  14. In males • Poor nutrition – may reduce sperm quantity and quality. • Feeding a high energy and high protein diet for about six weeks before the mating season.
  15. Phosphorus • Phosphorus is commonly referred as the "fertility" mineral. • Required for bone and tissue development, energy utilization and milk production • Deficiency affect reproductive performance: • delayed puberty (associated with poor appetite and growth rate) • Delayed sexual maturity • Anestrus • Increased number of services required per conception. • Low conception rates • Reduced milk production and consequently lower calf weaning weights. • Phosphorus supplementation 0.4% - 0.6% of the ration • Phosphorus requirements increase by 12 per cent from mid pregnancy to the last month of gestation. • After calving, phosphorus requirements increase by 50%.
  16. Copper • Angiogenic property (lysyl oxidase enzyme) • Vessel integrity • Vasculature in the genital organs • Development of fetus • Haemoglobin synthesis (Ceruloplasmin enzyme) • Absorption and transport of iron- Hb synthesis- Aneamia • Antioxidant (Cu-Zn- Dismutase enzyme) • Protection against free radicals • Melanin pigment synthesis (Tyrosinase enzyme) • Interaction between Cu and estrogen
  17. Cu deficiency • Infertility associated with Anaemia • Poor fertility • Reduced conception • oxidative damage • Abnormal fetal development • Damage of testicular tissue- sterile bull • Neonatal ataxia • Nymphmenia in ewe • Bone disorder • Impaired ketatinization • Requirement: 10ppm
  18. Selenium • Glutathione peroxidase enzyme – Antioxidant – Protection from harmful peroxide in developing spermatozoa – Production of correct architecture of middle piece during sperm maturation – Covalent cross links in protein of capsule of spermatozoa – Helix of mitochondria in the middle piece of spermatozoa
  19. Selenium • Activation of thyroid hormone- metabolic pathway – Iodothyronine deiodinsae • Stimulation of proliferation of small follicles • Stimulation of gonadotropins • Metabolism of arachidonic acid - Normal functioning of Neutrophils
  20. Se deficiency Impaired functioning of Neutrophils: • Females: – Emryonic mortality – Retained placenta – Mastitis • Males: – Impaired testicular growth – Degeneration in the epididymis – Reduced number of spermatozoa – Immotile sperm – Diets should contain at least 0.1 ppm selenium on dry matter basis. – blood level of 8-10 mg/100 ml should de maintained
  21. Zinc • Alcohol dehydrogenase- Vitamin A interrelationship – Maintenance of normal vitamin A concentration in plasma – Maintenance of uterine lining • Deficiency: – Affect development of primary and secondary Sex organs – Inefficient testicular development – Affect spermatogenesis by atrophy of somniferous tubule – Abortion – Fetal mummification – Lower birth weigh Requirement: 40ppm
  22. Iodine • Synthesis of thyroid hormones • Normal development of reproductive organs • Stimulation of anterior pituitary gonadotropin secretion • Effect on thyrotropin releasing factor - stimulate prolactin secretion - length of estrus cycle • Deficiency: – Delayed puberty – Poor conception rate – Reduced ovarian activity – Abortion – Longer gestation period – Goitre – Calevs may be born hairless, weak or dead • Requirement: 15-20 mg of iodine each day.
  23. Cobalt • Component of B12 • Cofactor of methylmalonyl coA isomerase • Propionic acid metabolism • Energy metabolism • Thymine synthesis • Thymine required for DNA synthesis • Cell division • Growth • Reproduction • Deficiency: • Lower conception rate • Incomplete uterine involution Requirement: 0.1ppm
  24. Vitamin A • Maintenance of healthy tissue in the reproductive tract • ovarian progesterone production. Deficiency: – Delayed sexual maturity – Delayed first estrus after calving – Delayed ovulation – Increased incidence of cystic ovaries – Metritis – Abortion – Birth of dead or weak calves – Retained placenta – Delayed uterine involution • The recommended daily supplementation for dairy cows is 30,000-50,000 units. • Fresh greens are rich in β -carotene (precursor of vitamin A)
  25. Vitamin E • Formation of structural components of biological membranes. • Influence the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid • Influence the formation of Prostaglandins E from arachidonic acid. • Requirement: 1200 IU/day or 88 IU/kg diet
  26. Consequences of mineral deficiency PP CaCa NaNa ClCl MgMg KK SS FeFe CuCu CoCo II ZnZn MnMn SeSe Conception RateConception Rate Calving RatesCalving Rates •• •• •• •• Milk ProductionMilk Production •• •• •• •• •• •• Lameness orLameness or StiffnessStiffness •• •• •• •• •• •• Slow WeightSlow Weight GainsGains •• •• •• •• •• •• Weaning WtsWeaning Wts •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Smaller orSmaller or Weaker CalvesWeaker Calves •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
  27. Consequences of mineral deficiency PP CaCa NaNa ClCl MgMg KK SS FeFe CuCu CoCo II ZnZn MnMn SeSe Poor OverallPoor Overall Herd HealthHerd Health •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Grass TetanyGrass Tetany •• •• RetainedRetained PlacentaPlacenta •• Milk FeverMilk Fever •• Change in HairChange in Hair CoatCoat •• More Days toMore Days to First HeatFirst Heat •• •• ••
  28. Mineral requirement for reproduction NutrientNutrient UnitUnit RequirementRequirement Absorbable CaAbsorbable Ca g/dayg/day 21.521.5 Dietary CaDietary Ca %% 0.450.45 Absorbable PAbsorbable P g/dayg/day 20.320.3 Dietary PDietary P %% 0.230.23 MgMg %% 0.120.12 ClCl %% 0.150.15 KK %% 0.520.52 NaNa %% 0.100.10 SS %% 0.20.2 CoCo Mg/kgMg/kg 0.110.11 CuCu Mg/kgMg/kg 1313 II Mg/kgMg/kg 0.40.4 FeFe Mg/kgMg/kg 1313 MnMn Mg/kgMg/kg 1818 SeSe Mg/kgMg/kg 0.30.3 ZnZn Mg/kgMg/kg 2222
  29. Vitamin requirement for reproduction NutrientNutrient UnitUnit RequirementRequirement Vitamin AVitamin A IU/dayIU/day 10000001000000 Vitamin DVitamin D IU/dayIU/day 2500025000 Vitamin EVitamin E IU/dayIU/day 12001200 Vitamin AVitamin A IU/kgIU/kg 60306030 Vitamin DVitamin D IU/kgIU/kg 16441644 Vitamin EVitamin E IU/kgIU/kg 8888
  30. What can be done? Diets based on crop residues can be improved by providing supplementary nutrients, including: - leguminous & non-leguminous green forages - concentrates - specific nutrient supplements in the form of mineral mixtures. In the tropics such supplements are often in short supply and expensive. Their incorporation must be specific to the type of animal being fed.
  31. Sources of minerals • The sources are variable and depend on the system of feeding and regional traditions in India. • The common sources of minerals for the farm animals are: 1. Minerals in the feedstuff 2. Minerals in drinking water, minerals in soil (grazing animals consume considerable amount of soil) and, 3. Mineral supplements.
  32. Assessing Mineral Status • Objectively analyze production – Rule out other factors • Determine mineral supply – Forage, supplement, and water • Directly sample the animal – Blood or liver
  33. Sampling Feeds • Sample the forages that cattle are grazing • Sample silages or delivered feeds periodically to monitor changes • Minerals in feeds and forages are not 100% available – 50% is a reasonable guideline • Don’t forget the water
  34. Requirements • Depend on – Age – Size – Sex – Physiological state – Level of performance – Breed – Presence of antagonists
  35. Meeting Requirements • Primary sources of minerals – Forage (grazed or harvested) – Supplemental feed ingredients – Supplemental minerals • Feed • Bolus (Co and Se bullets and soluble glass boluses containing Co, Se and Cu have been successfully used). • Injected (as subcutaneous injections and in controlled release systems). • Topdressing the pasture using fertilizer as a carrier • Adding it to drinking water and salt blocks • Via oral administration as a drench
  36. Formulating Supplements • Considerations – Animal requirements – Minerals in feeds and forages Compare mineral supply to requirements – Potential antagonists – Sources and Bioavailability - Maximum Levels
  37. Sterilized bone-meal, fine powderedSterilized bone-meal, fine powdered 4545 Ground chalkGround chalk 1010 Di-calcium phosphateDi-calcium phosphate 1212 Common saltCommon salt 3030 Yellow oxide of ironYellow oxide of iron 0.50.5 Potassium iodidePotassium iodide 0.250.25 StarchStarch 0.750.75 Sodium carbonateSodium carbonate 0.750.75 Sodium thiosulphateSodium thiosulphate 0.750.75 Add forAdd for 50 kg50 kg Cobalt chlorideCobalt chloride 22 g22 g Copper sulphateCopper sulphate 113 g113 g Manganese sulphateManganese sulphate 141 g141 g Zinc sulphateZinc sulphate 140 g140 g Suggested formula for mineral mixture
  38. Characteristics of a good free choice cattle mineral mixture a) Minimum of 6-8 % total P b) Ca: P ratio not substantially over 2:1 c) Provide a significant proportion (i.e. about 50%) of trace mineral requirement. In trace mineral deficient areas it should provide 100% d) High quality mineral salts with best biological availability without any toxic effects
  39. Contd…. e) Sufficiently palatable for adequate consumption to meet the requirements. f) Acceptable particle size. h) Formulated for the area involved, the level of animal productivity, the environment (temperature, humidity etc.) in which it will be fed. i) As economical as possible.
  40. Nutritional Strategies • Balanced feeding • Feed processing technologies • Supplementation of nutrients • Complete Feed Block • Urea Molasses mineral block • Protected Nutrients • Bypass fat • Bypass protein • Chelated minerals 40
  41. Suggested concentrate mixture IngredientIngredient Inclusion level (%)Inclusion level (%) CerealCereal (Maize/wheat/Rice)(Maize/wheat/Rice) 4040 Cereal by productsCereal by products (wheat Bran/ Rice polish)(wheat Bran/ Rice polish) 2525 Oil seed Cake/Dal ChunniOil seed Cake/Dal Chunni 3232 Mineral mixtureMineral mixture 22 Common SaltCommon Salt 11
  42. Balanced feeding RATION AS PER THUMB RULE FOR CATTLE & BUFFALO Feed stuff For zebuCross breed /Buffalo 1. Maintenance Straw 4 kg 6 kg Concentrate 1 – 1.25 kg 2 kg (DCP = 14 – 16%) (TDN = 68 – 72%) 2. Gestation :- Extra concentrate 1.25 kg 1.75 kg 3. Production :- Extra concentrate 1 kg/2.5 kg 1 kg/ 2kg milk (4% fat) milk (6%fat) Green :- 6 kg Berseem = 1 kg Concentrate 5 kg Leucern = 1 kg Concentrate 12 Kg Non-leguminous Grass = 1 kg Concentrate & 3 Kg Bhusa
  43. Tips for feeding dairy cattle 43 Concentrate must be fed individually according to production. Good quality roughage saves concentrates. 20 kg grass or 6-8 kg legume fodder =1 kg concentrate mixture. Regularity in feeding should be followed. Feed Concentrate mixture before milking – half in the morning and the other half in the evening. Feed the roughage after milking and watering. High yielding animals may be fed three times a day . Increasing the frequency of concentrate feeding will help maintain normal rumen motility and optimum milk fat levels.
  44. Tips for feeding dairy cattle 44  Abrupt change in the feed should be avoided. Over feeding conc. may result in off feed & indigestion. Grains should be ground to medium degree of fineness. Long and thick-stemmed may be chopped. Mix Legume fodders with straw to prevent bloat. Silage and other feeds, which may impart flavour to milk, may be fed after milking. Concentrate mixture in the form of mash may be moistened with water and fed immediately. Pellets can be fed as such. Optimum roughage : concentrate ratio should be 40:60 for high yielders
  45. 1. Weight 1.0 kg granular, fertilizer grade urea in glass or steel container and heat it with 500 ml (half litre) water, till it dissolves. Avoid over heating. While hot 2. Pour this solution (I) into a plastic tub containing 10.500 kg molasses, and mix with steel spoon. II. Urea Molasses Mineral lick
  46. 3. Prepare mixture of 1.0 kg common salt, 1.0 kg vitamin- mineral mixture, and 1.0 kg dolomitic lime or calcite.
  47. 4. Pour all-mineral mixture into urea-molasses solution and go on mixing till homogenous suspension of urea-molasses- mineral is obtained.
  48. 5. Take 7.500 kg wheat bran in a large sized plastic tub and add to it 0.500 kg de-oiled soybean meal or any oil-seed cake. Mix well.
  49. 6. To this mixture, pour suspension of urea-molasses mineral ingredients (III), and mix all these contents till there is coating of (III), over the wheat bran-soya meal mixture.
  50. Mix thoroughly all the ingredients.
  51. Weigh 2.350 kg of above mixture.
  52. Transfer weighed mixture into the iron mould and press the material with screw type hand press machine
  53. Allow to keep the pressed material in the mould for 24 hours.
  54. Alternatively mixture can be pressed in wooden mould.
  55. Dry the pressed block sun or in Solar drier/ industrial electric oven at 60-65°C, till it dries completely. The dried block should not contain more than 15% moisture. Drying
  56. Dried feed block can be packed in a polythene wrapper. Finally 10 blocks can be packed in a printed jute bag or a paper cartoon.
  57. Cows Licking Feed Block
  58. Heifer Licking the Block
  59. Tharparkar Bull Feeding upon Compact Feed Block
  60. Buffalo Feeding on Wheat-Bran Molasses Multi-nutrient Feed Block Block Feeding to Buffalo 1. Increased Feed intake and Water intake, 2. Corrected pica, 3. Increased daily milk yield by 23% (7.2-8.8 lit). 4. 2-kg block in a buffalo last for 5- days.
  61. It is densifiedproduct, containingbothroughage& conc. in desiredproportionto meet therequirement of target animal production. •Manufactured in complete feed blockmaking machine •The machine is Simple in operation •Can compact all kinds of feed materials to square shape of desired thickness & weight II. Complete Feed Block 61
  62. 62
  63. 63 Complete Feed Block
  64. Complete feed blockmaking machine Hydraulic Cylinder Frame Electric control panel Components- Power Pack 64
  65. Complete feed Block Unit, Department of Animal Nutrition BVC, Patna
  66. Collection and weighing of Feed Ingredients
  67. Mixing of ingredients
  68. Mixing of feed ingredients
  69. Manufacture of complete feed block
  70. Complete feed blocks
  71.  Non-conventional,less palatable feeds used to make ration economic.  Enhances bulkdensity 5-8 times forroughage alone 4-6 time forcomplete feed  During storage, prepared feed blocks required one third less space as compared to loose formand Reduces storage cost  Transportation of such blocks is convenient and trouble free. -Reduces transportation cost.  Increased palatability  Increased voluntary intake  Increased nutrient utilization  Stable rumen environment  Minimal fermentation losses  Prevents loss of lighternutrients resulted animal during feeding like sneezing.  Reduces the wastage of feed material by sneezing and  Save labouron feeding management Advantages of complete feed blocks 71
  72. Performance of heifers on complete feed block DMI % 3.58±0.05 DCP (g/d) 673.76 TDN(kg/d) 3.59 Weight gain(g/d) 768.5±39.66 72
  73. Parameter Block Mesh DMI (% b.wt.) 4.38 4.12 N Balance (g/d) 8.0 5.9 15% higher b.wt. gain obtained in block feeding 73
  74. III. Protected Nutrients •Bypass Protein •Bypass Fat •Chelated Minerals 74
  75. IV.a. Bypass Fat • Immediately post calving, the Energy requirements remain high and appetite is low- Negative energy balance • This can result in low milk yield. • Two ways to correct negative energy balance- cereal grain and fat • 1. In high yielding herds, cereals, will not be sufficient to meet the requirements of the Dairy Cow. High levels of grain may also cause rumen acidosis, and may ultimately result in low milk and milk fat production. • 2. Fat can be added to increase the energy density of the diet. Fat supplementation also increases absorption of fat-soluble nutrients and reduced dustiness of feed. • During early lactation, the rumen is already working at full capacity so it will not be able to handle additional 'work load by the rumen'. 75
  76. Bypass fat • Fat supplementation is toxic to rumen bacteria, especially to fibre degrading bacteria thus, reduces fibre digestion, thereby, defeating the objective of increasing the availability of energy. • Therefore, the supplementation of fat for dairy cows is achieved by means of bypass fats, which pass the rumen without any degradation. • Rumen bypass fats are inert in the rumen and are digested in the lower GI tract at acidic pH, hence they are not harmful to rumen bacteria and directly absorbed in the intestine 76
  77. Composition & Effects of By-pass fat Eg. Dairylac, Magnapac, Megalac, etc • The protected fats are mostly either calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids or saturated fats. Composition • Moisture 5 % Fat 80.5% Ash 12.5% Calcium 9%Fibre 0% Feeding systems and rates • Dose rate 0.4 to 0.8kg/cow/day in the post-calving ration. • Gradually incorporate the product into the ration over a few days to help acclimatise the cow to the new ingredient. Benefits • Improve milk yield and milk fat %. • Reduced risk of ketosis and fatty liver syndrome. Drawback: • Because of the pungent soap taste, there is usually poor acceptance of the feed. • Sometimes larger amounts of feed concentrate, impair the stability of calcium soaps resulting in the release of the unsaturated fatty acids, which, may negatively influence milk fat formation and may also disturb ruminal digestion 77
  78. IV.b. Bypass protein • High yielding dairy cows require a well-balanced source of protein. • Some oilcakes are highly degradable in the rumen and need to be protected from ruminal degradation, the concept of by-pass protein for ruminant feeding was put forth. • Feeding rumen by-pass protein (or rumen-protected protein, rumen- escape protein) supplement the limiting essential amino acids to high- yielding dairy animals. • Bacterial protein provides a proportion of the cows’ amino acid requirements, but the balance must be provided by rumen undegraded protein. • The rumen by-pass protein technology addresses the problem of inefficient use of dietary proteins by ruminants, increases nutrient use efficiency and optimises the productive and reproductive performances. 78
  79. Dietary Protein SMALL INTESTINE RUMEN
  80. Method of protein protection • Cottonseed cake and fish meal - naturally-occurring rumen by-pass proteins • Groun dnut, mustard and rapeseed are highly degradable in the rumen. These cakes need protection against degradation by rumen proteolytic enzymes. • Among the physical methods, heat treatment is an effective method, but it is not cost effective. • Formaldehyde treatment (1.0–1.2 g per 100 g of cake protein) is cheaper and formaldehyde is readily degraded to carbon dioxide and water in the liver. • Formalin (38–42 percent formaldehyde) is sprayed on ground cake in a closed chamber. • The sprayed cake is mixed thoroughly and put into plastic bags which are then, sealed. The treated cake is used as a feed ingredient after 4 days of reaction period. • During the reaction period formalin gets adsorbed on the cake particles resulting in reversible and pH dependent protection of proteins against proteolytic enzymes. In the acidic pH of the abomasum, these bonds are loosened and the protein is set free for digestion. 80
  81. IV.c. Bypass amino acids • The Essential amino acid methionine is often the first limiting amino acid for milk production. However, in order to increase the supply of methionine to the small intestine, it must be protected from breakdown in the rumen. • Data from research trials has demonstrated improvements in milk yield and milk protein concentration by inclusion of ruminally protected methionine in the diet. • Methionine also plays a key role in fat metabolism and has an important role in maintaining liver function. In this role, supplementing protected methionine can help reduce build-up of fat in the liver, particularly important in early lactation when cows are mobilising body fat, and also improve milk fat production. 81
  82. Advantages of bypass protein • An increase in milk yield by 10 to 15 percent • An increase in growth rate by 30 to 40 percent • Because of the faster growth rate, calves attain early maturity leading to an early age at first calving. • In young bulls, by-pass protein feeding resulted in increased libido and better semen quality, • possibly due to enhanced amino acid supply. • The lower plasma ammonia levels due to bypass protein feeding also lessened the interfering effect on embryonic/fetal growth in cows and buffalo, which resulted in better conception rates. 82
  83. V. Chelated Minerals • Mineral deficiency occur in Livestock & Poultry  May be sufficient amount in diet but bioavailability decreases  Interaction between minerals  Presence of Anti nutritional factors  Phytate  Oxalate  Mimosine  Gossypol 83
  84. Mineral absorption in ruminant 7-10%7-10%IronIron 3-4%3-4%ManganeseManganese 1-3%1-3%CopperCopper Extent of absorption (%)Extent of absorption (%)MineralsMinerals Factor affecting absorption 1. Chemical form – Organic, Inorganic 2. Other dietary factor –pH, Solubility etc., 3. Absorption of mineral in Non-ruminant is little higher than ruminants 84
  85. Effect of sources on availability of Zn Source Availability (%) ZnO 8.5 Zn SO4 10.2 Zinc Chelate 14.1 Zn polysaccharide complex 13.5 85
  86. Relative bioavailability of minerals from different sources Source Fe Cu Zn Mn Inorganic 100 100 100 100 Chelated 1. Cornell Univ. 140 125 121 2. Illinois univ. 174 3. Russian studies 120 170 136 86
  87. How to increase absorption Complexing inorganic element with organic compound. This is called ‘Chelates’. Chelates : It is a cyclic compound which is formed between an organic molecule and a metallic ion. Held with in the organic molecule as if by a “claw”. Chelate -Greek word - ‘Claw’ Naturally occurring chelates : Chlorophyll's Cytochrome Haemoglobin Vitamin B12 87
  88. Complexation and Chelates [Cu (NH3)2]  Metalic ion + Ligand Complex  complex may be as simple as only one bond  Or complex contain many bond - Chelates Cu2 + NH3 [Cu (NH3)2 + NH3 (Lewis acid) (Lewis base) COMPLEX Metal Complex Cu NH3 88
  89. 1. Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a specific amino acid. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it must be declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine complex, zinc lysine complex etc. Classification of organic mineralsClassification of organic minerals Examples are: •Copper lysine complex •Zinc lysine complex •Ferric methionine complex •Manganese methionine complex •Zinc methionine complex 89
  90. Classification of organic mineralsClassification of organic minerals 2.Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as a ingredient as the specific metal proteinate. Examples are: •Copper proteinate •Zinc proteinate •Magnesium proteinate •Iron proteinate •Cobalt proteinate •Manganese proteinate •Calcium proteinate 90
  91. Classification of organic mineralsClassification of organic minerals 3. Metal Polysaccharide Complex – is the product resulting from complexing of a soluble salt with a polysaccharide solution declared as a ingredient as the specific metal complex Examples are: •Copper polysaccharide complex •Iron polysaccharide complex •Zinc polysaccharide complex •Magnesium polysaccharide complex 91
  92. How to prepare a chelate By reaction mineral salt + enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide Controlled condition Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point Form Ring 92
  93. Mode of action Stable in rumen environment & abomasum Delivered in small intestine as such. Absorbed through active transport (more blood level) It act as biological complex (more tissue level) Enter into different pool Metabolizable in differently 93
  94. Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds arePrimary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid form of linkage – stable complex Mineral Amino Acid complex Zinc methionine Zinc lysine Manganese methionine Iron methionine Copper lysine Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend. 94
  95. Use of Chelates in Animal Nutrition 1. Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition among minerals. 2. Improve the bioavailability of minerals –milk production 3. Counteract antinutritional factors, affecting minerals 4. Performance improvement 5. Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition) 6. Improvement in animal product quality (meat, milk, egg, wool) 7. Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins in premixes and feed. 8. Protect environment by reducing metal pollution. 95
  96. VII. Feed Processing Technologies Sources of Roughages: A. Dry roughage: I. Dry cereal crop residues:- Paddy straw, Wheat Bhusha, Maize stover II. Pulses straw: Moong straw, Pea straw, Gram straw etc. III. Dry mixed natural grasses B. Green fodders: I. Leguminous fodder: Berseem, Cowpea, Leucerne II. Cereal Fodder: Maize, Sorghum, Oats etc. III. Grasses: Hybrid napier, Sudan grass IV. Tree leaves: Pipal, Jhunjhuna, Pakar, Jamun ~ Seasonal and limited availability at high cost 96
  97. Feed characteristics of crop residues: • Deficient in almost all nutrients • High ligno- cellulose content – ~ Resistant to microbial digestion • Low palatability • Low dietary intake • Low digestibility of nutrients • Fungal toxin in Bajra straw • Presence of anti-nutritional factors High silica content (8-13%) in paddy straw & sugar cane tops High oxalate (binds with calcium) in paddy straw Crop Residues~ Poor quality roughage 97
  98. • In spite of poor nutritive value and high anti-nutritive factors, use of crop residues in ruminant feeding is the only option in India because good quality roughage sources are in poor supply compared to demand. ~The shortage of dry fodder and green fodder is 27 and 48%, respectively. 98
  99. Optimizing animal productivity using poor quality roughage can be achieved by: I. Supplementation: – Supplementing a poor quality roughages to correct nutritional imbalances and thereby create optimum rumen conditions for efficient microbial fermentation. • Providing a good quality forage in small amount to maintain flow rate of digesta from the rumen. • Providing rumen-non degradable protein sources to provide relatively insoluble protein to provide amino acids and peptides in the lower gut. • Supplementation of minerals and vitamins. II. Processing of crop residues: 99
  100. Processing of Poor quality roughages: • Purpose: – To increase voluntary feed intake – To increase palatability – To dissociate cellulose and hemicellulose from lignin and silica for increasing microbial action ~ increase in digestibility. – To increase energy availability by reducing losses in digestive processes. – To increase surface area for providing more exposed surface for the action of enzymes and microbes for higher digestibility. – To reduce the bulkiness through densification. 100
  101. Dry roughage processing methods: • I. Physical Methods a. Chaffing b. Bhoosa making c. Water treatment d. Steam treatment e. Densification f. Irradiation • II. Chemical Methods a. Acid treatment b. Alkali treatment c. Ammoniation • III. Biological Methods a. White rot fungi treatment b. Enzymes c. Mushroom 101
  102. Physical Methods: I. Chaffing: • Cut into 1 to 4 cm long pieces ~ Improves feed intake ~It avoids wastage II. Bhoosa making: • Long straw is broken into dusty fine particles to long pieces of 5 cm length by threshing ~ Expanded and softer then long straw ~ Improves feed intake. III. Grinding: • Dry and chaffed roughage are grind in hammer mill ~ allow uniform mixing of fodder with other feed ingredients for complete feed in the shape of pellet. IV. Irradiation: Radiation sources like X-ray and gamma rays breaks the ligno-cellulose bond and improves digestibility ~ No practical utility due to high cost and health hazard. 102
  103. Physical Methods cont… V. Water washing: • Chaffed straw is deeded in water for about 2 hours and then water is decanted. • Some farmers in hilly areas store paddy straw on the branches of trees for washing by rain water and drying by aeration. Benefits : Water soluble harmful compound `Oxalate` is removed. Ca+ Oxalate= Ca-Oxalate ~ Better calcium utilization. VI. Water soaking: Deeping of dry roughage in the water for more then 3-4 hours Dry fodder gets saturated with absorbed water which causes swelling and softening of straw. Increases voluntary feed intake. ` Saani` method of traditional feeding system in Bihar 103
  104. Chemical treatment of dry roughages • A. Alkali treatment: Advantages: Alkali breaks ligno-cellulose bond (Ester linkage) of straw Methods: I. Sodium Hydroxide treatment: • 4 kg of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 200 liters of water is sprinkled on 100kg of straw. • The treated straw is left for 3-4 hours for reaction before feeding. Drawback: Sodium hydroxide is costly and corrosive in nature. II. Calcium hydroxide treatment: • 4 kg of calcium hydroxide dissolved in 100 liters of water is sprinkled on 100 kg of straw. Drawback: High cost and Low solubility in water. 104
  105. Chemical treatment of dry roughages cont.. • III. Ammonia treatment: Advantages: – Alkali breaks ligno-cellulose bond (Ester linkage) of straw. – Improves digestibility of straw – Improves nitrogen content of straw Methods: A. Anhydrous ammonia: • 100 kg of straw wrapped with polythene cover injected with 3 litre of of anhydrous ammonia. Drawbacks: » Very costly » Not freely available » Transportation gaseous ammonia is difficult. » Need much care and skilled person 105
  106. B. Ammoniation through urea hydrolysis: • Method of urea -ammoniation: Urea Ammonia + Carbon dioxide 4 kg urea dissolved in 40 kg water Spray uniformly over 100 kg straw or bhusha Preserve the treated material under air tight condition using plastic sheets For 3 weeks in hot season 4-5 weeks in cold season. 106
  107. Benefits of Urea-Ammoniation: • Increases the protein content Rice straw 9% wheat Bhusha 10% • Improves the palatability of straw • Improves the digestibility of straw • Better rumen degradability • Preservation of high moisture material preventing mould attack. • Relative inexpensive • Improves milk production 107
  108. Conclusions Nutrition is one of the most important factors in reproduction, production and health care of livestock. 108
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  110. Questions? Questions?110