The Senses of Hearing, taste and vision


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brief description of the anatomy and physiology of the human senses

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The Senses of Hearing, taste and vision

  1. 1. Special Senses <ul><li>The senses of smell and taste are initiated by the interactions of chemicals with sensory receptors in the tongue and the nose </li></ul><ul><li>The sense of vision occurs due to the interactions of light with sensory receptors in the retina of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>The senses of hearing and balance occur due to the interaction of sound waves for hearing and motion for balance with sensory receptor in the ear </li></ul>
  2. 3. The Eye <ul><li>The wall of the eye is composed by 3 layers, the sclera, the choroid and the retina </li></ul><ul><li>The sclera , the outermost, white, hard layer of connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>The cornea is the transparent part of the eye that allows light to enter the eye </li></ul><ul><li>The choroid is the second layer and contains blood vessels and pigment cells </li></ul><ul><li>The retina is the innermost layer of the eyes, contains the cones and rods,light sensitive cells </li></ul>
  3. 5. The eye <ul><li>The ciliary body holds the hard, biconvex transparent lens in place </li></ul><ul><li>The iris is the colored part of the eye surrounding the pupil. It regulates the amount of light that can enter the pupil </li></ul><ul><li>The interior of the eye is divided in two fluid filled compartments: The anterior with aqueous humor and the posterior with vitreous humor </li></ul><ul><li>The cones and rod of the retina synapse with the bipolar sensory cells of the retina, optic nerve -thalamus-visual cortex and cerebrum for interpretation </li></ul>
  4. 7. Sense of hearing and equilibrium <ul><li>The external, middle and inner ear contains the organs of balance and hearing </li></ul><ul><li>The visible, flexible external ear is called auricle or pinna.It directs sound waves to the ear canal called external auditory meatus. </li></ul><ul><li>The ear canal is lined with hairs and ceremonious glands that produce earwax to protect the eardrum or timpanic membrane </li></ul><ul><li>The middle ear contains the ossicles:Malleus or hammer, incus or anvil and stapes or stirrup. These bones transmit the sound vibration from the timpanic membrane to the oval window, the round window connects with the inner ear </li></ul>
  5. 8. Sense of hearing <ul><li>The middle ear also contains the auditory or Eustachian tube, which connects to the pharynx and allows to equalize air pressure between the outside and inside </li></ul><ul><li>The inner ear consist of fluid filled interconnecting chambers and tunnels in the temporal bone. The cochlea for hearing and the semicircular canals and vestibule for balance </li></ul>
  6. 10. Sense of Smell <ul><li>The sense of smell, or the olfactory sense, occurs because the molecules in the air becomes dissolved in the mucous ephitelial lining of the superior nasal conchae of the nose </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar sensory neurons transfer these chemicals impulses to the olfactory bulb, connected to the olfactory cortex in the temporal and frontal lobes of the cerebrum </li></ul>
  7. 12. Sense of Taste <ul><li>Taste buds are found on certain papillae of the tongue, on the palate of the roof of the mouth and part of the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Taste buds consist of two types of cells, epithelial cells in the exterior and taste cells in the interior </li></ul><ul><li>The taste chemical is first dissolved in the saliva the conducted by the facial, glossopharingeal and vagus nerve to the taste cortex in the parietal lobe . </li></ul>