Infection Control

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Brief description of infection control, ideal for junior high students

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Infection Control

  1. 1. Infection Control Process <ul><li>Lister, Pasteur and Semmelweis were the first to contribute about germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoonology,Bacteriology, Virology,Mycology </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria (most numerous of all microorganisms, unicellular, many are pathogenic to human </li></ul><ul><li>Cocci,Bacilli and Spirilla </li></ul><ul><li>Can be killed with antibiotics </li></ul>
  2. 2. Fungy and Bacteria
  3. 3. Cocci and Protozoa
  4. 4. Fungi <ul><li>Parasistic and some none parasistic plants and molds </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast is a typical fungus </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on antibiotics and flourish in antibiotic therapy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Protozoa <ul><li>One cell organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Both parasite and non parasite </li></ul><ul><li>can move with cilia or false feet </li></ul><ul><li>typically 2 to 200 mm in size </li></ul>
  6. 6. Virus <ul><li>Smallest of all microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>can be seen only with electronic microscope </li></ul><ul><li>can only multiply within a living cell </li></ul><ul><li>can be destroyed by heat </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to kill with chemotherapy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ricketssia <ul><li>Visible under a standard microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>transmitted by insects, ticks, fleas </li></ul>
  8. 8. Conditions Required for bacterial Growth <ul><li>Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul>
  9. 9. Transmission of infections <ul><li>The pathogen needs to be present </li></ul><ul><li>A reservoir of disease </li></ul><ul><li>a portal of exit from the reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>a means of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>a portal of entry </li></ul><ul><li>a susceptible host </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of Infection Process <ul><li>Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplication </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation Period </li></ul><ul><li>Prodromal Period </li></ul><ul><li>Acute Period </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Period </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Infection Control System <ul><li>Defenses of the body (Dietary Intake, age of person,adequate amount of rest, presence of other disease in the body, genetics) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: Barriers of the body, skin, mucous membranes, Ph acid,HCL in the stomach, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoid and Blood System </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen-Antibody ( Immunity) </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammatory Process </li></ul>
  12. 12. Acquired Immunity <ul><li>Active Acquired Natural (by having the disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Active Acquired Artificial ( Vaccination) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Acquired Natural (Antibodies from the mother to the baby) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Acquired Artificial (temporary protection with globulins) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Standards Precautions <ul><li>Gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Gown </li></ul><ul><li>Mask/Protective Eyewear/goggles </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple use equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Needles and sharp instruments </li></ul>
  14. 14. Medical Asepsis <ul><li>Destruction of organism after they leave the body: </li></ul><ul><li>Washing Hands </li></ul><ul><li>Use of disposable equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing gloves helps </li></ul>
  15. 15. Handwashing <ul><li>First stage of infection control </li></ul><ul><li>Use disinfectants soap, friction and warm running water </li></ul><ul><li>No jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Before and after a contact with a patient </li></ul>
  16. 16. Surgical Asepsis <ul><li>Refers to the techniques practiced to maintain a sterile environment. Destruction of the microorganism before they enter the body </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 methods for preventing the spread of disease: </li></ul>
  17. 17. Surgical Asepsis <ul><li>Sanitization (includes the careful scrubbing of equipment and instruments with soap, hot water, U/S,etc </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection (soaking and wiping process with chemicals germicides, flowing steam and boiling water </li></ul>
  18. 18. Surgical Asepsis <ul><li>Two common disinfectants are zephrin chloride and chlorophenyl </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfectants are not efective against spores and some viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Betadine and alcohol are used in patients </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disinfection Methods <ul><li>Alcohol (used for skin surfaces and equipment such stethoscopes and thermometers, flammable </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine (corrosive,cause skin irritation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Disinfectants <ul><li>Formaldehyde( use to disinfect and sterilze) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Peroxide (effective disinfectant only for use in non-human surfaces and products) </li></ul><ul><li>Glutaraldehyde (efective against viruses, bacteria and fungi </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sterilization <ul><li>Results in killing ALL microorganisms, both pathogenic and non pathogenic. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of heat (steam or dry)chemicals,UV radiations. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry heat is used for dense ointments </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sterilization Time <ul><li>Glassware, metal instruments (open tray or individual wrappings) needles </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber products, Instruments partial metal </li></ul><ul><li>20 minutes </li></ul>

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