Economic Scandal• Originally set up by Euratom (with discriminatory employment) this meant: – Non-British staff may be employed at twice the salary of their British counter parts.
Change in Ownership• International Contract ended (December 1999)• United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) took over management
New Partnership• Experimental programme then co-ordinated by the European Fusion Development Agreement Close Support
Revamping• Shut down in 2009, improvements made to the Tokomak included – Replacing carbon components in the vacuum vessel with tungsten and beryllium – Heating power was also increased by 50% – Diagnostic and control capabilities were improved
SafetySome useful perks when activating a mini star – Remote handling Facilities to cope with the radioactivity produced by deuterium-tritium (fuel)
Fusion energy gain factor (Q)• Ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to produce and maintain the plasma in steady state. – Q = 1 is Breakeven *Q = 0.7 in JET
Analyze equation• Some power comes from the fraction fch of the fusion power contained in charged products Pfus which remain in the plasma. This power may be designated fchPfus.• The rest, designated Pheat comes from external sources required for heating, some of which may also serve additional purposes like current drive and profile control.
The Trick• All of the energy which is derived from those processes actually dissipates rather quickly• The energy is actually produced from the fraction of the fusion power contained in Neutrons, (1-fch)Pfus
Where are the Neutrons contained?• Magnetic Confinement Fusion? – No• Inertial Confinement fusion – No• Absorbed in the surrounding walls – Yes
Let there be electricity• The neutron power would be used to heat a working medium such as: – Helium Gas – Liquid lithium• Which is then use to produce electricity at a high level of efficiency – ηelec, so that Pelec = ηelec(1-fch)Pfus
What about the Reactor?• A fraction frecirc of the electrical power is recirculated to run the reactor systems.• Energy is needed for: – Pumping – Producing magnetic fields – Lighting• Pheat = ηheatPelec * ηheat power for plasma
Bibliography• Berry Ritchie, The Story of Tarmac Page 100, Published by James & James (Publishers) Ltd, 1999• "Week 20: JET Experiments: sensitive to TV schedules“• "JET Shutdown Weekly: Week 81: Shutdown finished!". 2011- 05-13. Retrieved 2012-3-2.• "World’s largest fusion experiment back in operation". 2011- 09-02. Retrieved 2011-12-11.• JET pages on the EFDA web site• Culham Centre for Fusion Energy• The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority• IAEAs information about JET• Photos from JET torus hall