California Missions


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California Missions

  1. 1. CALIFORNIA MISSIONS: INTRIGUE & EXPANSIONISM<br />Douglas Patzkowski<br />Montebello U. S. D.<br />
  2. 2. Early Spanish Explorations<br />1535: Hernando Cortés<br />1539: Francisco de Ulloa<br />1542: Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo<br />1595: Sebastián Rodríguez<br />Cermeño<br />1602-1603: Sebastián<br />Vizcaíno<br />Map of the Expedition of Hernando Cortés in 1535, charted by Domingo del Castillo <br />
  3. 3. First Attempt at Forming a Mission<br /> Spanish Admiral Isidro de AtondoyAntillón built two settlements in California from 1683 to 1685. He with-drew due to lack of supplies. Kino was the cartographer.<br />Eusebio Kino, SJ<br />Kino’s Map of California, Pub. Ed. 1702<br />
  4. 4. The Pious Fund of the Californias<br /> In 1697, the Spanish Crown granted the Jesuits a charter to establish missions in Baja California. <br />. Kino, Ugarte and Salvatierra set up the Pious Fund with donations that were invested in land in New Spain. <br /> This endowment was used to fund the mission programs in both Baja and Alta California.<br />José María Salvatierra, SJ<br />Juan de Ugarte, SJ<br />
  5. 5. Loreto: Founded in 1697<br />Salvatierra established a beachhead that grew into Mission Loreto. The Jesuits hired and commanded their own soldiers and purchased ships to bring supplies from the mainland using the Pious Fund for expenses.<br />
  6. 6. Jesuit Missions of Baja California<br /> The Padre Procurador de lasCaliforniashad independent control of the Pious Fund.<br /> The Padre Procuradorand the California missions were not under the jurisdiction of either the Viceroy or the Bishop of Guadalajara.<br />
  7. 7. Jesuit Economic Autonomy<br />The California missions were never self-sufficient.<br />The Pious Fund and supplies from the Sonora missions provided support.<br />Officers and soldiers were paid with goods, not cash.<br />External business interests were prohibited, including ranching, mining and searching for pearls offshore.<br />Painting of Mission Santiago Apóstel by Ignacio Tirsch, SJ, in the early 1760s. <br />
  8. 8. The Uprising of 1734<br />Population decline due to disease and limitations on cultural expression caused resentment.<br />The missionaries were caught off guard.<br />.<br />The Manila galleon was attacked and it tookthe news to Acapulco.<br />
  9. 9. The Uprising Crushed in 1736<br />The Viceroy intervened on behalf of commercial interests due to the attack on the galleon.<br />Manuel Bernal de Huidobro, Governor of Sinaloa, crossed the Gulf with a military force to put down the rebellion.<br />Bernal de Huidobro established a new presidio in the south under viceregal control.<br />Drawing by Ignacio Tisch, SJ, in the early 1760s.<br />
  10. 10. Economic Change<br />Trade with the rest of New Spain opened Baja California to new settlers.<br />Santa Ana was developed by Manuel de Ocio in 1740 as a pearling and mining town, the first pueblo in Baja California.<br />Ruins of a silver smelter near Santa Ana<br />Pearl oyster, Ptera sterna<br />
  11. 11. Seven Years' War (1756-1763)French & Indian Wars<br />Spain allied itself with France and joined the Seven Years' War in 1762.<br />The British Navy captured Havana and Manila.<br />France ceded Louisiana to Spain before the War ended.<br />In 1763, Great Britain returned Havana and Manila to Spain in return for Florida. <br />Carlos III<br />King of Spain<br />1759-1788<br />Painted by Francisco de Goya<br />
  12. 12. Reform in New Spain<br />José de Gálvez, Visitador General of New Spain, 1765-1772.<br />Invested with more power than the Viceroy, Gálvez reformed New Spain’s bureaucracy and tax code.<br />He oversaw the expulsion of the Jesuit Order.<br />Gálvez expanded New Spain to include Alta California.<br />
  13. 13. Reform in Spain Leads to Riots<br />The Marquis of Esquilache undertook economic and social reforms on behalf of King Carlos III.<br />Free trade of wheat and other staples led to speculation and steep inflation. <br />From 1762 to 1766, the price of bread nearly doubled.<br />In March, 1766, riots broke out in Madrid.<br />Esquilache was dismissed and went into exile.<br />El motín de Esquilache(The Esquilache Riot), painted by Francisco de Goya, 1766.<br />
  14. 14. The Expulsion of the Jesuits<br />The ministers of Carlos III blamed the Jesuits for the Esquilache Riots.<br />The King ordered the arrest of all Jesuits and the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from Spain and its Empire on June 25, 1767.<br />All the property and wealth of the Society of Jesus was forfeited to the Crown.<br />
  15. 15. El Puerto de San Blas<br />In 1768, Gálvez built the Port of San Blas to supply ships for the expansion into California.<br />San Blas wasplanned asanavy base and trading port for the Northern Pacific Coast.<br />Gálvezusedreports of Russian expansionism to justify building the new port and investing in new colonies in Alta California.<br />The San Carlos, which sailed from San Blas to La Paz and then onward to San Diego in 1769.<br />
  16. 16. Gaspar de Portolá<br />Galvez chose Captain Portolá to be the first Governor of California.<br />He carried out the order to arrest the Jesuits and send them to Mexico City.<br />Portolá supervised the transfer of the Jesuit missions to the Franciscan Order.<br />He commanded the military in the advance toward Alta California.<br />
  17. 17. Junípero Serra<br />Serra had established five Franciscan missions in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro.<br />He volunteered to work in Baja California, but was soon commissioned to travel to Alta California with Portolá to establish new missions.<br />Junípero Serra, OFM<br />Façade of Mission San Miguel Concá in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro<br />
  18. 18. Francisco Palóu’s Map of the Californias, 1787<br />
  19. 19. Presidio of Monterey1793 Drawing<br />
  20. 20. Strategic Settlements: San Diego & Monterey<br />Portolá founded the San Diego Presidio in 1769, then marched to Monterey, where he established the second Presidio en 1770.<br />Serra founded San Diego Mission in 1769, then San Carlos Borromeo near Monterey Bay in 1770.<br />Gálvez’s orders to fortify the two ports were strictly followed, with missionsneareach presidio.<br />Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo<br />
  21. 21. 1774: Increased Spanish Expansion into Alta California<br />Juan Bautista de Anza led a land expedition from Tubac in Sonora through Alta California as far as San Francisco.<br />Juan Pérez sailed the Santiago, built in San Blas, from Monterey as far north as Alaska, claiming the land for Spain.<br />The de Anza Expedition<br />
  22. 22. The Pueblos <br />Felipe de Neve founded the pueblos of San José in 1777 and Los Angeles in 1781.<br />Neve wanted to shift land ownership and agricultural production from the Franciscan missions to the soldiers and settlers.<br />Felipe de Neve, Governor of California, 1777-1782<br />Avila Adobe in El Pueblo de Los Angeles<br />
  23. 23. Spain’s Goals under Carlos III:<br />Secure the Pacific Coast of North America.<br />Build civil society in order to increase the tax base.<br />Use the mission system as a short-term program to pacify and acculturate the native inhabitants.<br />