The Korean War Web


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The Korean War Web

  1. 1. Cold War Case Study 1: The Korean War
  2. 2. Reasons for US Fear <ul><li>China turns red (becomes Communist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US saw China as mainstay of Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1946-49: US pumped $ 2 billion to support Nationalists in their war against Commies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalist China had veto vote in UN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIA finds evidence of Soviet interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cominform helped Reds in Malaya, Indonesia, Burma, Philippines and North Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US fears ‘Red Tide’ sweeping Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US believed all Red gov’ts took orders from Moscow (USSR) … Never forget this point! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: North Korea (Red) invades South Korea (US ally). Time for action!!! </li></ul></ul>Mao's speech of October 1, 1949 & The East Is Red
  3. 3. 20 th Century Background <ul><li>Japanese colony until 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>USSR takes north, US takes south @ end of war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S installed Communist, one-party state under Kim Il Sung in north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US installed anti-communist gov’t (non-democratic) under Syngman Rhee in south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1945 agreement to hold nation-wide elections abandoned as Cold War developed </li></ul></ul>Coldplay … Korea The situation in Korea has sometimes been compared to the situation in Germany in 1945. Explain: - how these situations were similar - How they were different
  4. 4. WAR! <ul><li>North Korea Attacked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 25, 1950 N K invaded S K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sept: S K forces pushed back to southeast corner of peninsula, ‘Pusan Perimeter’ </li></ul></ul>Family Feud theme
  5. 5. US & UN Wade In <ul><li>Truman responds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent advisers, supplies, warships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressured UN to take action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USSR’s gaff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia would have vetoed UN action except … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian ambassador was boycotting UN in protest of UN still recognizing defeated Nationalist Chinese gov’t (now on Taiwan) as legitimate gov’t of China while Communist Mao Zedong ruled China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US had vetoed Commie China recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US #1 financial contributor to UN (BIG INFLUENCE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 27, 1950: UN passed resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N K had just hacked off the world </li></ul></ul>Music from freeplay titled The Story Explain how the Communist victory in China helped the USA to get the UN to intervene in North Korea
  6. 6. The bitter taste of defeat… If both North & South Korea wanted reunification, why didn’t it happen peacefully (Think of the larger context of the Cold War? 20 words Why might the US be so unprepared for a limited war like Korea? In other words, what false sense of security might the US had? Why? 30 words
  7. 7. <ul><li>US led, US paid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 countries sent token troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US by far biggest contributor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Douglas MacArthur put in command </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UN attacks! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sept 1950: Amphibious invasion @ Inchon & counter-attack @ Pusan crushed NK forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W/in weeks original UN mandate, drive NK from SK, achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What to do now? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist China (Mao Zedong), having just won civil war, warned UN not to cross into NK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Oct 1950: MacArthur, UN pushed through NK to Yalu river (border of China) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman & MacArthur clearly wanted to destroy communism in Korea </li></ul></ul>UN or USA Intervention? M*A*S*H theme
  8. 8. UN attacks! How important was MacArthur’s decision to invade Inchon in turning the war around to the UN’s favor? Why? 20 words
  9. 9. Profile: General Douglas MacArthur <ul><ul><li>Born 1880, father was successful army officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained @ West Point, top military school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought in WWI, 13 medals for bravery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became younger Colonel in US Army in (F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1930: Became Chief of Staff of Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In WWII commanded allied forces in southern Pacific. Devised successful island-hopping campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1945: Personally accepted (J) surrender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1945-51 ruled (J) as commander of occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullying, no-nonsense style got things done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes annoyed political leaders by not following orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: @ age 70 given command of UN forces in Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1951: Relieved of command for criticizing Truman’s desire to limit war in Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed to get Republican nomination for ’52 election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1964: Died </li></ul></ul>The Chordettes performing Mr. Sandman
  10. 10. What of China? What is China’s misunderstanding of UN/US intentions, and how does this raise tensions between China and the UN forces? 20 words How does MacArthur’s disobeying of orders set the stage for Chinese intervention in Korea? 20 words Is MacArthur at fault or is Mao to blame for Chinese intervention? Explain. 20 words
  11. 11. China Responds <ul><li>Late Oct 1950: Chinese attack! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur surprised by Chi-Com ferocity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 strong ‘People’s Volunteers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Frozen Choson’ ‘attacking in the other direction’ & other humiliations for UN/US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalemate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan 1951: UN/US regroups, pushed Chi-Com & NK forces back to near original border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War settled into trench warfare a la WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truman & MacArthur fall out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M wanted to use nukes, invade China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T wanted to negotiate a peace, avoid WWIII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March ’51: M blatantly ignored UN orders & threatened China with the mushroom cloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>April ’51: M wrote letter to senator slamming his C-in-C; wanted to ‘unleash’ Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T, being C-in-C, removed & retired M </li></ul></ul>Only Carl Douglas can do this song, Kung-Fu Fighting . Tom Jones gives it’s a try … and fails.
  12. 12. Chinese Red v s . UN Blue Should the UN/US have used nuclear weapons? List two reasons why they should, and two why they not. Think of geo-political factors, not just the countries actually fighting. If you were Harry S. Truman, would you use nukes? Why or why not. 30 words
  13. 13. Activity: MacArthur Sacked! <ul><li>General Douglas MacArthur, after serving the United States of America for the over 50 years, is sacked </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, you are Douglas MacArthur </li></ul><ul><li>Write a letter to President Truman explaining your actions in the Korean War. Make sure to include the following points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I believe in the policy of containment because … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I also felt that I was fighting for the USA, not the UNO, because … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I believed that the aim of the mission was more than simply to rescue South Korea. It was … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invading North Korea was right because … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthermore, I do not believe the Chinese were such a great threat because … </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. So….Why did we go to war?? <ul><li>Truman believed the Soviets were directing the attack by the North </li></ul><ul><li>This was a major test for the “containment policy” </li></ul><ul><li>If we did nothing a clear message would be sent </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy thought we were “soft on communism”…..Democrats couldn’t have that </li></ul><ul><li>The war stimulated rearmament program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The defense budget went from 13.5 bill(1949) to 71 bill(1952 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumed the commies could be stopped with limited cost and low death rate </li></ul><ul><li>Never assumed China would get involved </li></ul>Gordan Lightfoot: Sundown
  15. 15. PSDs for Korean War <ul><li>If the UN is ever going to do anything, this is the time, and if the UN cannot bring the crisis in Korea to an end then we might as well just wash up the United Nations and forget it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Senator Tom Connally speaking in 1950. He was a Republican and strongly anti-Communist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Korea is a symbol to the watching world. If we allow Korea to fall within the Soviet orbit, the world will feel we have lost another round in our match with the Soviet Union, and our prestige and the hopes of those who place their faith in us will suffer accordingly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The US State Department, 1950 </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PSDs for the Korean War <ul><li>&quot;The Security Council, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;HAVING DETERMINED that the armed attack upon the Republic of Korea by forces from North Korea constitutes a breach of the peace, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;HAVING CALLED FOR an immediate cessation of hostilities, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;HAVING CALLED UPON the authorities of North Korea to withdraw forthwith their armed forces to the 38th parallel, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;HAVING NOTED from the report of the United Nations Commission for Korea that the authorities in North Korea have neither ceased hostilities nor withdrawn their armed forces to the 38th parallel and that urgent military measures are required to restore international peace and security, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;HAVING NOTED the appeal from the Republic of Korea to the United Nations for immediate and effective steps to secure peace and security, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;RECOMMENDS that the Members of the United Nations furnish such assistance to the Republic of Korea as may be necessary to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security in the area.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 27 June 1950 United Nations resolution that brought the world to the Korean peninsula </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. PSDs for the Korean War <ul><li>Even the reports to the UN were censored by [American] state and defense departments. I had no connection with the United Nations whatsoever. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From General MacArthur’s memoirs </li></ul></ul>During the Korean War, critics said that the USA simply pulled the strings of the UN like a puppet. How do these two sources support this view?
  18. 18. PSDs for the Korean War <ul><li>I have received your announcement of your appointment of me as United Nations Commander. I can only repeat the pledge of my complete personal loyalty to you as well as an absolute devotion to your monumental struggle for peace and good will throughout the world. I hope I will not fail you. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Douglas MacArthur writing to President Truman in 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had they [the Chinese] intervened in the first or second months it would have been decisive, [but] we are no longer fearful of their intervention. Now that we have bases for our Air force in Korea, there would be the greatest slaughter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General MacArthur speaking in October 1950 </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Peace (?) <ul><li>June 1951: Peace talks begin @ Panmunjom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting continued </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov 1952: Eisenhower elected President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened to nuke China & NK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Ike’ assumes office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin dies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 1953 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Armistice signed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not technically end of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically, the US/UN are still fighting NK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US 2 nd Infantry Division still stationed on D e- M ilitarized Z one ( DMZ ) on the border of the two Koreas </li></ul></ul>Freeplay’s Eerie Angel
  20. 20. Casualties in the Korean War
  21. 21. Focus Task: Was the Korean War a success for containment? <ul><li>Make your own copy of this chart and fill it out for this case study of Korea </li></ul><ul><li>It is 1952. A new President, Eisenhower, has been elected in the USA. Your task is to write a report for him on what lessons the United States can learn from the war. Your report should advise the President on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The USA’s aims in Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the UN’s support helped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How far the USA achieved its aims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether MacArthur should have been allowed to invade North Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why MacArthur was removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The military & civilian cost of war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finally, make up your own mind as to whether the policy of containment succeeded and then write up your ideas concerning possible changes. </li></ul>What was the outcome What problems did they face? What methods did the Americans use? The Issue
  22. 22. Was Containment the Right Policy?
  23. 23. Was Containment the Right policy? <ul><li>Americans agreed on need to resist USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Some wanted ‘get tougher’ policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed w/ MacArthur’s position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truman too weak in Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push back Communism, not just ‘contain’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower appoints Dulles as Sec State </li></ul><ul><li>John Foster Dulles set up anti-Communist alliances around the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1954: SEATO ( S outh E ast A sian T reaty O rg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1955: CENTO ( C entral T reaty O rganization) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USSR miffed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed USA trying to encircle USSR (we were) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1955: Warsaw Pact (Warsaw Treaty Org) set up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like NATO for USSR & Eastern Europe (except Yugoslavia) </li></ul></ul>The legendary Queen performing Princes Of The Universe
  24. 24. <ul><li>Would you agree that the Communist world was encircled? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Co-Existence <ul><li>From 1955 Cold War changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1953: Stalin died </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nikita Khrushchev took over </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev talked of ‘co-existence’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Met w/ Western leaders in 1955, 1960 (after 10 years w/o meetings!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No agreements reached, but talks hopeful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West has its doubts about Khrushchev </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1956: Polish food riots crushed by Red Army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1956: anti-Communist uprising in Hungary repressed w/ 30,000 Hungarians dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>August 1961: Berlin Wall built. USSR wanted to stop people leaving East Germany. Border guards shot all trying to escape </li></ul></ul>Matt Monroe’s James Bond theme, From Russia With Love
  26. 26. Focus Task: To my enemy, with love <ul><li>Work in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>One of you will be a citizen of the United States, dedicated to the policy of containment. </li></ul><ul><li>The other will be a citizen of the Soviet Union, dedicated to freeing the world from bourgeois Capitalist influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a letter explaining: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your goals for the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your reasons for fearing the other side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your willingness to work with the other side on the following two conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your country’s interests are advanced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You are not seen as helping your enemy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Fin
  28. 28. PSDs for Containment <ul><li>We shall never have a secure peace and a happy world so long as Soviet communism dominates one-third of all the world’s people and is in the process of trying to extend its rule to many others. Therefore we must have in mind the liberation of these captive peoples. Now liberation does not mean war. Liberation can be achieved by processes short of war. A policy which only aims at containing Russia is an unsound policy.. . . If our only policy is to stay where we are, we will be driven back. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Foster Dulles, US Secretary of State, speaking on his appointment in 1953 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We communists believe that the ideas of Communism will be victorious throughout the world just as they have been in China and in many states. Many will probably disagree with us. It is their right to think so. We may argue, we may disagree with each other. The main thing is to argue without resort to arms in order to prove that one is right. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev speaking in 1959 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What methods do you think Dulles has in mind to ‘liberate captive peoples’ without a war? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the development of nuclear weapons was what Dulles might have had in mind </li></ul>