Pre and Post War part 1


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Pre and Post War part 1

  1. 1. The USA 1941
  2. 2. The Big Picture <ul><li>The USA dominated the history of the 20 th century. Its economic and military power made it the most important country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>During this year we will tackle the economic, social and political issues of the Americas. We will begin by dealing with post war US. The over-arching question must be, ‘How well did the US government tackle the problems it faced at home from the 1940s to present day?’ </li></ul><ul><li>To lead us in to the main components of the course we will first: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the impact of the Second World War on the US economy and society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the role of women before, during and after the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate the premise behind the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s and see how far the campaign to win equal rights for black Americans succeeded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out why the 1960s saw so many other protest movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some people would say that in this period the USA’s troubled domestic history shows it to be more the ‘divided’ states than the ‘united’ states. </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Divided Union? The USA at War <ul><li>The early part of the 20 th century was dominated by war after war…why? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this say about the goals of society? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we focused on external issues too much? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Look closely at this image and explain what picture the mural paints of the USA at war. You could present your views as a paragraph or a set of bullet points </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your work, as you’ll need it soon </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Look closely at these pictures and explain what image the paintings convey of the USA at war. You could present your views as a paragraph or a set of bullet points </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your work, as you’ll need it soon </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wartime Production <ul><li>Achievements were staggering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ To American production, without which this war would have been lost.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Stalin proposing a toast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>’ 41-45: Rapid switch to war-time production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90,000 tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350 naval destroyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 submarines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5600 merchant ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 ‘Essex’ class aircraft carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USA industrial might swamped the Axis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1944: USA made 1/2 the world’s weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 2x Axis production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also supplying allies w/ food, clothing, vehicles (50,000 to USSR) tires, engines & parts, tools, etc. </li></ul></ul>Nelson Eddy singing Stout-Hearted Men
  7. 7. Willing Industrialists <ul><li>Jan ’42: War Production Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t worked w/ industrialists, not dictating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialists decided who produced what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Motors made machine guns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chrysler made anti-aircraft guns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Electric increased turbine production 300% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of contracts to 100 firms (w/ subcontracts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of $$$ made w/ ‘Cost plus 10%’ system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry J. Kaiser key industrialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major force in TVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed & built ‘Liberty’ ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large cargo ship avg. build time in ’43: 42 days! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could do it in 4 days…wow </li></ul></ul>We Did It Before And We’ll Do It Again
  8. 8. Extra Workers <ul><li>16 million men & women served </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 million worked in factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GM alone hired extra 750,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most manufacturing jobs in North or Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 million workers migrated from South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>750,000 A-As worked in manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California saw influx of 1.5 million people </li></ul></ul>Keep ‘Em Flying
  9. 9. Calling All Available Women <ul><li>War opens opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< war 12 million working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> Dec ’41 300,000 join military, 7 mil more work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 3 aircraft workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 2 munitions workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% plant managers surveyed said women were their best workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Rosie the Riveter’ became icon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The down side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always welcomed by men or unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid up to 60% less than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no child-care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most women left work > war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some kept working as secretaries, clerks, shop assistants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women changed work patterns of next 20 years </li></ul></ul>Rosie the Riveter , the caricature of the wartime working woman
  10. 12. You know you’ve arrived when Mattel makes an action figure out of you. Rosie comes complete with action hair and kung-fu grip. She’s ready to take on the Germans in this snappy one-piece denim overall w/ carpenter’s hook and waist loop retention system.
  11. 14. War & Prosperity <ul><li>USA only country to emerge from war economically stronger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 million new businesses started up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola & Wrigley become world brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War effort ended unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even American farmers, after 20 years of misery, benefited from overseas demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans plowed savings & earnings into bonds, which promised repayment w/ interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$129 billion worth of war bonds purchased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationing, but nothing like other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad men boosted companies’ images by explaining that shortages were due to needed supplies going to GIs overseas … patriotic! </li></ul></ul>This Is Your War Scrap Your Fat