Latin America-Intro


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Latin America-Intro

  1. 1. Latin America Post WWII Populism, Military Regimes…fun stuff!!
  2. 2. Latin America <ul><li>Membership in communist parties increased by 500% as the Cold War grew </li></ul><ul><li>1948-the formation of the Organization of American States (OAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarters in Washington D.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 members had joined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All 35 independent nations are members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1962-Cuban government was excluded as a member </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals are to strengthened democracy, defend human rights, and promote sustainable government </li></ul>
  3. 3. OAS <ul><li>An attack on one member state is defined as an attack on all </li></ul><ul><li>The US does act independently quite often </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Contras in Nicaragua and the invasion of Panama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The US was condemned by other OAS members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most member nations maintain ties to Cuba…obviously the US does not </li></ul>
  4. 4. After the war <ul><li>Many nations needed loans to remain stable (called ISI loans) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were eager to show their loyalty because of Cold War politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist parties were excluded from political process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISI loans were being used by politicians…why? </li></ul><ul><li>Buying off disorder and keeping a lid on social unrest ended in the 50’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation and unemployment were high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments could not figure out how to control both while sacrificing social welfare </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Example <ul><li>Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman was elected President of Guatemala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was land redistribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2% owned and controlled 74% of land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1952-law…what did it do? </li></ul><ul><li>The United Fruit Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US company with 550,000 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became a major issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1953-Eisenhower supported an overthrow of Arbenz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation Success-initiated by CIA, carried out by right-wing insurgents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UFC regained their land….”Che” Guevara probably began radicalization as a result </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Development of Government <ul><li>Fidel Castro (1959) challenged the notion that foreign influence was necessary </li></ul><ul><li>The military determined whether a country was a democracy, an oligarchy of elites or a dictatorship (Marxist) </li></ul><ul><li>The military offices chose the government that suited them the best </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism and order were always important </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Alliance for Progress <ul><li>JFK agreed to appropriate 20 billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to counteract poverty and social inequities (breeding ground for communism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But…he was assassinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LBJ became preoccupied with Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1973-the OAS disbanded </li></ul><ul><li>How about the role of the Catholic Church? </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Democratic Parties were created…what did they do? </li></ul><ul><li>The Church became the champion of human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But their role in politics got them into trouble..example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1980 they got out of politics </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1970’s <ul><li>US and European countries began loaning money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1982-LA debt was over 315 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil owed 87.5 and Argentina owed 43.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The ISI program created issues with local prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local goods were 300% more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economies were based on low-value commodities such as…… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recession of the late 70’s and 80’s led to less money for LA </li></ul><ul><li>1980-1984 growth in LA dropped 9% </li></ul><ul><li>LA debt became a major issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many nations restructured their debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The burden of debt increased 9% a year </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. So….what happened? <ul><li>Military regimes were just not working </li></ul><ul><li>One junta after another resigned from office </li></ul><ul><li>Populist movements came and went </li></ul><ul><li>By 2003 all countries of LA had some form of elected government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the exception of….. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SO what will the future bring? </li></ul>A billboard in a Cuban
  10. 10. Focus Task <ul><li>Please write down thoughts on the following issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you feel like it is our responsibility to fund struggling countries? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on what you know of communism, do you feel like it was/is important to try and seek allies in LA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK’s Alliance for Progress was intended to do just that, how do you feel about such large expenditures? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn to your neighbor and answer the following question, please write down your response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What should the overlying foreign policy be for the current/next President? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Please be specific for the time period we are in and justify your response </li></ul></ul></ul>