The War to End War 1917-1918 Lecture Chapter 30 The American Pageant, 13th edition
Quickwrite What was the goal of the Committee of Public Information, and how did it achieve it? OR What was the purpose of Wilson’s Fourteen Points Address?
US Enters the War What led the US to finally enter the war in April, 1917? How prepared was the US for battle in Europe?
US Enters the War Zimmerman Note German foreign secretary Zimmerman sent telegram offering German-Mexican alliance Suggested return of old Mexican territory if US was defeated Intercepted by British & passed on to US Americans furious; adds to anti-German anger Unrestricted submarine warfare New submarine attacks push the US to declare war Four unarmed US merchant vessels sunk in two weeks
US declares war on Germany on April 6, 1917 The US was not prepared for war Wilson inspired the populace with the call “to make the world safe for democracy”
The Fourteen Points What was the purpose of Wilson’s Fourteen Points Address? How did the Fourteen Points address colonial issues? What was the most important of the Fourteen Points?
The Fourteen Points Purpose of the Fourteen Points Offer solutions to long-standing issues that had led to WW1 Perhaps lead to a quick conclusion to the war
Key Themes of the Fourteen Points Abolish secret treaties Freedom of the seas Removal of economic barriers Reduction of armaments Shifting of colonial claims to address colonists’ and imperialists’ concerns
More Key Themes of the FourteenPoints Eventual self-determination of minority nationalities International organization for shared security Led to the League of Nations (predecessor to the United Nations)
The US War Effort What was the goal of the Committee of Public Information, and how did it achieve it? What was the effect of the war on German-Americans? American civil liberties? The labor movement? African-Americans? American women?
Committee on Public Information Propaganda committee to convince Americans to support the war, led by George Creel And other countries to support Wilson’s goals Forms of propaganda Army of 75,000 patriotic speechgivers Posters Leaflets and pamphlets Anti-German movies Patriotic and pro-military songs (Over There) Sold program so well that disappointment was great when not all Wilson’s goals were fulfilled
Over There 12 Over There.m4p Johnnie, get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, evry son of liberty Hurry right away, no delay, go today Make your Daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, to be proud her boys in line Over there, over there! Send the word, send the word, over there! That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming evrywhere! So prepare, say a prayer, send the word, send the word to beware! Well be over, were coming over, And we wont come back til its over Over There!
…Over ThereJohnnie, get your gun, get your gun, get your gun,Johnnie show the Hun youre a son of a gun!Hoist the flag and let her fly,Yankee Doodle do or diePack your little kit, show your grit, do your bitYankees to the ranks from the towns and the tanksMake your mother proud of you and the old Red White and BlueOver there, over there,Send the word, send the word, over there!That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming,The drums rum-tumming evry whereSo prepare, say a prayer, send the word, send the word to bewareWell be over, were coming over,And we wont come back til its overOver There!
German Americans Most German Americans supported US, but fears spread anti-German fervor and led to sometimes mistreatment A few tarred and feathered, beaten; one lynched German foods renamed “liberty cabbage” and liberty steak” while German music etc ignored (no Beethoven or Wagner)
Civil Liberties Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918 Led to 1900 prosecutions directed mostly at German- Americans, anti-war activists, and social radicals Socialist leader Eugene Debs and Labor Leader Bill Haywood each sentenced to 10 years Criticism of government often censored or punished Schenk vs. U.S. Supreme Court case supported censorship by saying that freedom of speech could be revoked when it posed a “clear and present danger”
“Labor Will Win the War” War effort built up by US workers National Labor War Board mostly treated workers fairly Worked to avoid labor disputes Pushed concessions for higher wages & 8-hour day AF of L supported the war; IWW did not AF of L skilled workers wages rose 20% IWW unskilled workers (Wobblies) often badly treated Still about 6,000 strikes during WW1 Steelworkers strike the biggest in US history (250,000 workers out)
African-Americans First major African-American migration north occurred during WW1 10,000s went north for wartime jobs, most stayed Beginning of the “Great Migration” Led to race riots in some communities East St. Louis, MO Chicago: two weeks of violence led to 23 blacks and 15 whites killed
Women & the War Effort Women’s Movement split between pro- and anti-war feminists But pro-war women in the majority Gained them much gratitude and respect from president who had previously ignored call for woman suffrage (finally achieved in 1920) 1000s of women worked in factories replacing men at war, or served as nurses at the front Most returned home after war
Home Front War Effort Home Front efforts largely voluntary “heatless Mondays”, “meatless Tuesdays”, etc. Victory Gardens in backyards farm production increased 25% Liberty Bonds
Over There, Over There What was the difference between the expectation and the reality of war for the American soldiers? How important was the arrival of the Americans to the Allied victory?
Over There, Over There Conscription (or Draft) Law was reluctantly passed by Congress 4 million men joined or were drafted Sent over with minimal training More than 10,000 women also joined as support staff African-American men served in segregated units under white officers, mostly as support staff (construction, shiploading, etc)
Though poorly trained and late in arriving, US soldiers tipped the balance in the Allies’ favor Through relatively few Americans died, several battles were fierce and deadly (Argonne Forest) Germans surrender Nov 11, 1918 due to sheer number of Americans arrived…and expected exhaustion of their own forces and resources
After Armistice What was the result of the 1918 U.S. elections and how did it affect Wilson’s position at the Treaty conference? What led to Wilson’s downfall at home and abroad? What were some of the main ideas of the final Treaty of Versailles?
After Armistice Wilson was at the peak of popularity, but his partisan campaigning led to a narrow Republican win in Congress Wilson arrived at Treaty negotiations politically weaker due to Democratic election losses Made matters worse by only inviting one Republican to the Treaty meetings Despite all his efforts, only one of his Fourteen Points was adopted by Allies: the League of Nations Germany was seriously punished for its key role Colonies simply switched from one imperialist to another etc
Wilson campaigned around the country to get public support for Treaty of Versailles Wilson collapsed while on his campaign, then had a stroke; virtually immobile back at the White House Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge presented compromises to Wilson for Treaty agreement, but Wilson refused Lodge asked to add list of reservations over US sovereignty (objected to League of Nations) Treaty vote failed to get 2/3 required vote in the Senate US never signed Treaty of Versailles
Aftermath US voters turned out Democrats in next election Republican Warren G Harding elected president in 1920 Led to more conservative politics and isolationism of the 1920s Without US support, Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations ultimately fail Hitler and Germany rise again 20 years later