Pageant 13th Ch 26 lecture text only


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Dr. Robbins’ Lecture PowerPoint for Ch 26 (American Pageant, 13th ed)

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Pageant 13th Ch 26 lecture text only

  1. 1. The Great West & the Agricultural Revolution 1865-1890 Lecture Chapter 26 The American Pageant, 13 th edition
  2. 2. Quickwrite <ul><li>How did Whites gradually undermine Indians in the Great West? </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the factors that led to financial trouble for farmers? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Indians Lose the West <ul><li>1. How did Whites gradually undermine Indians in the Great West? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What convinced Indians to settle on federally assigned reservations? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Whites began arriving before Civil War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brought smallpox, cholera, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shrank bison pop by grazing their own livestock on prairie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dwindling bison led to greater conflict between tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaties designed to pacify Indians, led to reservation system </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>By 1860, two main reservations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Great Sioux reservation” in Dakota Terr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Territory of OK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indians agreed to reservations if left alone and provided with food, clothing and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Whites went against promises in innumerable ways </li></ul><ul><li>Constant battles between whites and Indians </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Nez Perce lost 90% of their reservation land when gold was discovered there; tried to join Sitting Bull, but sent to Kansas where 40% died </li></ul><ul><li>Apache fought hard under Geronimo in New Mex and Arizona, but they finally gave up after their women shipped off to Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Major factors in Indian “extinction”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>railroad (and subsequent settlers, soldiers, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disease and alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>near extermination of buffalo (Plains Indians) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Which two massacres showed the most vicious tactics of both sides, and what was the larger result of each? <ul><li>Sand Creek (CO) massacre, 1864 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Col Chivington’s militia cruelly massacre about 400 Indians, including women and children, who believed they had been promised immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to attack on Fetterman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetterman Massacre, 1866 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sioux trying to block Bozeman trail massacred Fetterman and his 81 soldiers and civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to govt granting Indians the huge “Great Sioux reservation” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 4. How did Helen Hunt Jackson influence American thinking about Indians? <ul><li>During the 1880’s some begin to question treatment of Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Helen Hunt Jackson wrote two influential books </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Century of Dishonor about govt cruelty and dishonesty with Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramona, novel with an inter-racial romance </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 5. What long term federal Indian policy was established by the Dawes Severalty Act? <ul><li>Forced-assimilation doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved many tribes as legal entities, got rid of tribal ownership of land; gave Indian family heads 160 free acres, and promised them citizenship if they behaved well for 25 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored tribal basis of most Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Indian children into “civilizing” schools separate from their tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation land not given to Indians went to RRs & settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Indian population did begin to increase (from 243,000 in 1887 to 1.5 million in 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Became basis of federal policy till New Deal, 50 years later </li></ul>
  10. 10. What was the Ghost Dance? <ul><li>“ Ghost Dance” cult began with Paiute tribe, then spread to Dakota Sioux </li></ul><ul><li>Represented belief that the Indians’ god would destroy the White Man, and restore land to Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Wild dancing frightened white settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Wiped out in Battle of Wounded Knee (150-200 Indian men, women & children killed) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 6. What was the importance of the Mining Frontier to late 19 th century America? <ul><li>1858: gold in Colorado led to “Pike’s peak or Bust” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many stayed to mine silver or grow grain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1859: “Fifty-niners” in Nevada after discovery of Comstock Lode ($340 million) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After surface gold was picked up by miners, wealthier corporations came in with expensive machinery to scrape out more gold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Though short-lived, the “gold rushes” of the west sped up western migration </li></ul>
  12. 12. More Mining Frontier <ul><li>Women had many opportunities in West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not all opportunities were “legal”! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>got vote earliest in western states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settling the mining frontier brought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing for Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building of railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New sources of silver & gold: helped Treasury resume specie (coin) payments in 1879 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Silver senators” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American folklore (Mark Twain, Bret Harte) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 7. What was the reality behind the cowboy myth? <ul><li>Early Texas longhorns raised for hides not meat </li></ul><ul><li>Tech. improvements created new meat industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad, industrialized meatpacking, refrigerator cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long cattle drives to railroad terminus points (cow towns) began to disappear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced by settlers who put up barbed wire fences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overgrazing & harsh winters also hurt cattle industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cattlemen adapted by focusing on enclosed ranches and fewer, meatier cattle </li></ul>
  14. 14. 8. How did the Homestead Act differ from previous federal land policy? <ul><li>Homestead Act of 1862 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers could acquire up to 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a small fee, $30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR they could buy the land for only $1.25 an acre after only 6 months’ residence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Previously, public land was sold for revenue, now it was being sold to fill up the empty plains and encourage the family farm </li></ul><ul><li>“ The backbone of democracy”--very Jeffersonian </li></ul>
  15. 15. 9. Why did many settlers fail with their homesteads? <ul><li>Failure: 160 acres not enough in barren western lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often forced out by drought </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 9. cont: How was the Homestead Act abused? <ul><li>Fraud: promoters got 10 times more land than true homesteaders by setting up “dummy” homesteaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five times as many settlers bought land from railroads, land companies or states than from federal govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It took years to undo abuses </li></ul>
  17. 17. 10. What solutions finally provided some success for farmers in dry western lands? <ul><li>Central plains looked barren, but the sod was fertile </li></ul><ul><li>West of 100th meridian rainfall dropped dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>” Dry farming” technique developed—frequent, shallow cultivation that created a pulverized (powder-like) surface soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term disaster: helped create the Dust Bowl of the 30s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More drought resistant grains were more successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wheat from Russia, sorghum instead of corn </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 11. Why did barbed wire become important in the West? <ul><li>Barbed wire replaced wooden fences on prairies where wood was scarce </li></ul><ul><li>But it was the dams of the 20th century that truly transformed the arid desert lands thanks to hydraulic engineers </li></ul>
  19. 19. 12. Why did Congress usher in a slew of new states in 1889-1890? <ul><li>New states formed to increase Republican votes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1876: Colorado </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1889-1890: N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Former Indian land made available in OK for land rush (“sooner state”) </li></ul>
  20. 20. 13. Who was Frederick Turner Jackson? <ul><li>Frontier line no longer existed as of 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Closing of frontier inspired Frederick Turner Jackson’s essay, “The Significance of the Frontier” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helped to immortalize and mythologize the frontier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realization of disappearing frontier led to first national parks: Yellowstone (1872), and Yosemite & Sequoia (both in 1890) </li></ul>
  21. 21. 14. What was the true “safety valve”? <ul><li>Few city-dwellers moved to western frontier, more often it was those from the older frontier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closer and more prepared for frontier life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Though all that open land did create a psychological safety valve for the nation… </li></ul><ul><li>the true safety valve was cities like Chicago and SF where failed farmers and miners could make a go of it </li></ul>
  22. 22. 15. How did farming begin to change after the Civil War, especially in newly settled lands? <ul><li>High food prices led farmers to focus on single cash crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no longer grew their own food or made their own products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanization of agriculture required expensive equipment & good business skills, which farmers didn’t always have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tended to blame their problems on others (banks, RRs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger, successful farms remained, becoming “factories” of immense food production (some 15,000+ acres) </li></ul>
  23. 23. 16. How were California farms unique? <ul><li>On average early Calif farms were 3 times larger than most US farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Valley, from Spanish-Mexican land grants & railroad holdings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refrigerator cars arrive in 1880s to take Calif fruits and vegies to East Coast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already using underpaid Mexican & Chinese farm workers </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 17. What were some of the factors that led to financial trouble for farmers? <ul><li>Cash crop farmers vulnerable to changes in world food prices (like South) </li></ul><ul><li>Main concerns of farmers: low prices and a deflated currency </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough dollars in circulation brought prices down (deflation) </li></ul>
  25. 25. 18. Who did farmers blame for their problems? <ul><li>Blamed increasing debt on banks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>really a condition brought on by the world grain market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deflation led to unending cycle of hard work and more debt for farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worst in 1880s & 1890s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some eastern loan companies did charge outrageous rates, from 8-40%! </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant farming also was spreading rapidly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by 1880, 25% of US farms were tenant farmed </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 19. How did government hurt farmers in this era? <ul><li>Natural droughts ruined many, BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Federal, state and local govts often took advantage of farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overassessment of land led to high taxes (no way to hide their holdings) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protective tariffs protected manufacturers while farmers suffered in the world markets </li></ul>
  27. 27. 20. What businesses took advantage of farmers’ needs to gouge them? <ul><li>Farmers were vulnerable to those who manufactured and sold harvesters, fertilizers, barbed wire, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad rates were often high but farmers were dependent on them </li></ul>
  28. 28. 21. How did farmers attempt to protect themselves, and how successful were they? <ul><li>The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aka “The Grange”, organized in 1867 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started by providing social & educational activities for lonely, isolated farming families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>picnics, lectures, concerts, etc—became hugely popular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turned to collective efforts to protect themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective stores, grain elevators, warehouses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. More on the Grange <ul><li>Became more political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influenced state legislation to regulate railroad freight and storage rates, as well as warehouse and elevator operators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting the public interest by controlling private business was a key political goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all their legislation efforts were effective </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Farmers’ Alliance <ul><li>Goals of Farmers’ Alliance, founded in Texas, 1870s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalize railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolish national banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute a graduated income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a new federal subtreasury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers could take out govt loans against stored crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some success, but lots of internal divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excluded blacks and ignored tenant farmers’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colored Farmers’ Natl Alliance formed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders: Ignatius Donnelly, Mary Elizabeth Lease </li></ul><ul><li>Success led to 4 governors, 40 Congressman plus legislators in 4 states…precursor to Populist Party, people’s party to attack the northeastern establishment </li></ul>
  31. 31. 22. What did “Coxey’s Army” want to achieve? <ul><li>Gold reserve sank to $41 million & Cleveland gets JP Morgan’s help & Depression conditions worsened </li></ul><ul><li>“ General” Coxey organized and led a small group of unemployed to Washington DC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanding government help including a public works program (would provide employment and increase inflation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arrested for walking on grass; other protesting groups caused real damage </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 23. What caused the Pullman Strike, & how did the govt react? <ul><li>Pullman Palace Car Co. reduced wages by 1/3 but kept rents up on company housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under leader Eugene V. Debs, the American Railway Union went on strike, paralyzing railways from Chicago to Pacific coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. Cleveland sent military in to stop strike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debs and others jailed for 6 mos for defying a federal injunction against striking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debs’ reading in jail led him to become a leading leader of socialist movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal actions led to more outrage among workers and others, such as Populists, who saw “unholy alliance” between business and govt </li></ul>
  33. 33. 25. How did William Jennings Bryan win the Democratic nomination in 1896? <ul><li>Populists & others saw silver as a cure-all, feared an anti-silver conspiracy </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful, anti-gold speaker William Jennings Bryan gave inspiring “Cross of Gold” speech and won nomination for Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platform: unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1 ratio (silver:gold)—market ratio was 32:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This would mean silver in dollar would be worth 50 cents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Populists joined with Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT…Hanna and eastern conservatives (“gold bugs”) “bought” the election for Republican McKinley through vast education/propaganda campaign </li></ul>
  34. 34. 27/28. How did McKinley win the election, and what precedent was set? <ul><li>Thanks to fears of Bryan’s inflationary silver policies eastern laborers joined unmortgaged farmers and eastern business to give Republican McKinley the White House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unusually large election turn-out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South & underpopulated West went to Bryan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but East and northern Mississippi river valley (plus Calif and Oregon) went to McKinley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Election proved power of urban over agrarian voters </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of long Republican control of White House (16 years; then 28 of next 38) </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by decline in voting, weak parties, etc. </li></ul>
  35. 35. 29. How did the Depression end? <ul><li>McKinley was a much better politician than Cleveland had been </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worked well with Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was cautious & conservative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dingley Tariff Bill, 1897 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised tariff again to average 46.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of influence from lobbyists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression ended coincidentally beginning in 1897 and Republicans took full credit </li></ul>
  36. 36. 30. What finally led to inflation and an increase in the US money supply? <ul><li>Gold Standard Act was passed in 1900 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most pro-silver Congressmen gone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion of US currency was an appropriate goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to encourage business and help farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but the silver proposal created too much fear of instability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inflation and increased money supply finally came with… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovery of vast new gold deposits (Alaska, Canada, South Africa and Australia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and new, cheap process for extracting gold from low-grade ore </li></ul></ul>