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Introduction of anatomy lecture1 dr. noura


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Dr. Noura El tahawy, Lecture 2/9/2012 for D1 Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah, Saudia Arabia

Introduction of anatomy lecture1 dr. noura

  1. 1. Introduction of Anatomy By Dr, Noura El TahawyAssociate professor of Anatomy Batterjee Medical College
  2. 2. Anatomy• Definition - anatome = up (ana) + cutting (tome)• Disciplines of anatomy – Macroscopic – Microscopic – Developmental – Neuroanatomy• Approach to study of gross anatomy Upper extremity Back Head and neck Thorax Abdomen Pelvis and perineum Lower extremity
  3. 3. Anatomical Position• Body erect• Head, eyes, toes directed forward• Limbs at sides of body• Palms directed forward
  4. 4. Anatomical Planes• Median = vertical, front to back in midline• Frontal (coronal) = vertical, perpendicular to median• Horizontal (transverse) = parallel to floor, perpendicular to median, coronal• Sagittal = vertical, parallel to median
  5. 5. Median plane Of body Sagittal plane Of hand Of foot
  6. 6. Transverseplane Coronal planeCoronal plane
  7. 7. Terms of Directions• Medial = closer to median plane• Lateral = further from median plane• Anterior (ventral) = towards front of body• Posterior (dorsal) = towards back of body• Superior (cephalic) = towards head• Inferior (caudal) = towards bottom of feet• Superficial = towards surface of body• Deep = towards center of body• Proximal = nearer origin or attachment• Distal = further from origin or attachment
  8. 8. Terms of Movements
  9. 9. Terms of movements• Flexion • Opposition• Extension • Elevation• Abduction • Depression• Adduction • Lateral bending• Pronation • Rotation• Supination • Inversion• Circumduction • Eversion• Protraction • Hyperextension• Retraction
  10. 10. Skeleton• Rigid support for body and its parts• Components of skeleton: – Bone – Joints – Structures associated with joints – Cartilage
  11. 11. Skeleton1- The Axial SkeletonBonyframework of the bodyconsisting of :-Skull ( head )-Vertebral column-Ribs and Sternum(ear ossicles and hyoid bone also)
  12. 12. Skeleton2 - The Appendicular Skeleton* Bones of the Upper Limb shoulder girdles (clavicle andscapula), and the upper limbs (upper extremities)*Bones of the Lower Limb the pelvic girdles (coxal,innominate or hip bone) and thelower extremities.
  13. 13. Types of Bones• Long bones – Diaphysis = shaft – Metaphysis = shaft adjacent to epiphysis – Epiphysis = contain ossification center/s• Short bones• Flat bones• Irregular bones• Sesamoid bones
  14. 14. Types of Bones• Long bone (Fig. A .humerus.• E. Femur)• Short bone: carpus and tarsus.• Irregular bone: vertebrae, skull base,and (Fig. B .calcaneum)• Flat bone: Skull, sternum, scapula (Fig.C. in the skull the two parietal bonesseparated by the sagittal suture)•Pneumatic bone: paranasal sinuses• Sesamoid bone (Fig. D. patella)
  15. 15. Bone - Functions• Protection• Support• Movement• Calcium storage• Housing blood-forming cells
  16. 16. Structure of adult long bone • Articular cartilage • Epiphyseal line • Periosteal membrane • Compact Bone • Spongy Bone • The shaft has a central medullary cavity which is filled with bone marrow. • Central canal containing: Nutrient vessels and nerves
  17. 17. Blood Supply of long Bones * Epiphysial * Nutrient artery Metaphysial arteries * Periosteal vessels
  18. 18. Bone Markings• Lines, ridges, crests• Rounded elevations – Tuberosity, trochanter, tubercle – Protuberance – Malleolus• Spines, processes• Fossae, notches, grooves• Foramina• Canals• Meatuses• Heads and condyles• Epicondyles
  19. 19. Greater tubercle Spine of scapula Coracoid process Crest of lesser tubercle Spiral groove Lateral supracondylar ridge Medial epicondyle
  20. 20. MCQ• 1. Regarding the long bone all are true except one:• A. It consists of diaphysis, epiphysis& metaphysis• B. It is supplied by articular, nutrient, epiphyseal& metaphyseal arteries• C. The metaphysis is the area that is responsible for bone growth in length• D. It has a medullary cavity that contains osteoblasts
  21. 21. MCQ• Regarding the shapes of bones all are true except one:• A. The short bone is formed of cancellous bone with a covering thin compact bone• B. An Example of short bones is the carpal bones at the wrist• C. The best example of flat bone is the base of the skull• D. The flat bone is formed of two laminae of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in between
  22. 22. MCQRegarding the Skeleton are true except one:• A. There are two main subdivisions: Axial& appendicular skeletons• B. The appendicular skeleton is formed of bones of the limbs• C. The axial skeleton is formed of skull only• D. The axial skeleton is formed of skull, vertebral column, sternum& ribs
  23. 23. The bones have the following functionsexcept onea. Give the shape& framework of the bodyb. Provide attachment to musclesc. Secrete some hormonesd. Protect important vital structures
  24. 24. Cartilages
  25. 25. Cartilages PROPERTIES OF CARTILAGE• Cartilage is a type of hard connective tissue.It is tough and resilient, It is devoid of nerves, blood vesselsand lymphatics.• It consists of cells termed chondrocytes (mature cartilagecells) and Matrix of connective tissue rich of fibres.• It resists compressive forces as well as long-term effects ofpressure and friction (therefore it covers articular surfaces).• Cartilage has a high capacity of growth by multiplication ofthe chondroblasts.
  26. 26. 1) Hyaline cartilage Costal Cartilages Laryngeal cartilages
  27. 27. 2) White fibrocartilage:• Intervertebral disc• Symphysis pubis• Articular discs
  28. 28. Example ofWhite fibro cartilage* Intervertebral Disc
  29. 29. 3) Yellow elastic fibrocartilage: Ear Pinna
  30. 30. • Regarding cartilage the following statements are true except one:• A. It is tough & resilient connective tissue that contain chondrocytes• B. It does not resist compressive forces• C. It has a high capacity of growth& regeneration• D. It is devoid of nerves, blood vessels & lymphatics
  31. 31. • Regarding the cartilage types the following statements are true except one:• A. The hyaline cartilage is translucent, glossy& cover the articular surfaces of bones• B. The Intervertebral disc is a hyaline a type of cartilage• c. The ear pinna is yellow elastic fibrocartilage that is rich in elastic fibers• C. An example of white fibrocartilage is the symphysis pubis
  32. 32. Thanks