Understanding mental illness final


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Understanding mental illness final

  1. 1. Understanding Mental Illness A Review of the Disorders<br />Prof. NooruddinJaffer<br />
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  4. 4. What is Mental Illness?<br />Mental illness is like any other illness. It can manifest itself in many forms, it is commonly misunderstood and it can be treated. <br />
  5. 5. Mental Health is :<br />Striking a balance in all aspects of your life- social, physical, spiritual, economic and mental.<br />
  6. 6. Statistics<br />1 in 5 Canadians (close to 6 million) will be affected by mental illness at some time in their lives. Mental health problems often emerge between the ages of 16 and 24.<br />Schizophrenia affects 1% of Canadians<br />Mood disorders affect 10% of Canadians<br />Anxiety disorders affect 12% of Canadians<br />
  7. 7. The cost of ill health<br />
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  22. 22. It’s:<br />Biological – linked to disturbances in the brain chemistry<br />Psychological – affects thoughts and emotions<br />Social – affects stress levels and life events<br />
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  31. 31. Facts about Mental Illness<br /><ul><li>Has nothing to do with intelligence
  32. 32. Can happen to anyone
  33. 33. Chronic but not contagious
  34. 34. Difficult to diagnose and to treat</li></ul>Should not be confused with terms psychopath or sociopath<br />
  35. 35. SCHIZOPHRENIA<br />Often starts slowly. When symptoms appear (usually in adolescence or early adulthood) they appear more confusing than serious. We often say, oh they’re just going through a phase! They include:<br />Delusions and hallucinations<br />Lack of motivation<br />Social withdrawal<br />Thought disorders<br />
  36. 36. Schizophrenia<br />Symptoms<br />Brain disease <br />Includes psychosis<br />Impacts 1 out of every 100 people. <br />Onset is late teens, early adulthood.<br />Positive Symptoms include :<br />hallucinations<br />delusional thinking<br />Negative symptoms include<br /> apathy <br />withdrawal.<br />
  37. 37. Mood DisordersMajor Depression<br />Symptoms<br />Affects 5 percent of the general population<br />Sad mood that lasts 2 weeks<br />Loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities<br />Changes in sleep, appetite, decreased energy<br />Thought problems affect concentration, memory, decisions, feelings of guilt, worthlessness<br />Risk of suicide is high<br />Important to differentiate mental health from <br /> physical problems<br />Responds well to treatment<br />
  38. 38. DEPRESSION<br />Depression becomes an illness when the following feelings are severe, last for several weeks and begin to interfere with daily living. They include:<br />Worthlessness/hopelessness<br />Sleeping more or less than usual<br />Eating more or less than usual<br />Difficulty concentrating<br />Decreased sex drive<br />Avoiding other people<br />Overwhelming sadness or grief<br />Feeling unreasonably guilty<br />
  39. 39. Mood DisordersMajor Depression<br /><ul><li>Loss of interest in food and self care
  40. 40. May not care about legal situation
  41. 41. Suicide risk is real and must be monitored
  42. 42. Risk of suicide may increase after medication</li></li></ul><li>Mood DisordersMania/ Bipolar Disorder<br />Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Euphoric Mood (elevated, high or happy)
  43. 43. Irritable Mood (touchy)
  44. 44. Three Stages of Mania Hypomania, Acute Mania, Psychosis
  45. 45. Bipolar Disorder - mood swings from depression </li></ul> to mania<br /><ul><li>Can be Rapid Cycling</li></li></ul><li>Mood DisordersMania/ Bipolar Disorder<br /><ul><li>Mood can swing from entertaining to hostile
  46. 46. Talkativeness can be irritating
  47. 47. If depressed, often cry, feel hopeless, become suicidal
  48. 48. Can be restless, pacing, demanding and destructive
  49. 49. Often non-compliant
  50. 50. Can be professional and well-educated</li></li></ul><li>Anxiety DisordersPanic Disorders<br />Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Prevalence is 1 to 2 percent of the population; Women twice as high as men.
  51. 51. Panic attacks occur without warning
  52. 52. Symptoms include intense fear, heart palpitations,chest pain,</li></ul>shortness of breath, dizziness<br /><ul><li>Person is concerned that the attacks will strike again</li></li></ul><li>ANXIETY DISORDERS<br />A group of illnesses which affect behaviour, thoughts, emotions and physical health. <br />It is not uncommon to be affected by more than one anxiety disorder simultaneously<br />Anxiety disorders can be accompanied by depression, eating disorders, substance abuse and physical disorders<br />
  53. 53. Anxiety DisordersObsessive-Compulsive Disorder<br />Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Obsessions are recurrent thoughts, images, impulses that cause anxiety. They are illogical,at times repulsive and/or center on violence or harm.
  54. 54. Compulsions are behaviors that are repetitive - attempts at reducing the anxiety created by the obsessions.</li></li></ul><li>Panic disorder<br />Attacks occur without warning and are accompanied by sudden feelings of terror. May cause chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, abdominal pain, feelings of unreality and fear of dying.<br />
  55. 55. What Is Stress?<br />When perceived demands exceed perceived resources.<br />
  56. 56. Some myths!<br />People with mental illness are violent and dangerous.<br />People with mental illness are more likely to be the victims, rather than the perpetrators of violence<br />
  57. 57. MYTHS<br />People with mental illness are poor and less intelligent.<br />Mental illness can affect anyone, regardless of intelligence, social class or income.<br />
  58. 58. MYTHS<br />Mental illness is caused by personalweakness.<br />Mental illness is an illness (just like diabetes is an illness), and it has nothing to do with weakness or lack of will power.<br />
  59. 59. MYTHS<br />All mental illness is the same and its rare.<br />MI is a broad classification of disorders and includes: anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, personality disorders, eating disorders and organic brain disorders.<br />