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Page1
Action Plan for further
engendering DRR through
REACT operations
04-Jan-15
Nizamuddin Al-Hussainy, Consultant, UN Wo...
Page2
Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................
Page3
1. INTRODUCTION
UN Women’s global ‘concept of humanitarian action includes Disaster Risk Reduction and
preparedness ...
Page4
gender and gender-directed risk reduction actions will be identified when one gender is
identified as more at risk t...
Page5
policies and humanitarian response measures and to monitor gender data tracking7,
assessment and knowledge sharing8....
Page6
RoadmaponhowDRRshallcontributetogender-responsiveandrights-based sustainable development.Priority steps as determine...
Page7
Sl
#
DRR
Thematic
Area
Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9
Probable
responsible...
Page8
Sl
#
DRR
Thematic
Area
Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9
Probable
responsible...
Page9
Sl
#
DRR
Thematic
Area
Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9
Probable
responsible...
Page10
Sl
#
DRR
Thematic
Area
Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9
Probable
responsibl...
Page11
 Gender Budgeting for DRR
objectives.TheneedforinstitutionalizingDRRpolicies,structures,coordin
ationmechanismsand...
Page12
environmentalprotection.Itisaboutpartnershipstowardseffectivedelivery
ofservicestothe
citizenry,i.e.workingtogether...
Page13
3. IMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEDRR ACTIVITIES
Atthenationallevel,implementationoftheDRRshalltake
placethroughtheintegrationo...
Page14
3.3. Monitoring&Evaluation.Results-based programming shall be used in ensuring
that implementation is on time and l...
Page15
4. GENDER WORKING GROUPS AT REGIONAL LEVEL
REACT members may establish sub-gender working groups at regional level ...
Page16
5. DISASTER RECOVERY
5.1. Reduce Overall Risk. The main goal of any disaster recovery plan is to reduce
the overall...
Page17
cooperation with the Committee of Emergency Situations and the REACT
Secretariat. The objective of the Inter-Agency...
Page18
Annex A: Gender related potential work and priorities in Humanitarian Actions/DRR by gender groups/sub groups
Sl# T...
Page19
Sl# Theme Gender related potential work and priorities Status of action
(covered or not
covered)
Probable
facilitat...
Page20
Sl# Theme Gender related potential work and priorities Status of action
(covered or not
covered)
Probable
facilitat...
Page21
In the DRR areas:
1. Strengthening ties and collaboration among experts of DRR: for shared learning, avoiding
dupli...
Page22
needs and specific actions at the national level, as well as contributing to regional actions and
international lea...
Page23
Annex B: Scenarios and Planning Assumptions
Scenario 1 Gender gap/ how to
engender
Contingency
A flash flood/mudflo...
Page24
hygiene, including provision of water
tanks, chorine tables, water filters,
temporary toilets, hygiene kits
 Acces...
Page25
 Develop recovery strategies
 Ensure communication means (regular
meetings, established channels for
exchange of ...
Page26
EW Indicators &
Triggers
Indicators:
 Prolonged abnormal rainfall
 Water levels in rivers
Triggers:
 Weather for...
Page27
Road access from the South could be open.
 UN/NGOs operations are significantly
compromised due to staff losses.
R...
Page28
Approach
 Support to international search and rescue
teams (with assistance of Logistics cluster
and UN OCHA (INSA...
Page29
of affected population
EW Indicators &
Triggers
None
30
Annex: C: Cluster Approach of REACT
In the event of a major emergency, the HCT would trigger the activation of the glob...
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Action Plan for further engendering DRR through REACT operations - re-checked

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Action Plan for further engendering DRR through REACT operations - re-checked

  1. 1. Page1 Action Plan for further engendering DRR through REACT operations 04-Jan-15 Nizamuddin Al-Hussainy, Consultant, UN Women
  2. 2. Page2 Contents 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................3 2. ACTION PLAN FOR FURTHER ENGENDERING DRRincludingRoadmaponhowDRRshallcontributetogender-responsiveandrights-based sustainable development. Priority steps as determined/identified by the consultativeinitiatives taken by UN Women, Tajikistan hasbeen summarized in a matrix 4 3. IMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEDRR ACTIVITIES .....................................................12 4. GENDER WORKING GROUPS AT REGIONAL LEVEL......................................15 5. DISASTER RECOVERY ..............................................................................................16 Annex A: Gender related potential work and priorities in Humanitarian Actions/DRR by gender groups...........................................................................................................................18 Annex B: Scenarios and Planning Assumptions......................................................................23 Annex: C: Cluster Approach of REACT ................................................................................30
  3. 3. Page3 1. INTRODUCTION UN Women’s global ‘concept of humanitarian action includes Disaster Risk Reduction and preparedness for risk prevention and mitigation, and early recovery. UN Women engages across this space in order to complement and enhance UN efforts to move away from a short- term, service provision model to one that builds on development gains, enhances sustainability and national ownership, strengthens the resilience of communities and countries - and is accountable to the populations affected by crisis.1Outcome 4.3 of the same strategy of‘UN Women Humanitarian Strategy, 2014-2017’ says “Gender equality and women’s empowerment commitments adopted and implemented throughout humanitarian action including preparedness, disaster risk reduction, response and early recovery of the Strategy”2.Thus, Disasters Risk Reduction3 and incorporation of gender issues in DRR& later development of programmes/projects in Tajikistan sets out the objective of this paper. The consultations for the post-2015 framework for DRR in Almaty in April 2014 strongly challenge the notion of considering women as helpless victims in disasters and voice the need to better recognise women’s skills, capacities and leadership, demanding that the role of women must be acknowledged and inclusion of women must be enhanced in post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction (HFA2).4 On the other hand, the UNDP Tajikistan in the draft DRR guidance proposes to the government of Tajikistan to establish a“Tajikistan’s Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction& Management”drawing on the National Disaster Risk Management Strategy, to consider by the Government of Tajikistan to establish a specific policy on the integrating disaster risk reduction into development projects. ‘The disaster risk reduction measures in Tajikistan are formulated within the National Disaster Risk Management Strategy (NDRMS) for 2010-2015. In December 2013 UNDP commissioned an analysis of the national strategy as well as legislation on disaster risk management in compliance with standards and requirements for integration of disaster risk reduction norms and commitments into the national policy framework. The findings of the analysis demonstrated that objectives and tasks of the national policy in general correspond with the Hyogo Framework Action Plan’s priorities. However, issues such as gender mainstreaming, cultural diversity and participation of volunteers and local populations in the national disaster risk reduction efforts are not addressed. The national legislation in the area of disaster risk management has very weak linkages with the national legislation on environment protection and management and climate change. In 2015 the Government intends to revise its NDRMS to integrate DRR related priorities more prominently into the Post-2015 national development framework’5. Till now the proposal of UNDP is under considerations of the government of Tajikistan.Within the process, specific attention may be paid to the impacts of disasters on 1 UN Women Humanitarian Strategy, 2014-2017 2 UN Women Humanitarian Strategy, 2014-2017 page 5 3The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematicefforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, decreased vulnerability of peopleand property, wisemanagement of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events. 4 http://unwomen-eeca.org/en/news/news/un_women_eeca_news/brief_on_findings 5 Quoted from UN women-Taj TOR of the DRR consultant
  4. 4. Page4 gender and gender-directed risk reduction actions will be identified when one gender is identified as more at risk than others. A similar differentiation of risk impact and targeted risk reduction will be undertaken for identified vulnerable groups, including women, children, the elderly and the disabled.6 A mechanism for collecting information on the success of disaster risk reduction integration will be established under the authority of the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. To this end, the Platform may be established a technical gender working groups at National and grass roots level toincorporate gender and other cross-cutting issues while Addressing Disaster Effects on Development Projects and specifically the development of a risk assessment process for Tajikistan. This is needed because women are particularly vulnerable to natural disasters and their lack of access to resources post-disaster delays recovery and leaves them vulnerable to future shocks. 2. ACTION PLAN FOR FURTHER ENGENDERING DRR Action Plan for further engendering DRRsetsdownthe expectedoutcomes,outputs,keyactivities,indicators,leadagencies,implementingpartnersand timelinesundereachofthefourbelow mentioned distinctyetmutuallyreinforcingthematicareas. 2.1. Defining Goals: The overall goal of gender inclusion in DRR is to support REACT to ensure gender- responsive disaster risk reduction efforts, guided by the Tajikistan Government’s National Strategy on Disaster Risk Management for 2010-2015, Tajikistan Women’s Machinery aimed to coordinate gender mainstreaming and women’s empowerment, commitment ofUN Commission on Status of Women,adopted in March 2014 on the issue “Gender equality and the empowerment of women in natural disasters” and international agencies working in Tajikistan as members of REACT, UN sister organizations like UNDP( who has 8 points agenda practical, positive outcomes for women and girls in crisis) , WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNHCR, WFP, FAO, ILO, OCHA, international NGOs/banks like OXFAM,ACTED, CESVI, FOCUS, IFAD, WBG, ADB and specifically UN Women SP for 2014-2017 and the Humanitarian Strategy and other strategies and plans. To incorporate this goal to attain the country’s overall DRR vision, it is necessary to include gender-focused language, data collection and programming throughout the following four disaster preparedness areas detailed below. The four DRR components(as detailed in the next page) represent the inclusion of gender issues within them: Specific aims of UN Women Tajikistan are to:  Facilitate building safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Tajikistan communities through gender integration in Disaster Risk Reduction collaborative efforts of the country.  Support REACT and national partners in Tajikistan to identify and integrate gender- related priorities and needs into the national disaster risk reduction and management 6 UNDP, Tadjikistan draft DRR guidance, 2013 pages 3
  5. 5. Page5 policies and humanitarian response measures and to monitor gender data tracking7, assessment and knowledge sharing8.  Support REACT with a preparatory assistance(PA)/ programming directions in the area of gender responsive disaster risk reduction and humanitarian assistance in line with UN Women’s corporate mandate and advantages aimed at addressing the current gaps and challenges with regard to integrating gender equality considerations into humanitarian preparedness and response efforts. .Building safer, adaptive and disaster resilient Tajikistan communities through gender integration 7 Collection ofgender vulnerabilities and statistics and sex-disaggregated data – which prevent a clear understanding and analysis of the differentiated nature of the risks for and vulnerabilities of men and women, boys and girls; incorporation of gender-specific data and statistics on the impacts of disasters and sex-disaggregated data of loss and damage fills the gender gaps. 8Connect relationships between gender equality and DRR and to enhanceinstitutional and individual capacities and tools to mainstream gender into DRR policies and measures. •Providelifepreservation and meet the basic subsistence needs of affected population of both sexes-different ages, different needs based on acceptablestandards duringor immediately after a disaster •Restore and improve facilities, livelihood and livingconditions of all withoutdiscrimination and organizational capacities of affected communities, and reduced disaster risksof all in accordancewith the “building back better” principle •Establish and strengthen capacities ofmen,women, boys and girls and all communities to anticipate, cope and recover from the negative impacts of emergency occurrences and disasters •Avoid hazards and mitigatetheir potential impacts by reducing vulnerabilities and exposureand enhancingcapacities of communities Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Disaster Preparedness Disaster Response Disaster Rehabilitation and Recovery
  6. 6. Page6 RoadmaponhowDRRshallcontributetogender-responsiveandrights-based sustainable development.Priority steps as determined/identified by the consultative initiatives taken by UN Women, Tajikistanhasbeensummarized in the following matrix Sl # DRR Thematic Area Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9 Probable responsible organization 1 Gender incorporatio n in Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Avoid hazardand mitigate their potential impacts by reducing vulnerabilitie s and exposures enhancing capacities of all members of the communities Women, men, boys andgirls of all ages. Reduce vulnerability and exposure of communities of all hazards. Enhance capacities of communities to reduce their own risks andwith the impacts of all hazards. 1. DRR andCCA mainstreamedand integratedin national, sectoral, regionaland Local development policies, plans andbudgets. 2. DRR andCCA-sensitive environmental Management. 3. Increasedresiliency of infrastructuresystems. 4. Enhancedandeffective community-based scientific DRR andCCA assessment, Mapping, analysis and monitoring. 5. Communities access to effectiveand applicable disaster risk financingand insurance (if possible) 6. End-to-endmonitoring (monitoringand response), forecastingand early warningusingall means including mobile Avoidhazards and mitigate their potential impacts by reducing vulnerabilities and exposure and enhancing capacities of communities of people of all sexes andages. Mainstreamingandintegration ofDRR andCCA into national, sectoral, regional andlocal development policies, plans, program andbudget, especially in regional physical framework plans ( proposed).. Development of science-based mainstreamingtools for DRR and CCA. Institutionalization ofREACT. Utilization ofpartofthe local fundfor DRR activities. Development of a joint work-planand alignment ofthe REACT members. Advocacy forthe strict or effective implementationof thebuildingcode anduse of green technology. Conduct ofhazardmappingand vulnerability assessments. Informationdisseminationtrough partnershipwith various press and % of reductionof loss of lives, livelihoodand assets of any gender andage. % of communities in high risks areas reduced. % of reductionin poverty incidence. All REACT members. Department of Science and Technology. 9Timelines:Ingeneral,thesetofactivitiesaredividedintothreetimelines:Shortterm, MediumtermandLongterm.Inthe time line of the .DRR gender p rogramming, theMillenniumDevelopmentGoalsandHyogo Framework for Action must be taken care of.Theuseofoperational timelinesisdeemedusefulatthelocallevelduringactualoperationsinresponse,rehabilitationand recovery.Iftheactivitieslastbeyondsixyearsforrehabilitationandrecovery,thedurationis consideredlongterm.IntheareaofDisasterResponse,themaximumtimelineis“beyondthree months.”
  7. 7. Page7 Sl # DRR Thematic Area Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9 Probable responsible organization telephones Systems are established gender friendly and/or improved. electronic media. Develop advocacyandrisk communicationplantoencourage communities speciallywomenand girls to avail of risk financingoptions Develop andinstitutionalize informationsharingandcommunication systems between Local communities andnational government. Develop community-basedandlocal early warningsystems for various hazards anddissemination ofearly warningthrough all available means. 2 Disaster Preparednes s of men, women, boys and girls of all ages. To increaselevel of awareness of all members of the communities to the threats and impacts of all hazards, risks and vulnerabilities. To equip the community with the necessary skill to cope with the negative impacts of a disaster. To increasethe capacity of 7. Increasedlevel of awareness andenhanced capacity ofthe community to the threats and impacts of all hazards 8. Communities are equippedwith necessary skills andcapability tocope with the impacts Of disasters. 9. IncreasedDRR and CCA capacity ofLocal DRR committees,Offices andOperation Centers at all levels. 10. Developedand implemented comprehensive national and local Establish and strengthen capacities of men, women,boys and girls andall communities to anticipate, cope and recover fromthe negative impacts of emergency occurrences and disasters Develop DRR andCCA information, education, communication(IEC)and advocacy plans andmaterials. Development of standardDRR training modules. Conduct of trainingandsimulation exercises. CustomizedandspecializedDRR capacity buildingactivities forspecific groups. Integration ofDRR andCCA in school curricula, textbooks,andmanuals. Selection andaccreditation ofNGO representatives andvolunteer groups None Department of Interior andLocal Government authority in collaboration with REACT clusters.10 . 10Please see Annex C
  8. 8. Page8 Sl # DRR Thematic Area Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9 Probable responsible organization institutions. To developand implement comprehensive national and local disaster preparedness policies, plans andsystem in line with nation policies. To strengthen partnership amongall key players and stakeholders. preparedness andresponse policies, plans, andsystems 11. Strengthenedpartnership andcoordination Amongall key players, REACT members and stakeholders. Develop enhance ICScoordination and communications systems Development, maintenance andupdate of partner’s andkey stakeholder’s database for DRR. Formulate coordinationmechanism and guidelines in the contingencyplanfor partnershiparrangements Increasedparticipationof CSOs in preparedness activities 3 Gender incorporatio n in Disaster Response To decrease the number of preventable deaths and injuries of human beings, animals,pets. To provide basic subsistence needs of affected population (women, men, boys, girls) To immediately restore basic social services accordingto the needs of all. 12. Well-establisheddisaster response operations 13. Adequate andprompt assessment of needs anddamages at all levels 14. Integratedand coordinatedSearch, Rescue AndRetrieval (SRR) capacity. 15. Safe andtimely evacuationof affected communities 16. Temporaryshelter needs of all adequately addressed. 17. Basic social services providedto affected population (whetherinside or outside Provide life preservation and meet thebasic subsistence needs of affectedpopulation of both sexes- different ages, different needs based on acceptable standards duringor immediatelyafter a disaster Establishment of coordination systems for effectiveandefficient relief and response operations as per needs of all Activationof relief distribution points/centers Activationof assessment teams at all levels Develop andimplement systems for SRR with concernedagencies Activate an evacuation systemand/or set of procedure Establishment of womenandchild- friendly spaces andother learningareas in the evacuationcenters Provisionofspaces forpeople’s as per the needs of different groups,sexes, ages including, livestock,poultryand pets in the Evacuation Centers. Number of deaths, injured, andmissing Number of persons served Number of restoredbasic services as per needs of all. Department of Social Welfare, all clusters members of REACT accordingto their mandates of the organization they are serving. UNICEF, UNHCR, UNFPA, UN women, IRED cross, redcrescent society.
  9. 9. Page9 Sl # DRR Thematic Area Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9 Probable responsible organization evacuationcenters) 18. Psychosocial needs of victims of all ages and sexes directly andindirectly Affectedvulnerable populationaddressed. 19. Coordinated, integrated system for early Recovery implemented. Conduct of livelihood-oriented activities for internallydisplaced persons as per their skills. Conduct of medical consultationand nutritional assessment. Assessment of waterquality and conduct of quick damage repairs and roadclearingoperations Determination ofexistingandavailable hospital services Development andconduct of psychological programandreferral systems Conduct of traumatic andpsychological stress debriefings Develop partnership mechanisms with utility providers andkey stakeholders Design andimplement temporary livelihoodandincomegenerating activities (i.e.,cash, foodfor work; micro andsmall enterpriserecovery, micro credit) 4 Gender incorporatio n in Disaster Rehabilitati on and Recovery To restore the people means of livelihoodand continuityof economic activities and business for men, women boys andgirls To restore shelter andother buildings/installa tion incorporating 20. Damages, losses and needs assessed 21. Economicactivities restored, andif possible strengthenedor expanded 22. Houses rebuilt or repairedto be more resilient tohazardevents; safer sites for housing 23. Disaster andclimate change-resilient Restore and improve facilities, livelihoodand livingconditions of all without discrimination and organizational capacities of affected communities, and reduceddisaster risks of all in accordance with the “building back better” principle Conduct post-disaster needs assessment one monthafter theoccurrence of disaster with the REACT members takingtheleadandusingas basis the preliminary data gatheredfromthe field by different clusters of REACT & regional/ local district offices. Coordinatethe formulationof the strategic actionplanfor disaster affectedareas. Identify andprovide suitable relocation sites for affectedpopulation Assistance providedto sectors affected (e.g., for agriculture, assistance in terms of credit andtechnical support Government housing assistance proved such as loans for housingrepair UNHCR, WFP, UNDP, IOM/UNHC R, FAO. Andas per mutual understandin g among REACT members.
  10. 10. Page10 Sl # DRR Thematic Area Goal Objective Outcome Expected results Activities Indicators Time line9 Probable responsible organization gender issues ( different needs but equal opportunities for all) To reconstruct infrastructure andother public utilities as per needs and equal opportunities for all sexes and ages To assist in the physical and psychological rehabilitationof persons who sufferedfrom the effects of disaster infrastructure constructed/reconstructed 24. A psychologically sound, safe andsecure citizenrythat is protected from theeffects of disasters is able to restore to normal functioningaftereach disaster Conduct trainings forsocial preparation of host communities andthosewho will be relocatedto reduce conflict. Conduct monitoringandtrackingof approval of infrastructure projects and permits Build capacities of psychosocial care providers Populationof people from hazardprone areas relocateto safe areas Essential services such as electricity,water and communication restored Infrastructures facilities rehabilitatedor reconstructed No. of people who are undergoing traumatic debriefing Percentage of vulnerable population providedwith adequate and appropriate risk protection measures
  11. 11. Page11  Gender Budgeting for DRR objectives.TheneedforinstitutionalizingDRRpolicies,structures,coordin ationmechanismsand programswithcontinuingbudgetappropriationonDRRfromnationaldownt olocallevels. Thus,severalactivitieswillstrengthenthecapacityofthepersonnelofnation algovernment andthe local government units and partner stakeholders, build the disaster resilience ofcommunitiesandinstitutionalizearrangementsandmeasuresforreducing disasterrisks, including climaterisks.  Integrating gender responsive DRR into policy planning.Theimportanceofmainstreaminggender responsive DRRandClimate Change Adaptation (CCA)inthedevelopmentprocessessuchas policyformulation,socio- economicdevelopmentplanning,budgetingandgovernance, particularlyintheareaofenvironment,agriculture,water,energy,health,edu cation, povertyreduction,land- useandurbanplanningandpublicinfrastructureandhousing, amongothers.Thisisachievedthroughactivitiessuchasdevelopmentofcom montoolsto analysethevarioushazardsandvulnerabilityfactorswhichputcommunities andpeople of all sexes,ages, groups.  Knowledge development.Competencyandscience- basedcapacitybuildingactivitiesalongsidethenurturingof continuouslearningthroughknowledgedevelopmentandmanagementofg oodDRR practicesonthe ground.  Theinclusionofhuman- induceddisastersthatresultininternallydisplacedpersons,public anxiety,and lossoflives,destructionofpropertyandsometimessocio- economic security and stability.  Improving gender issues in housing and construction.Gender issues, related to construction workers, decisions on housing construction methods and materials, and the management of family- focused shelter, will also be taken care of/ included in the groups work. Once accepted by the Platform, the gender group will responsible for formulating an Action Plan to address the DRR issues. This Action Plan will be submitted to stakeholders for comment and eventual approbation by the Government. Implementation of the action plan will involve financing from the Government’s own resources, through projects proposed to donors through projects initiated by the relevant organization.The Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCM) and logistics groups11 of REACT will identify specific financial risk transfer issues relate to gender or specific human vulnerabilities faced in Tajikistan.12  Good governance.Incorporate goodgovernanceprincipleswithinthecontextofpovertyalleviationand 11Please see Annex C 12 Disaster Risk Reduction Integration Guidance – DRAFT, UNDP Tajikistan October 2013
  12. 12. Page12 environmentalprotection.Itisaboutpartnershipstowardseffectivedelivery ofservicestothe citizenry,i.e.workingtogetherthroughcomplementationofresources.Thus ,harnessingand mobilizingtheparticipationofcivilsocietyorganizations(CSOs),theprivat esectorandvolunteersin theDRR programsandprojectsispartandparceloftheplan.Effortsshould be madeto aligntheDRRwithnationalplanswith budgetallocationbyrelevantgovernmentlineagencies.
  13. 13. Page13 3. IMPLEMENTATIONOFTHEDRR ACTIVITIES Atthenationallevel,implementationoftheDRRshalltake placethroughtheintegrationofDRRintorelevantnationalplans. 3.1. ResourceMobilization. Atthenationalandlocallevels,thefollowingsourcescanbetappedto fundthe variousDRR programs and projects:  throughtheexistingbudgetsofthenationallineand government agencies  NationalDisaster Risk Reduction andManagementFund/ priority development assistance fund may be established by the government of Tajikistan with collaboration with donors, private sectors investors  International Donor Funds  Adaptation and Risk Financing  DisasterManagement Assistance Fund of WB, ADB and other different donors. Asidefromthefundsources,theDRR may alsotapintothenon-monetaryresourcesavailable which canhelp attainthe targets identified in this plan, namely:  Community-based goodpracticesforreplication andscalingup  Indigenous practiceson DRR  Public-Private-Partnerships  E U PIECHO  EU Humanitarian and civil protection  The UK Government has set up the ICF to provide £3.87 billion between April 2011 and March 2016 to help the world’s poorest people adapt to climate change and promote cleaner, greener growth.13 3.2. Disaster Effect Reduction Plans Developed And Implemented. Based on the work under Defining and Addressing Disaster Effects on Development Projects and other risk assessments, include climate risk assessments, conducted in Tajikistan, a gender group established by the Platform will develop an assessment of expected disaster effects at the District level. The results of this assessment will be, together with risk management plans, be incorporated into District Development Plans. The assessments will give specific attention to the impacts of disasters by gender as well as on identified vulnerable groups. Where District Development Plans exist, these will be updated through this process. The Government will cause to be allocated specific sums (from its own or other resources) to Districts to specifically to address the disaster effects identified in the Development Plans. These funds can be used to address disaster effects within existing operations, as part of new projects or as components of existing projects or projects initially focusing on other issues. 13See: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48217/3389- uk-international-climate-fund-brochure.pdf for more information.
  14. 14. Page14 3.3. Monitoring&Evaluation.Results-based programming shall be used in ensuring that implementation is on time and learning from experiences is built into the DRR system.Need to develop a standard monitoring indicators as per internationally agreed/targets and as per Hyogo Framework, post HF 2015 agenda14. To monitor and evaluate, the indicators will be used against targets and activities identified in each of the four thematic areas of the DRR with the aid of the identified means of verification.Annual reporting by all cluster lead to REACT may be done.The HFA Monitor online tool may be used as a working format to undertake national multi-stakeholder consultation processes as progress is reviewed and challenges are systematically identified. 3.4. Role of REACT members Acknowledging the role which REACT has played in the coordination of disaster prevention and risk reduction as well as disaster response at all levels and particularly those focused on the community level, and the scope for further reduction of disaster risk in Tajikistan, REACT members recognize that:  The Government of Tajikistan has a sovereign responsibility to reduce the impact of disasters before they occur.  The Government of Tajikistan has a sovereign responsibility to assist the population of the country in times of disaster.  The REACT of Tajikistan, chaired by the Chairman of the Government and consisting of line ministries and UN agencies, INGOs is responsible for disaster risk management activities. Subsidiary commissions with similar responsibilities and composition exist at the regional and district levels.  The Committee of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence is the focal organization responsible for disaster prevention and response actions.  The humanitarian imperative places a specific responsibility on REACT members to assist Tajikistan in the case of a disaster.  It is more effective to reduce disaster risk than provide assistance after a disaster has occurred.  Transparency and collaboration are critical to effective disaster response.  The free flow of information on disaster impacts and response operations is critical for transparency and collaboration.  The Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response (“Sphere Standards”) and other best practice in humanitarian assistance should guide efforts to lessen the impact of disasters in Tajikistan.  Those affected by a disaster should be consulted on and engaged in the provision of disaster-related humanitarian assistance.  The Hyogo Framework for Action provides an overall guiding for disaster risk. 14http://www.preventionweb.net/posthfa/proposed-elements
  15. 15. Page15 4. GENDER WORKING GROUPS AT REGIONAL LEVEL REACT members may establish sub-gender working groups at regional level similar to Gender working group to be established by the National platform gender group at National level.This sort of technical Working Group membership can be drawn from REACT membership (including Government institutions), and also include individuals or organizations who are part of the REACT. REACT members will designate a member organization as the Chair of the gender working group by mutual consent. Gender Working sub- groups will report regularly to the general membership on activities and consult with the general membership before taking decisions affecting the current Statement, or policy and practice of activities conducted under REACT.Regional coordinating working group as deemed necessary to ensure effective disaster risk reduction management coordination. Suggested ToRs for gender sub-group/s – main tasks, responsibilities may be defined following the objectives and road maps as stated in 2.1 and 2.2 4.1. Consultations and Meetings. Gender working group members will conduct consultations, share experiences and hold meetings necessary to accomplish the objectives(as stated in 2.1) of the group. To the extent possible, members will use emails, web sites and other means to share information and for coordination to reduce workload on members. 4.2. Data Backup Planning Is Essential for Disaster Recovery.Disaster recovery planning is the process of creating a document that details how to recover from a catastrophic event. Many organizations take the time to create a disaster recovery plan and then it sits on a shelf collecting dust. Nobody every reviews it to make sure it meets the goals of the company and it will be successful if implemented. Here are seven goals and objectives we can use to make sure disaster recovery plan will be successful.
  16. 16. Page16 5. DISASTER RECOVERY 5.1. Reduce Overall Risk. The main goal of any disaster recovery plan is to reduce the overall risk to the people men, women, boys and girls.We may look carefully at the plan and ask the question "Is there anything missing that would prevent the normal life from restarting rapidly?" In the event of a disaster, our biggest enemy is time. The plan must be concise and yet comprehensive. We may look for holes that will jeopardize the successful implementation of your disaster recovery plan. 5.2. Maintain and Test of Disaster Recovery Plan Many plans are written and few are ever updated. Even fewer are ever tested. A disaster recovery plan that was written long time ago will not be effective for a rapid recovery. Review the plan every year to insure new aspects of the livelihoods/business are covered. Test the plan at least every two years. 5.3. Alleviate Owner/Investor Concerns. Once developed and tested, you should present your disaster recovery plan to the owners and/or board of directors. Record any and all feedback and make sure it is addressed in the revised plan. If they are more apprehensive after you present your disaster recovery plan, you need to revisit each and every item before you present it again. 5.4. Restore Day-To-Day Operations. The bottom line is "Can our disaster recovery plan restore the day-to-day operations in a reasonable time?" Affected people will not wait forever to get feet back on the ground. Operations must be restored quickly. 5.5. Comply With Regulations. If the organization/ business is in a regulated industry (healthcare, food, education, etc.) it will fall under all government regulations. 5.6. Rapid Response. Any disaster recovery plan must be written and developed with the goal of responding rapidly to any disaster. Time is the biggest enemy after disaster strikes. An emergency contact list with multiple phone numbers for each manager must be accessible at any time of the day or night. 5.7. Prepare Up-to-date Inter-Agency Contingency Plan.In accordance with General Assembly Resolution 46/182, the UN and partners recognize that the Government of Tajikistan has “the primary role in the initiation, organization, coordination and implementation of humanitarian assistance within its territory” and is thus fully responsible for the protection and well-being of its people, including all activities related to emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction. The humanitarian partners in Tajikistan support the Government in these efforts and maintain a permanent link to agree on strategies, priorities and response mechanisms. Tajikistan Inter-Agency Contingency Plan (IACP) is based on the ‘Inter-Agency Contingency Planning Guidelines for Humanitarian Assistance’, is being developed/updated every year by the IASC Sub-Working Group on Preparedness and Contingency Planning. These Guidelines establish a coherent and consistent methodology for agencies in country to develop and present a coordinated preparedness and response plan based on the specific characteristics of disaster risks and hazards in country situation. The current (updated in December 2013) Contingency Plan15 was developed under the leadership of the UN Resident Coordinator16 has been put under gender lens (see annex-B). UNOCHA Regional Office for Caucasus and Central Asia, in 15Engendered of the 2013-2014 contingency plan (column 3) prepared by UN Res Cor Tadjikistan. At. annexite B 16Détails of the contingence planning at. Annexture B (column 1,2)
  17. 17. Page17 cooperation with the Committee of Emergency Situations and the REACT Secretariat. The objective of the Inter-Agency Contingency Plan is to increase the level of preparedness for any disaster and to enhance the ability to support the Government of Tajikistan to respond through the effective provision of relief and recovery assistance. The plan focuses on two scenarios: (I) a small- to medium-scale natural disaster (mudflow/flash flood) and (ii) a rapid-onset large- scale disaster (earthquake of high magnitude).Inter-agency contingency planning does not replace the need for contingency planning and preparedness measures by individual agencies and organizations. The contingency plan captures the overall management and coordination mechanisms for disaster preparedness and response. The plan briefly describes the primary role of the Government of Tajikistan in responding to disasters and the mechanism for overall coordination through the Commission of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence. Furthermore, the plan outlines the mechanisms for international humanitarian assistance in Tajikistan, including REACT and established sector coordination groups for small-medium scale disasters. Standing arrangements for large-scale emergencies describe key roles and responsibilities of the UN Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator, Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) and the Cluster Lead Agencies, as well as introduction of the global cluster approach during a large-scale emergency. Finally, the plan sets priority preparedness actions, including the terms and responsibilities for updating inter-agency contingency plans, cluster/sector specific plans and other follow-up actions. The plan is guided by the international humanitarian law, legal international instruments defining human rights, and the guiding principles on internal displacements.
  18. 18. Page18 Annex A: Gender related potential work and priorities in Humanitarian Actions/DRR by gender groups/sub groups Sl# Theme Gender related potential work and priorities Status of action (covered or not covered) Probable facilitator 1 Policy Dissemination of information on preventive measures conducted through jamoats paying attention to different target groups such as elderly, housewives,children, boys, elderly men, non-working citizens17 Not done Gender groups sub-gendergroups to be established at National level and regional level 2 Policy Develop Early warning mechanism for DRR taking into account vulnerable groups such as the elderly, female heads of households, women without husbands18 -single women Not done RT Government in collaboration of dev. Partners 3 Policy Mobilizing existing in-country coordination mechanisms this is already being done OCHA 4 Policy Ensuring adequate communication between all humanitarian partners and the Government With special focus on inclusion of women and women’s NGOs Not done UNDP 5 policy Development of recovery strategies – is this being done? Ensuring safety for response teams Ensuring logistics support for response activities Done REACT /UNDP 6 policy Ensuring security of UN/NGOs staff Development of recovery strategies Ensuring safety for response teams Done Govt. of Taj/REACT 7 Humanitarian action Managing of severe acute malnutrition and promotion of pregnant women, infant and young child, elderly people feeding Not covered WFP & UNICEF 8 Humanitarian action Provision of relief assistance,based on specific needs of different social groups with focus on women and children needs within its actions done WFP 17 7As recommended by the report “ Gender assessment of humanitarian situations”, Zerkalo/UN women, Nov, 2014 18A8s recommended by the report “ Gender assessment of humanitarian situations”, Zerkalo/UN women, Nov, 2014
  19. 19. Page19 Sl# Theme Gender related potential work and priorities Status of action (covered or not covered) Probable facilitator 9 Capacity development Psychosocialsupport for affected population in the rehabilitation period. Provision of relief assistance,based on specific needs of different social group’s Rapid assessment ofthe situation followed by analysis to define strategies/objectives/activities which form the basis for appeal. Organize and conduct training for psychologists aimed at strengthening local partners’ capacities to provide efficient mental health and psychologicalassistance to women affected by disasters and their deployment into the national/local rapid response teams. Not done UN Women, Red Crescent Society of Tajikistan, Red Cross 10 Capacity development Management of severe acute malnutrition and promotion of infant and young child feeding Psychosocialsupport for affected population Provision of relief assistance,based on specific needs of different social groups Not done UNICEF 11 capacity development Ensuring safety for response teams Ensuring logistics support for response activities Management of severe acute malnutrition and promotion of infant and young child feeding UNDP/UNICEF 12 Programme Support in establishment of humanitarian operations centre and activation of Cluster Approach Ensuring security of UN/NGOs staff Development of recovery strategies Not done Govt. of Taj/REACT 13 programme Provision of first aid and establishment of health points Support to international search and rescue teams Support in establishment of humanitarian operations centre and activation of Cluster Approach Done WHO 14 Programme/projec t Providing first aid to survivors,ensuring that specific needs of the most vulnerable groups (e.g. women headed households,pregnant women, children, elderly people etc.) are met covered WHO 15 Programme/Prior ity Needs Gender responsive rapid assessment ofthe situation followed by analysis to define strategies/objectives/activities which form the basis for appeal Not done OCHA 16 Programme/Prior ity Needs Provide emergency Food Aid Provision of first aid and establishment of health points Support to international search and rescue teams Done WFP/WHO/Govt. of Taj
  20. 20. Page20 Sl# Theme Gender related potential work and priorities Status of action (covered or not covered) Probable facilitator 17 Programme/Prior ity Needs Ensuring access to drinking water and sanitation facilities for all according to different needs of different groups Not done UNFPA 18 Programme/Prior ity Needs Support in debris removal ( with UNDP) Ensuring access to drinking water and sanitation facilities Provide emergency Food Aid Partially done UNDP 19 programme The households where there are no migrant workers and men, provide financial support to affected vulnerable groups to rebuild house,livestock, agricultural land, nutritional food for children to restore income of people 19 Not done All clusters of REACT 20 programme Strengthening preventive work to mitigate the impact of flooding in areas where floods occurs on a regular basis 20 Not done REACT 21 programme Monitoring on-going disastermanagement activities Develop parameters for needs assessments All clusters of REACT 23 programme Monitoring of on-going disastermanagement activities REACT 19A20s recommended by the report “ Gender assessment of humanitarian situations”, page 33, Zerkalo/UN women, Nov, 2014 20As recommended by the report “ Gender assessment of humanitarian situations”, page 33, Zerkalo/UN women, Nov, 2014
  21. 21. Page21 In the DRR areas: 1. Strengthening ties and collaboration among experts of DRR: for shared learning, avoiding duplication of work and improved efficiency. The REACT committee is important as is the network of community disaster preparedness and education, however there are currently gaps in the coordination and cooperation among all stakeholders, including: UN Women, NGOs, local and national government. UN women need to improve communication between agencies responsible for humanitarian response. UN women may focus on strengthening and /or establishing disaster preparedness and emergency response practices in hazard prone areas and communities. Within the process, specific attention must be paid to the impacts of disasters by gender. Gender-directed risk reduction actions may be identified when one gender is identified as more at risk than others. A similar differentiation of risk impact and targeted risk reduction may be undertaken for identified vulnerable groups, including children, the elderly and the disabled. 2. Training in preparedness and contingency planning, development of preparedness/contingency plans and their subsequent simulations will constitute major deliverables under this. Plans may focus on drought, snowfall and floods as potential hazards in Tajikistan. 3. At community level, Tajikistan is still behind in improving inclusion of women in key decision making processes. UN Women may seek to strengthen this process through ensuring full and active participation of women and other vulnerable groups in contingency /preparedness planning. Preparedness and contingency plans will be designed in such a way that the needs and perspectives and participation of the most vulnerable segments of the community assume the central focus. 4. Gender equality in Disaster Risk Reduction strengthening:Considering that disaster impacts are more pronounced on vulnerable communities, gender considerations and a focus on women and children will be undertaken in the policy development and implementation, identifying risks and their outcomes/impacts on women and children. UN women’s potential work may be to take a conscious approach in advocating for and ensuring participation of the most affected populations both at national and local levels.(in line withthe UN Women Humanitarian Strategy, 2014-2017) Therefore UN Women Tajikistan may work with the government of Tajikistan to promote gender equality in DRR. Gender analysis may also be incorporated in the assessment of disaster risks, impacts and needs. In Tajikistan, it is important for gender considerations to be focused on both sexes as males are generally equally educated as women. However, the patriarchal nature of Tajikistan society impinges on women’s rights to decision making. UN Women may ensure that women’s unique needs are addressed and value women’s knowledge in disaster reduction and recovery policies, plans and program. Women’s networks and community based organizations that facilitate women’s active engagement in DRR may be strengthened especially at community level. Activities to prevent personal violence and abuse against women and children during natural disasters may be undertaken by all structures within the disaster management system in Tajikistan. 5. There is a need to coordinate work with established ‘women’s network’ and members have to be trained in gender in disaster reduction and preparedness with a structure which can be replicated. Women’s network should focus on social support which is crucial at times of disasters such as: emotional, advisory and information support, as well as day care and cash loans (sort of practical needs) and identified ‘strategic needs’. The development of strong, well-managed and professional institutions in Tajikistan those are able to implement a comprehensive range of risk reduction programmes and interventions incorporating gender
  22. 22. Page22 needs and specific actions at the national level, as well as contributing to regional actions and international learning and best practice.
  23. 23. Page23 Annex B: Scenarios and Planning Assumptions Scenario 1 Gender gap/ how to engender Contingency A flash flood/mudflow hitting two rural districts in April-May Humanitarian Impact (planning assumptions)  20,000 people affected (many of them displaced)  40 deaths, 200 injured  400 houses completely damaged  2,000 houses affected (partially damaged)  14 medical points/centres and 6 schools destroyed/damaged  Access to drinking water is hampered. Irrigation channels are damaged.  Physical access is limited (due to damages to bridges and roads  Local power distribution system destroyed (affecting all social aspects and infrastructure)  Livelihoods (agricultural lands, livestock and most of food and NFI) are destroyed/lost  The affected population includes a high proportion of women and children (up to 70%) taking into account labour migration rates Humanitarian impact (planning assumptions were notsex- disaggregated! At Planningstage response objectives are genderinsensitive). Response Objective Provide relief and recovery assistance to the disaster-affected population and their communities to reduce suffering and restore access to basic services in an effective and timely manner. Response objectives are genderinsensitive Priority Needs  Provision of shelter, including establishment of camp, emergency/temporary shelters (along with relevant NFIs) and then support in relocation and construction of permanent shelters  Access to drinking water, sanitation and Priority needs were not assessed As per need of the victims (men, women, Boys, girls and age).
  24. 24. Page24 hygiene, including provision of water tanks, chorine tables, water filters, temporary toilets, hygiene kits  Access to food, including kitchen utensils, fuel for cooking  Access to health care, including first aid, establishment of temporary medical points, sanitary disposal of health care waste  Management of severe acute malnutrition and promotion of infant and young child feeding  Access to education, including tents for schools, education kits  Separation prevention, identification, documentation, family tracing and reunification  Psychosocial support for affected population, including building the capacity of the local staff and direct support to affected population Engender as per need of different groups Age, needs. Response Strategies  Activate in-country coordination mechanisms (REACT and sector coordination groups)  Liaise with Government on damage and needs identified.  Multi-Sector rapid needs assessment  Develop Response Strategy and Plan (based on IACP and results of rapid assessments)  Provide relief, based on specific needs of different social groups  Ensure adequate communication between all humanitarian partners and the Government  Ensure logistics support for response activities  Ensure safety for response teams Response strategy formulated Partly gender based
  25. 25. Page25  Develop recovery strategies  Ensure communication means (regular meetings, established channels for exchange of information, etc.) between REACT partners, the Government and community leaders  Ensure that cross-cutting issues integrated into response strategy (e.g. protection, etc.)  Ensure the team of Psycho- social service provides are in place for deployment  Ensure that specific needs of the most vulnerable groups (e.g. women headed households, children, etc.) are met Constraints and Gaps  Response capacity of the Government is not clearly determined or communicated (e.g. existing stocks/reserves)  Limited resources (financial, human, material, pre-positioned supplies) available by REACT members for effective response to disasters of such scale  Access to the affected populations is likely to be difficult in the immediate aftermath of the disaster  Limited communication with the field and lack of information during first hours/days following the disaster  Tajikistan Monitoring and Warning System and response mechanisms do not include Standard Operating Procedures determining actions and responsibilities when thresholds are reached. Thresholds need to be quantified.  Limited number of psycho-social service providers in place for immediate coverage of affected population  Restrictions imposed by the national security forces in control of the work/ operational area. Unavailability/ shortage of communications means. Movement restrictions imposed by local Authorities. Gaps well identified.
  26. 26. Page26 EW Indicators & Triggers Indicators:  Prolonged abnormal rainfall  Water levels in rivers Triggers:  Weather forecast predict above normal precipitation for 2 to 3 consecutive days  Water levels in river above normal and rising  Above normal snow pack in river source mountain ranges combined with high temperatures in early spring Scenario 2 Contingency A high magnitude earthquake (7 (MMI)) strikes Dushanbe at mid-winter night Gender gap/ engendered Humanitarian Impact (planning assumptions)  > 200,000 people affected  > 10,000 deaths  >50,000 injured  Centralized power/water/heating system collapsed  Breakdown of law and order (looting cases)  Health system damaged and unable to provide first aid to survivors  Up to 20% of education facilities destroyed  Dushanbe airport is not operational (but Kurgan-Tube and Kulyab airports function)  Limited or no communication  No road access to Dushanbe from the North, at least 50% of in-city roads blocked hampering the access for rescue teams. # of affected people Were not sex-disaggregated
  27. 27. Page27 Road access from the South could be open.  UN/NGOs operations are significantly compromised due to staff losses. Response Objective Providing timely life-saving relief assistance to the affected population Priority Needs  Establishment of earthquake proof communication and meeting locations for humanitarian agencies (UNDSS)  Provision of first aid and establishment of health points (Health cluster)  Provision of emergency shelter (Emergency Shelter and Camp Coordination/Management cluster)  Emergency Food Aid (Food Security cluster including nutrition)  Management of severe acute malnutrition and promotion of infant and young child feeding (Health and Food Security clusters (including nutrition))  Ensuring access to drinking water and sanitation facilities (WASH cluster)  Access to education, including tents for schools, education kits  Provision of psychosocial support (Health cluster)  Support in debris removal (UNDP)  Protection, with priority issues as child protection and prevention of gender based violence (Protection cluster)  Separation prevention, identification, documentation, family tracing and reunification “Different need- equal opportunities “ should be the guidance principle for engendering priority needs & response strategies Response Strategies  Ensuring welfare of UN/NGOs staff  Support in establishment of humanitarian operations centre and activation of Humanitarian Country Team and Cluster Different need- equal opportunities “
  28. 28. Page28 Approach  Support to international search and rescue teams (with assistance of Logistics cluster and UN OCHA (INSARAG))  Multi-Cluster Initial Rapid Assessment (leaded/coordinated by UNDAC), followed by cluster in-depth assessments and PDNA (all clusters)  Development of Strategic Statement, Response Plan and Appeals (Flash Appeal, CERF Application)  Ensuring that specific needs of the most vulnerable groups (e.g. women headed households, children, etc.) are met  Ensure the team of Psycho- social service provides are in place for deployment should be the guidance principle for engendering priority needs & response strategies Constraints and Gaps  Domestic search and rescue capacity is very limited  Government, UN Agencies and NGOs’ emergency capacity hampered due to staff losses  No clear information about existing emergency supplies (stocks) in the country (both in relation to the Government’s stocks and stocks of REACT partners)  Government and REACT partners’ capacity to respond to a disaster of such scale is largely insufficient  Potential legal problems for international rescue and humanitarian teams entering the country.  Tense political relations with neighbouring countries hamper access to Tajikistan by land  Aftershocks may further impede search and rescue and relief operations  Limited number of psycho-social service providers in place for immediate coverage
  29. 29. Page29 of affected population EW Indicators & Triggers None
  30. 30. 30 Annex: C: Cluster Approach of REACT In the event of a major emergency, the HCT would trigger the activation of the global cluster approach for Tajikistan in accordance with recommendations made by the Inter Agency Standing Committee. Agencies in-country (and when applicable from the relevant regional delegations) will assume the cluster lead responsibilities accepted in the framework of the global humanitarian response review arrangement. These responsibilities are to:  Ensure that adequate preparedness measures are taken prior to the crisis  Assume the leadership role in coordination arrangements during the response to the crisis  Ensure that gaps in the response are properly identified and addressed  Act as provider of last resort in case no other partner has the capacity to address the identified gaps Cluster and Area ofResponsibility Global Cluster Leads Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCM) IOM/UNHCR Early Recovery UNDP Education UNICEF and Save the Children Emergency Shelter UNHCR – conflicts; IFRC – natural disasters Emergency Telecommunications WFP (OCHA) Food Security FAO/WFP Health WHO Logistics WFP Nutrition UNICEF Protection UNHCR (UNOHCHR/UNICEF) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) UNICEF

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