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Conurbation lecture 2010


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from lecture series on urban regeneration

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Conurbation lecture 2010

  1. 1. Managing the complex conurbation The Greater Manchester City-Region 7 th December 2010
  2. 2. Structure <ul><li>1 Introduction : managing the complex conurbation. </li></ul><ul><li>The urban policy laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Localities in the recession. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Mancunian Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>5 RGF/ LEP = City Regional Policy under the Coalition. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Fundamental questions of constitutional structures, centre-region relations, institutional co-ordination, and public expenditure… are addressed as the perhaps unglamorous dimensions of sub-national government and governance.” (Pike and Tomaney 2004) </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Urban Policy Laboratory.
  5. 5. POLICY STRAND 1 Regeneration Policy [Alphabet Soup]
  6. 6. POLICY STRAND 2 The Local Government Modernisation Agenda [turning round the tanker]
  7. 7. POLICY STRAND 3 Performance management measurement, audit and inspection [drowning in documents…]
  8. 8. Joined up government?
  9. 9. POLICY STRAND 1 Regeneration Policy [Alphabet Soup] <ul><li>Multiple initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Time scale </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Target regime </li></ul><ul><li>Area of benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery mechanism / model </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic focus </li></ul><ul><li>Client group </li></ul><ul><li>Governance arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership requirements </li></ul><ul><li>“ initiativitis” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Regeneration – Governance 1997-2010 4 phases
  11. 11. One City Partnership (LSP) Notts Police GOEM (43Staff) 5 Police Forces; 9 DATs; 40 CDRPs; 49 Local Auth’s Probation Prisons NASS ASB Policing Policy Policing Standards Crime Reduction Drugs ACD CCU, REU, F NDC LCJB NOMS CJS OCJR CRCSG Communities IND Nottingham City Council Police Authority Probation Inspectorate CDRP DAT CJIP Compact CPS HMIC Prisons Inspectorate Individual Regional Offices Nott BCU Probation Service YOT Courts HMP HO PSA Delivery PSA 5 PSA 3 PSA 2 (Joint OCJR) PSA 1 PSA 4 PSA 7 PSA 6 9 Area Committees R E G I O NAL NATIONAL LOCAL Voluntary & Community Sector
  12. 12. POLICY STRAND 2 The LGMA [turning round the tanker] <ul><li>LGMA shorthand for policy interventions designed to improve (perceived) issues around </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making Process </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul>
  13. 13. POLICY STRAND 3 Performance management measurement, audit and inspection [drowning in documents…] <ul><li>Meanwhile elsewhere in Whitehall… </li></ul><ul><li>The Improvement Agenda (close to LGMA but not totally connected) </li></ul><ul><li>Empowered the Audit Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Waves of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>BVPI – Best Value Performance Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>CPA – Corporate Performance Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>CAA - Comprehensive Area Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>The PSA Regime (Public Services Agreements) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gordon Brown’s Approach – PSA regime
  15. 15. PSA <ul><li>Connecting manifesto to delivery mechanisms of Whitehall </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting to “floor targets” </li></ul><ul><li>In some ways odd to have to invent this… </li></ul><ul><li>The “machinery of government” is quite tricky… </li></ul>
  16. 16. PSA match to ministers (2007) Power within the Core Executive I <ul><li>Figure 3 Number of PSAs for which each Cabinet Minister is operationally responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>Minister Department Number of PSAs </li></ul><ul><li>Ed Balls DCFS 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Jacqui Smith Home Office 4 </li></ul><ul><li>John Hutton DBERR 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Hazel Blears DCLG 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Hain DWP 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Johnson DH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>John Denham DIUS 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Hilary Benn DEFRA 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Alistair Darling HMT 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Straw MoJ 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ruth Kelly DfT 1 </li></ul><ul><li>James Purnell DCMS 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ed Miliband Cabinet Office 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Alexander DFID 1 </li></ul><ul><li>David Miliband FCO 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Harriet Harman Government Equalities Office 1 </li></ul>
  17. 18. Underlying logic connecting <ul><li>PSA regime </li></ul><ul><li>RIS </li></ul><ul><li>MAAs/EPBs/SCR pilots </li></ul><ul><li>LAA regime </li></ul>
  18. 19. Police Local Partnership governance architecture Duty on local councils and other local partners to work together to agree a single set of priorities through a Sustainable Community Strategy and a Local Area Agreement Three year delivery plan: Local Area Agreement (LAA) Council Local Neighbourhoods Local Strategic Partnership Long term Sustainable Community Strategy (SCS) Service Charter Service Charter Health Private sector Community sector Local Neighbourhoods
  19. 21. Measuring Success: State of the City
  20. 22. Role of localities in the Recession <ul><li>Policy </li></ul><ul><li>SNR </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson report </li></ul><ul><li>CLG / BIS </li></ul>
  21. 23. Central-Local Policy Network <ul><li>Congested terrain! </li></ul>
  22. 24. Think tanks re: recession <ul><li>LGA from recession to recovery: the local dimension </li></ul><ul><li>CLES toward a new wave of local economic activism </li></ul><ul><li>Work Foundation : Recession and Recovery: How UK cities can respond and drive the recovery </li></ul>
  23. 25. Role of cities in a recession <ul><li>Discuss in pairs/threes for 5 mins… </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of a city/locality in the recession? </li></ul><ul><li>None? – let the market do it’s thing? </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare? role of partners eg. jc+ </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership? </li></ul><ul><li>Others – want 6 please </li></ul>
  24. 26. Ideopolis - Work Foundation
  25. 27. Barcelona Principles – The Work Foundation i. Don’t waste the crisis, but respond with leadership and purpose. ii. Make the case for continued public investment and public services and the taxes and other sources of investment required. iii. In the long-term: build local economic strategies which align with long-term drivers and identify future sources of jobs, enterprise, and innovation. iv. In the short-term: focus on retaining productive people, business, incomes, jobs, and investment projects . v. Build the tools and approaches to attract and retain external investment over the long-term. vi. Build genuine long-term relationships with the private sector, trade unions, and other key partners. vii. Take steps to ensure the sustainability and productivity of public works , infrastructure, and major developments/events. viii Local leaders should act purposefully to support their citizens in the face of increased hardship. ix. Local economies have benefitted and should continue to benefit from being open and attractive to international populations and capital . x. Communicate and align with national and other higher tier governments .
  26. 28. Role of localities in the recession : political considerations
  27. 29. LGA <ul><li>● London is the region most likely to underperform the national average in a recession, and the South-West the least; </li></ul><ul><li>● Major cities outside London such as Newcastle, Leeds and Manchester are likely to do better than the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>This research strongly suggests that the most effective way of targeting a response to recession in the places it will make the most difference is to continue with the policies of devolving economic decision-making to which the government has committed itself. </li></ul><ul><li>In time of a recession, the need for devolution to sub-regions, including counties, functional economic areas, local council partnerships and individual local authorities becomes more obvious and more urgent. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Brookings/LSE Cities <ul><li>New Report </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of 150 Global Metropolitan Economies </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Mancunian </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms </li></ul>
  30. 34. Books <ul><li>Managing the city: the aims and impacts of urban policy </li></ul><ul><li>Brian Turnbull Robson 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the city </li></ul><ul><li>eds Liddle, Diamond, Southern 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>City of Revolution eds Ward and Peck </li></ul><ul><li>How Manchester is managed 1925-1939 </li></ul>
  31. 35. Stories of “Mancunian ways” <ul><li>Mancunian Ways : the politics of regeneration Robson (Chapter 3 City of Revolution) </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Manoeuvres : making greater Manchester Deas and Ward (Chapter City of Revolution) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Manchester – ‘up and going’, 2000 Hebbert and Deas </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Manchester : conurbation complexity and local government structure Barlow, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Manchester: Making it Happen Hebbert, 2009 </li></ul>
  32. 36. Think tanks: Manchester <ul><li>Work Foundation : Ideopolis </li></ul><ul><li>Localis : Can Localism Deliver? Lessons from Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Exchange : Cities Limited </li></ul><ul><li>NESTA : Original Modern : Manchester’s journey to innovation and growth </li></ul><ul><li>City publications </li></ul>
  33. 37. What is Manchester? <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural (music and sport) </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>A Brand? </li></ul>
  34. 39. City / City Regional reification
  35. 40. The manchester case <ul><li>What are the features of the local governance partnership architecture in the Greater Manchester city region? </li></ul><ul><li>How are existing institutions connected? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the connections back to National policy agendas? </li></ul><ul><li>What other international models are in play? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it unique in the UK? If so in what way? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the movers and shakers “the good guys”? </li></ul><ul><li>Contention; there is something about manchester ; confidence, autonomy, stability, leadership, assertive bargaining stance with the centre (bombast?) (Robson - Mancunian Ways) </li></ul><ul><li>“ we use the bits of the SNR which fit our agenda and throw out the bits that don’t” </li></ul>
  36. 41. Features of political landscape in manchester city region <ul><li>Helpful in explaining why confident city-regional governance may flourish in Greater Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>Straightforward, horse-trading politics of this… </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Labour authorities (leader of Wigan/AGMA since 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial authorities (Manchester/Salford) </li></ul><ul><li>Lib-Dem oppositional authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Role of non-Executive Cllrs </li></ul><ul><li>Role of communities/3 rd Sector </li></ul><ul><li>MPs many with LG background </li></ul><ul><li>“ we always had better discussions around policy within Labour Group than we do in the PLP…you have to work out how to be effective as an MP whereas in the council your authority is far more direct and tangible” </li></ul>
  37. 42. what have they created? <ul><li>Using an MAA bidding process (first in the queue) </li></ul><ul><li>Building on AGMA, radically reformed </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating TIF </li></ul><ul><li>Linking through to LAA structures </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching democratic mandate (!) </li></ul><ul><li>Working with business leaders (6/7) </li></ul><ul><li>A “Commission” model (QMV, delegated authority comparable to EU commission) </li></ul><ul><li>7 City Regional Thematic Commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Economic one central and fully formed others immanent (?!) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast with readiness in other MAA areas ? </li></ul>
  38. 43. Organigramme I ; the MAA Transport Improvement Health Economy Environment Public Protection Housing & Planning
  39. 44. <ul><li>Interactions between separate tiers </li></ul><ul><li>MAA self organising autonomous governance network </li></ul><ul><li>LAA statutory output based performance framework </li></ul>
  40. 45. How Manchester is managed, 1935 <ul><li>Regional Planning : The most effective planning scheme is one which is comprehensive in character and not limited by the artificial boundary of a local authority’s area. It’s success depends upon (1) securing an area capable of economic development (2) effective joint action with neighbouring authorities </li></ul>
  41. 46. City regional bodies
  42. 53. City Relationships: Economic linkages in Northern city regions
  43. 63. City Regions and the North
  44. 64. <ul><li>LA boundaries within “the North” </li></ul>
  45. 65. <ul><li>The City Regions of the Northern Way </li></ul><ul><li>8 City Regions (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Took CRDPs </li></ul><ul><li>and transformed into MAAs </li></ul>
  46. 69. Mersey MAA
  47. 70. Merseyside MAA
  48. 73. Leeds Statutory City Region
  49. 74. ‘ eternal mobility’ in sub-national institutional restructuring <ul><li>Since 1997 policy discourse has “bounced around” scales eg… </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbourhood (renewal) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional (development agencies etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>City Regional </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL?? </li></ul><ul><li>The effect is fragmented delivery vehicles in competition </li></ul><ul><li>“ of course The A of the ABI is not the A of the LAA” </li></ul>
  50. 75. Treating complex networks as complex networks! <ul><li>From formal network theory – own terminology!! </li></ul><ul><li>Clique governance is presented as ideal for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>The role of brokers /boundary spanners is very important </li></ul><ul><li>SNA ; ideal type clique governance via brokers </li></ul>
  51. 76. Different types of networks
  52. 77. AGMA
  53. 78. SNA Greater Manchester MAA-LAA (accountabilty)
  54. 79. SNA with local government decentred
  55. 81. Summary : Urban Policy 1997-2010 <ul><li>Urban Policy “Laboratory” fast moving and complex </li></ul><ul><li>policy areas dynamic and in tension </li></ul><ul><li>Regeneration and economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government Modernisation </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Management and Measurement </li></ul>
  56. 82. Coalition Urban Policy
  57. 83. Summary : Policy mechanisms 1997-2010 <ul><li>Underlying logics re: fragmentation and strategic oversight in tension with democratic accountability, political oversight show up in various mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>PSA regime (National) </li></ul><ul><li>MAA/EPB/SCR (City Regional) </li></ul><ul><li>LAA (Locality plus) </li></ul>
  58. 84. Coalition Localism WP <ul><li>Delayed </li></ul><ul><li>Control Shift for planning </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentally different to what went before </li></ul>
  59. 85. Summary : Recession <ul><li>Recession offers new challenges for city and locality leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona Principles could underpin responses </li></ul><ul><li>As could increased sub-national working </li></ul>
  60. 86. Summary : Manchester <ul><li>Manchester Governance is a special case </li></ul><ul><li>Current city regional interest builds on longstanding partnership activity </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Manchester City Region and the roles of Manchester Enterprises, the Commission and AGMA have changed rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>MAA activity underpins LEP </li></ul>