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The heads of class insecta
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM,
Asst. Professor (Zoology), VSK University,
Ballari, KAR
 The rigid cranial capsule has two
openings, one posteriorly through
the occipital foramen to the
prothorax, the other to the
mouthparts.
 Typically the mouthparts are
directed ventrally
(hypognathous), anteriorly
(prognathous) as in many
beetles, or posteriorly
(opisthognathous) as in aphids,
cicadas and leafhoppers.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Several regions can be recognized on the
head
 the posterior horse-shoe-
shaped posterior
cranium (dorsally
the occiput) contacts
the vertex dorsally and
the genae laterally; the vertex
abuts the frons anteriorly and
more anteriorly lies
the clypeus, both of which
may be fused into
a frontoclypeus.
 In adult and nymphal insects,
paired compound eyes lie
more or less dorso-laterally
between the vertex and
genae, with a pair
of sensory antennae placed
more medially.
 In many insects, three light-
sensitive “simple” eyes,
or ocelli, are situated on the
anterior vertex, typically
arranged in a triangle.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
The head regions are often somewhat weakly
delimited, with some indications of their extent coming
from sutures
 remnants of original
segmentation, post-
occipital suture;
 ecdysial lines where the
head capsule of the
immature insect splits
at molting including
an often prominent inverted
“Y”, or epicranial suture,
on the vertex; the frons
is delimited by the arms
(also called frontal
sutures) of this “Y”;
 grooves that reflect the
underlying internal skeletal
ridges,
as the frontoclypeal or
epistomal suture.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
The segmental origin of the head is most clearly
demonstrated by the mouthparts ( anterior
to posterior,)
 there are six fused head segments:
 labral;
 antennal, with each antenna equivalent to an entire leg;
 Post-antennal, fused with the antennal segment;
 mandibular;
 maxillary;
 labial.
 The neck is mainly derived from the first
part of the thorax and is not a segment
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Mouthparts
 The mouthparts are formed from
appendages of all head segments except
the second.
 In omnivorous insects, such
as cockroaches, crickets, and earwigs, the
mouthparts are of a biting and chewing
type (mandibulate) and resemble the
probable basic design of ancestral
pterygote insects more closely than the
mouthparts of the majority of modern
insects.
 Extreme modifications of basic mouthparts
structure, correlated with feeding
specializations, occur in most Lepidoptera,
Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and
a number of other smaller orders.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
 The basic mandibulate mouthparts,
as exemplified by the
European earwig, Forficula auricularia
(Dermaptera)
 and then let’s see some of the more
common modifications associated with
more specialized diets.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
There are five basic components of the
mouthparts:
 labrum, or “upper lip”, with a ventral
surface called the epipharynx;
 hypopharynx, a tongue-like structure;
 mandibles, or jaws;
 maxillae (singular: maxilla);
 labium, or “lower lip”.
5
Dr Nagabhushan CM
The labrum
 The labrum forms the roof of the pre-oral
cavity and mouth and covers the base
of the mandibles; it may be formed from
fusion of parts of a pair of ancestral
appendages
Dr Nagabhushan CM
the hypopharynx
Projecting forwards from
the back of the preoral
cavity is the hypopharynx,
a lobe of probable
composite origin;
In apterygotes, earwigs,
and nymphal mayflies the
hypopharynx bears a pair
of lateral lobes,
the superlinguae
It divides the cavity into
a dorsal food pouch,
cibarium, and
a ventral salivarium
Dr Nagabhushan CM
The mandibles, maxillae, and labium
 The mandibles,
maxillae, and labium
are the paired
appendages
of segments 4–6 and
are highly variable
in structure among
insect orders; their
serial homology with
walking legs is more
apparent than for the
labrum and
hypopharynx.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
The mandibles, maxillae, and labium
 The mandibles cut & crush
food and used for defense;
generally they have
an apical cutting edge
and the more basal molar
area grinds the food.
They can be extremely
hard (approximately 3 on
Moh’s scale of mineral
hardness,
or an indentation hardness
of about 30 kg mm-2) and
thus many termites and beetles
have no physical difficulty
in boring through foils made
from such common metals
as copper, lead, tin, and zinc.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
The mandibles, maxillae, and labium
 Behind the mandibles lie the maxillae,
each with a basal part composed
of the proximal cardo and the more
distal stipes and, attached to the
stipes, two lobes — the
mesal lacinia and the
lateral galea and a lateral,
segmented maxillary palp,
or palpus (plural: palps or palpi).
Functionally, the maxillae assist the
mandibles in processing food; the
pointed and sclerotized lacinae hold
and macerate the food, whereas the
galeae and palps bear sensory setae
(mechanoreceptors) and
chemoreceptors which sample items
before ingestion.
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Head Capsule
Mouthparts
Neck
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Head Segmentation
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Insect Head Compound Eyes
Ocelli
Frons
Gena
Clypeus
Labrum
1st Maxilla
Labium (2nd Maxilla)
Mandible
Occiput
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Insect Heads
3 basic types
?
?
Hypognathous
Prognathous
Opisthorhynchous/ ophithognathus
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Insect Mouthparts
Labrum
Mandible
1st Maxilla
Labium (2nd maxilla)
Hypopharynx
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Labrum
Insect Mouthparts
-”upper lip”
- contains chemosensory sensilla
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Mandible
Insect Mouthparts
Incisor surface
Molar surface
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Mandible
Insect Mouthparts
- in a grasshopper -a dicondylic joint
-emphasize
strength over
mobility
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Cardo
Stipes
Lacinia
Galea
Palp
Insect Mouthparts
1st Maxilla
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Labium
(2nd Maxilla)
Mentum
Prementum
Paraglossa
Glossa
Palp
can be fused to
form a
Ligula
Insect Mouthparts
Submentum
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Cardo
Stipes
Lacinia
Galea
Palp
Mentum
Prementum
Paraglossa
Glossa
Palp
Submentum
Comparison of 1st and 2nd Maxillae
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Hypopharynx
Cibarium
Salivarium
Hypopharynx
Labium
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Modifications of Mouthparts
Mandibles
Maxillae
Front
Back
Piercing and Sucking
Channel for saliva
Channel for food
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Modifications of Mouthparts
Cutting and Sponging
Hypopharynx
Labellum
Maxillae
Mandibles
Labrum
e. g. deerfliesDr Nagabhushan CM
Modifications of Mouthparts
Sponging
e.g. housefly
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Modifications of Mouthparts
Siphoning
e.g. butterfly
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Modifications of Mouthparts
Stabbing
e.g. Mosquito
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Tentorium
- internal support for the head capsule
Cut away view of the head capsule
Anterior arms
Posterior arms
Dorsal arms
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Tentorium
- internal support for the head capsule
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Antennal
suture
Antennifer
Pedicel
Scape
Flagellum
Antennal
socket
Antennal
sclerite
Insect Antenna
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Insect Antennae
Aristate
Capitate
Clavate
Filiform
Geniculate
Monoliform
Pectinate
Plumose
Serrate
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM
Dr Nagabhushan CM

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