TOCOPHEROL OR VITAMIN E It is also called anti-aging factor. The word tocopherol is derived from the word tocomeaning child birth and pheros meaning to bear. It is yellow oily liquid freely soluble in fat solvent. Tocopherol alpha, beta, gamma, lambda have beenobtained from the natural sources
TocopherolsHOOR1R3R2CH3CH3 CH3 CH3CH3R1 R2 R3 Relative activityα – tocopherol CH3 CH3 CH3 1β – tocopherol CH3 H CH3 0.4γ – tocopherol H CH3 CH3 0.1 - 0.3δ – tocopherol H H CH3 0.01
VITAMIN E (Tocopherols)Alpha –tocopherol is the most active formsSOURCES Cottonseed oil Corn oil Sunflower oil Wheat germ oil Margarine Green leafyvegetablesRDA: 25-30 IU/day
Sources Vitamin E is synthesized only by plants. Plants foods (oils) provide primarysource α -tocopherol in leaves and other greenparts α -tocopherol in chloroplasts, β, γ, δ-tocopherols (nonchloroplasts) areoutside (soybeans) More vitamin E in green plants
Different forms (α, β, γ, δ) , the mostactive form is (α ) Vit E is antioxidant for body fats (unsatlipids), preserve RBC from hemolysis ,control metabolism of (PUFA) such aslinoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) . Daily req. 5 IU (infants) & 30 IU (adults).
11ABSORPTION small intestine it enters the blood streamvia the lymph.STORAGE liver &fatty tissueEXCRETION urine
1. Antioxidant role: Vitamin-E is the most potentnatural antioxidant.2. Removal of Free radicals: Vitamin-E removesfree radicals, prevents their peroxidativeeffects on unsaturated lipids of membrane andthus maintains integrity of membranes.
3. Protective role: i. Vitamin-E prevents massivehepatic necrosis produced on diet deficient insulphur containing aminoacids.4. Role in reproduction: It is required for normalreproduction, muscle integrity and forresistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis.
5. Role in Heme Synthesis: Vitamin-Ealso takes part in the synthesis ofheme. Vitamin-E induces enzymesALA-synthase and ALA-dehydratase.
6. A derivative of vitamin-E is said to benecessary for the synthesis of CoQ which isthe component of mitochondrial electrontransport chain.
VITAMIN E Functions & mechanisms of action Antioxidant role Free radical termination Singlet molecular oxygen destruction Other roles Vitamin E & heart disease Vitamin E & eye health Other conditions
FUNCTIONS REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION –it has got protective effect on reproduction andprevention of sterility. BLLOD FLOW AND CLOTTING MECHANISM –it dilates the capillaries & enables the blood toflow freely.
ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM -it functions as co factor in electron transportsystem
22 Men 8 – 10 mg Women 5 – 8 mg Children 8.3 mg Infants 4 – 5 mg
DEFICIENCY Muscular dystrophiesNocturnal muscular crampsIntermittent claudicationFibrocystic Breast DiseaseAtherosclerosis Hemolytic anemia- susceptibility ofRBCs to hemolysis Dietary hepatic necrosis Neurological disorders
Deficiency causes: Slow tissue healing Dry hair or loss ofhair Gastrointestinaldiseases Leg cramps Muscular weakness
DEFICIENCY REPRODUCTIVE – abortion of fetus infemales & atrophy of spermatogenic structure inmales leading to permanent sterility. HEART - there is necrosis & fibrosis of heartmuscle. BLOOD CAPILLARIES – may lead todegenerative changes in the blood capillaries
ORAL MANIFESTATION – loss of pigmentation , atrophic degenerative changes in enamel Ofvitamin E deficient rat MANAGEMENT –vitamin E is given in the doses of 100 to400mg.
Misuse No known toxicity up to 3200 IU, though itshould not be taken by those who are allergicto vitamin E. It can elevate blood pressure when first taken,so those with high blood pressure or heartdisease should not take more than 200 IU vitamin E may cause blood clots iftaken in doses above 800 lU/day.
Symptoms are dizziness, and headaches. It mayalso cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever,chapped lips, muscle aches, nausea, upsetstomach, fatigue, weakness, and blurred vision,though these are rare. Allergies can also occur when vitamin E is usedin skin preparations, but these are extremely rare.