VITAMIN B1 THIAMINE MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR

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VITAMIN B1 THIAMINE MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. • THIAMINE•B1• By•DR MUSTANSAR
  3. 3. • Thiamine was the first of the water solubleB vitamins to be identified as an essentialnutrient. Chemically, it consists of asubstituted pyrimidine ring (A) and athiazole, connected by a methyl group.The term vitamin B1 encompassesseveral compounds with thiamine-likeeffects.
  4. 4. • Naturally occurring B1 consists mostly ofthiamine phosphates. In pharmaceuticals,water-soluble thiamine derivatives likethiamine hydrochloride or nitrate as wellas lipophilic thiamine analogues likebenfo-thiamine or fursulthiamine are used.
  5. 5. B1: structure & function
  6. 6. 7THIAMINE (VIT B1)It is also called Anti Beri-Beri factor, AntiNeuritic factor.It is colorless basic organic compoundcomposed of a sulfated pyramidine ring.
  7. 7. 8Source• PLANTCEREALS,PEAS, BEANS, NUTSVEGETABLES• ANIMALLIVER,KIDNEY, EGGS, PORKMEAT, MILK
  8. 8. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)SOURCES Cereals Pulses Oil seeds Nuts Yeast Meat Fish Egg MilkRDA: Adults 1.2-1.5 mg/day
  9. 9. 10Absorption and excretionIt is readily absorbed from both small & largeintestine.The capacity of human intestine to absorb thisvitamin is limited to about 5mg per day.Any excess supply of thiamine is excreted inthe urine.
  10. 10. BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: THIAMINE• TPP [cocaroxylase] being an essentialpart of the decarboxylatingdehydrogenases acts as a cofactor inmany important reactions in carbohydratemetabolism i.e., dehydrogenase [PDH]complex and α-ketoglutaratedehydrogenase [αKGDH] complexi. Oxidative Decarboxylation of α-ketoacids
  11. 11. ii. Conversion of α-Ketoglutarate to succinyl-SCoAiii. TPP acts as coenzyme in reactionscatalyzed by transketolaseiv. Tryptophan metabolism:Tryptophan pyrrolaseTryptophan N-formylkynurenineO2
  12. 12. v. TPP is a coenzyme for mitochondrialbranched chain α-ketoaciddehydrogenases [decarboxylases] whichoxidatively decarboxylate α-ketoacidsformed in the catabolsim of valine, leucineand isoleucline.
  13. 13. v. In the nervous system: TPP is a cofactorfor the synthesis of acetylcholine.vi. TPP also acts as a coenzyme [co-carboxylase] for pyruvate carboxylase inyeast for non-oxidative decaroxylation ofpyruvate to acetaldehyde.
  14. 14. THIAMIN IMPORTANCE
  15. 15. 18FunctionsEssential for normal growth and developmentEssential for maintaining nerves in normalconditionNervous tissue – it plays important role in thenormal functioning of the entire nervoussystem.Digestion – it aids in the digestion especiallythat of carbohydrates.
  16. 16. FUNCTIONSEssential for normal functioning of nervesCo-enzymatic activities- carbohydrate,nucleic acid and energy synthesis
  17. 17. 20Daily requirementMen – 1.3 mgwomen – 1.0 mgPregnancy and lactation 2mgChildren – 1.1mg.
  18. 18. DEFICIENCY Beri beriEarliest symptoms:anorexiadyspepsiaheaviness and weakness of legs.calf tenderness
  19. 19. 22DeficiencyNervous disorders – when cells cannotmetabolize glucose, it affects the nervoussystem first, since it depends entirely onglucose for its energy requirement. & There ismental depression.
  20. 20. Digestive symptoms- it occurs due todefective hydrochloric acid production in thestomach patient complains of loss of appetite,poor digestion, loss of weight.
  21. 21. 24PROLONGED DEFICIENCYBERI BERIa) DRY BERI BERIb) WET BERI BERI..c) INFANTILE BERI BERIOther diseases which can be associated with itarewernickes encephalopathyperipheral neuritiskorsakoff’s psychosis.
  22. 22. 25BERI-BERIEarly symptoms: Irritability, fatigue, restlessness,decreased appetite.Later symptoms: tingling numbness in the extremities dyspnoea cyanosis unusual behaviour seizures loss of conscious
  23. 23. 26DRY BERI BERIClinical features:- it is peripheral neuropathy. In long standing cases, there is degenerationand demyelination of both sensory & motornerveINFANTILE BERI BERI Vomiting Weight loss Convulsions
  24. 24. Wet beri beri Dry Beri beri Oedema of legs, face Progressive muscle weaknes andtrunk and serous cavities. disability Calf muscles are swollen and tender Neurological manifestations Palpitation and breathlessness Low diastolic BP, high systolic. Fast pulse Heart becomes weakerand patient dies of heart failure
  25. 25. 28Wet beri beriIt is marked by cardiac dilation with four chamberenlargement, pallor and flabbiness ofmyocardium.Etiology :-Diet Alcoholics- interferes with intestinal absorptionof thiamine
  26. 26. Infantile Beri beri Infants born to mother with low thiamine intheir breast milk. Restlessness and sleeplessness Anorexia, vomiting and breathlessness cardiac dilatation and failure. Sudden death if not treated urgently withthiamine.
  27. 27. 30
  28. 28. Wernicke-korsakoff psychosisSeen mostly in chronic alcoholicsBody demand of thiamine increases inalcoholismCharacterized by:• Dementia• Apathy• Nystagmus
  29. 29. Clinical features Odema- leg, face.AnorexiaDyspepsiaRapid pulse
  30. 30. 36Oral manifestationThere is hypersensitivity of oral mucosaPain in tongue, teeth, jaw, and face
  31. 31. 37Pathogenesis-DeficiencyIncomplete metabolism of glucoseAccumulation of pyruvic acid & lactic acid intissue & body fluidDilation of peripheral blood vesselsFluid may leak out through capillaries,producing edemaHigh cardiac output, heart dilation.
  32. 32. 38ManagementComplete restThiamine 50mg IM for 3 days then 10mg 3times daily by oral route. Infantile beriberi is treated via mothers milk.The mother should receive 10,000mcg twicedaily, in addition infant should be giventhiamine in doses of 10,000 to 20,000 mcg IMonce in a day for 3 days

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