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• Folic acid (also known as folate, vitaminM, vitamin B9(or folacin), pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, pteroyl-L-glutamate,• and p...
• Folic acid is itself not biologically active,but its• biological importance is due totetrahydrofolate and other derivati...
• Folate and folic acid derive their namesfrom the Latin word folium (which means"leaf"). Leafy vegetables are principalso...
6it is also known as folacin or folate.it is water soluble vitamin .it is yellow crystalline substance.
• Chemically it consists of pteridine, para-aminobenzoic acid, and glutamate (Pte-GLU). Additional glutamate groups maybe ...
FOLLIC ACID8
9
10
Folic acid structure
Sources• Certain foods are very high in folate:• Leafy vegetables such as spinach,asparagus, turnip greens, lettuce andsom...
• Bakers yeast• Fortified grain products (pasta, cereal, bread);some breakfast cereals (ready-to-eat andothers) are fortif...
VITAMIN B9 (Folic Acid)SOURCES Liver Yeast Kidney Green leafyvegetables Meat FishRDA: 100 microgm/day
17Absorption & excretionIt is readily absorbed in the jejunum & ileumof small intestine .storage – liver.Excretion –thr...
COENZYME FORMS OF FOLIC ACID:1. Tetrahydrofolic acid, FH4:2. Folinic acid:3. Rhizopterin:
METABOLIC ROLE(ONE CARBON METABOLISM):FH4 is the coenzyme form of folic acid and itacts as coenzyme in transfer and utiliz...
One carbon donor group One carbon acceptor groupFormimino group offormimino glu [from his].N-formyl methionine oftransfer-...
FOLATE ANTAGONISTS:1. SULFONAMIDES2. TRIMETHOPRIM:3. PYRIMETHAMINE:4. AMINOPTERIN AND AMETHOPTERIN:5. Methotraxate
• Antifolates• Folate is important for cells and tissuesthat rapidly divide Cancer cells dividerapidly, and drugs that int...
It is especially important in aiding rapidcell division and growth, such as in infancyand pregnancy. Children and adults b...
• Folate is a coenzyme for single carbontransfers (addition or subtraction of asingle carbon molecule). This is critical f...
• A folate coenzyme is also necessary forthe synthesis of the amino acidmethionine. Methionine is part of the chainof reac...
• Folate is therefore necessary for reactionsthat involve methylation,many of which arecritical to cell function and survi...
• Deficiency can result in many healthproblems, the most notable one beingneural tube defects in developingembryos.
• Common symptoms of folate deficiencyinclude diarrhea, macrocytic anemia withweakness or shortness of breath, nervedamage...
forgetfulness or other cognitive declines,mental depression, sore or swollentongue, peptic or mouth ulcers,headaches, hear...
• DNA synthesis and repair are impairedand this could lead to cancer development
31Daily requirementMen – women – 100 mcgChildren – 80 mcg.Infant – 25 mcgpregnant women – 400mcg
32DEFICIENCYAnemia – often occurs in pregnant women andalso childrenskin – loss of hair, grayish brown skinpigmentation ...
Folic acid function
Hair & Skin – it is essential for the health ofskin & hairPregnancy – it is an important nutrient for thepregnant women ...
Folic Acid DeficiencyDeficiency causes:• Sensations ofweakness• Numbness andtingling of fingers andtoes• Ulcers in the mou...
37FUNCTIONSFormation of RBC – folic acid incombination with vitamin B12 is essential forformation, and maturation of RBCs
DEFICIENCY:It is the most common vitamin deficiency observed primarily inpregnant women, lactating mother , women on OCPs ...
– Folacin = Folate = Folicacid– Deficiency causesneural tube defects –in utero39
• The antifolate methotrexate is a drug oftenused to treat cancer because it Inhibits theproduction of the active form of ...
•SUMMARY43
FUNCTIONS:The active form of folic acid isTetrahydrofolate.It acts as coenzymes invarious bio-chemical reactions.
45BIOCHEMISTRY PEARLS• Folate (folic acid) is an essentialvitamin that, in its active form oftetrahydrofolate, transfers 1...
• THF is necessary for the de novosynthesis of purines and the conversion ofdeoxyuridine 5’-monophosphate (dUMP)to deoxyth...
folic acid  B9  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
folic acid  B9  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
folic acid  B9  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
folic acid  B9  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
folic acid  B9  MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR
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folic acid B9 MUHAMMAD MUSTANSAR

  1. 1. 1
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  3. 3. • Folic acid (also known as folate, vitaminM, vitamin B9(or folacin), pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, pteroyl-L-glutamate,• and pteroylmonoglutamic acid are formsof the water-soluble vitamin B9.
  4. 4. • Folic acid is itself not biologically active,but its• biological importance is due totetrahydrofolate and other derivatives afterits conversion to dihydrofolic acid in theliver
  5. 5. • Folate and folic acid derive their namesfrom the Latin word folium (which means"leaf"). Leafy vegetables are principalsources of folic acid,
  6. 6. 6it is also known as folacin or folate.it is water soluble vitamin .it is yellow crystalline substance.
  7. 7. • Chemically it consists of pteridine, para-aminobenzoic acid, and glutamate (Pte-GLU). Additional glutamate groups maybe added via the γ-carboxylate group,resulting in polyglutamates (PteGLUn).Folic acid can occur in the reduced or theoxidized form,
  8. 8. FOLLIC ACID8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Folic acid structure
  12. 12. Sources• Certain foods are very high in folate:• Leafy vegetables such as spinach,asparagus, turnip greens, lettuce andsome Asian vegetables[• Legumes such as dried or fresh beans,peas and lentils• Egg yolk
  13. 13. • Bakers yeast• Fortified grain products (pasta, cereal, bread);some breakfast cereals (ready-to-eat andothers) are fortified with folate• Sunflower seeds• Liver and liver products contain high amounts offolate• Kidney
  14. 14. VITAMIN B9 (Folic Acid)SOURCES Liver Yeast Kidney Green leafyvegetables Meat FishRDA: 100 microgm/day
  15. 15. 17Absorption & excretionIt is readily absorbed in the jejunum & ileumof small intestine .storage – liver.Excretion –through feces and urine
  16. 16. COENZYME FORMS OF FOLIC ACID:1. Tetrahydrofolic acid, FH4:2. Folinic acid:3. Rhizopterin:
  17. 17. METABOLIC ROLE(ONE CARBON METABOLISM):FH4 is the coenzyme form of folic acid and itacts as coenzyme in transfer and utilizationof one carbon moiety [C1]One Carbon Donor and Acceptor Compounds:
  18. 18. One carbon donor group One carbon acceptor groupFormimino group offormimino glu [from his].N-formyl methionine oftransfer-RNA.Methyl group of methionine. Glycine to form serine.Methyl group of methionine. Glycine to form serine.Methyl group of thymine. Uracil to form thymine.β-carbon of serine. Ethanolamine to form choline.Gly, trp, ALA and acetone, Positions 2 and 8 of purinering.Histidine synthesis.
  19. 19. FOLATE ANTAGONISTS:1. SULFONAMIDES2. TRIMETHOPRIM:3. PYRIMETHAMINE:4. AMINOPTERIN AND AMETHOPTERIN:5. Methotraxate
  20. 20. • Antifolates• Folate is important for cells and tissuesthat rapidly divide Cancer cells dividerapidly, and drugs that interfere with folatemetabolism are used to treat cancer.
  21. 21. It is especially important in aiding rapidcell division and growth, such as in infancyand pregnancy. Children and adults bothrequire folic acid to produce healthy redblood cells and prevent anemia
  22. 22. • Folate is a coenzyme for single carbontransfers (addition or subtraction of asingle carbon molecule). This is critical forDNA metabolism. A folate coenzyme isnecessary to synthesize nucleotides fromtheir components, in order to make DNAas well as RNA.
  23. 23. • A folate coenzyme is also necessary forthe synthesis of the amino acidmethionine. Methionine is part of the chainof reactions leading to the production of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe;( SAMe is amethyl donor).
  24. 24. • Folate is therefore necessary for reactionsthat involve methylation,many of which arecritical to cell function and survival.
  25. 25. • Deficiency can result in many healthproblems, the most notable one beingneural tube defects in developingembryos.
  26. 26. • Common symptoms of folate deficiencyinclude diarrhea, macrocytic anemia withweakness or shortness of breath, nervedamage with weakness and limb numbness(peripheral neuropathypregnancycomplications, mental confusion,
  27. 27. forgetfulness or other cognitive declines,mental depression, sore or swollentongue, peptic or mouth ulcers,headaches, heart palpitations, irritability,and behavioral disorders. Low levels offolate can also lead to homocysteineaccumulation
  28. 28. • DNA synthesis and repair are impairedand this could lead to cancer development
  29. 29. 31Daily requirementMen – women – 100 mcgChildren – 80 mcg.Infant – 25 mcgpregnant women – 400mcg
  30. 30. 32DEFICIENCYAnemia – often occurs in pregnant women andalso childrenskin – loss of hair, grayish brown skinpigmentation can also occur.Nervous – mental depression & fatigue.ORAL- severe ulcerative stomatitis may be seen.swelling & redness of lips.
  31. 31. Folic acid function
  32. 32. Hair & Skin – it is essential for the health ofskin & hairPregnancy – it is an important nutrient for thepregnant women & her developing fetus.&folic acid improves the lactation.
  33. 33. Folic Acid DeficiencyDeficiency causes:• Sensations ofweakness• Numbness andtingling of fingers andtoes• Ulcers in the mouth• Sore tonguesFeelings of weakness:
  34. 34. 37FUNCTIONSFormation of RBC – folic acid incombination with vitamin B12 is essential forformation, and maturation of RBCs
  35. 35. DEFICIENCY:It is the most common vitamin deficiency observed primarily inpregnant women, lactating mother , women on OCPs and alcoholics.In pregnancy decreased absorption and increased clearance is thecause. Anaemia: macrocytic typeFIGLU test - to detect folate deficiency.
  36. 36. – Folacin = Folate = Folicacid– Deficiency causesneural tube defects –in utero39
  37. 37. • The antifolate methotrexate is a drug oftenused to treat cancer because it Inhibits theproduction of the active form of THF fromthe inactive dihydrofolate (DHF
  38. 38. •SUMMARY43
  39. 39. FUNCTIONS:The active form of folic acid isTetrahydrofolate.It acts as coenzymes invarious bio-chemical reactions.
  40. 40. 45BIOCHEMISTRY PEARLS• Folate (folic acid) is an essentialvitamin that, in its active form oftetrahydrofolate, transfers 1-carbongroups to intermediates in metabolismand plays an important role in DNAsynthesis.
  41. 41. • THF is necessary for the de novosynthesis of purines and the conversion ofdeoxyuridine 5’-monophosphate (dUMP)to deoxythymidine 5’-monophosphate(dTMP).• The major metabolic perturbation in folatedeficiency occurs in megaloblasticanemia.

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