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  1. 1. Memory The PowerPoint slides were developed by Mus Khairy (PhD), Stanford University at California. Educational ,Social Psychologists at German University at Cairo (GUC) unless otherwise noted on specific slides.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Memory – internal record of some prior event or experience; a set of mental processes that receives, encodes, stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information over time </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Remembering </li></ul><ul><li>and Forgetting… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ Phil Zimbardo  from the “ Discovering Psychology ” series </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Stage 1 - Sensory Memory is a brief representation of a stimulus while being processed in the sensory system </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 - Short-Term Memory (STM) is working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited capacity (7 items) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration is about 30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 - Long-Term Memory (LTM) is large capacity and long duration </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Encoding – process of translating info into neural codes (language) that will be retained in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Storage – the process of retaining neural coded info over time </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval – the process of recovering info from memory storage </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Two types of LTM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic memory refers to factual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic memory refers to autobiographical information as to where and when an event happened </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Retrieval Cue – a clue or prompt that helps stimulate recall and retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ziegarnik Effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Recognition is when a specific cue (face or name) is matched against LTM </li></ul><ul><li>Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory </li></ul><ul><li>Relearning - situation where person learns material a second time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker to learn material 2 nd time </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Where were you when you first heard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That The WTC had been crashed into? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That the federal building had been bombed in Oklahoma City? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That Princess Diana had been killed in a car wreck? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Bilateral damage to the hippocampus results in anterograde amnesia (Patient H.M.)
  11. 14. Amygdala : emotional memory and memory consolidation Basal ganglia & cerebellum : memory for skills, habits and CC responses Hippocampus : memory recognition, spatial, episodic memory, laying down new declarative long-term memories Thalamus , formation of new memories and working memories Cortical Areas : encoding of factual memories, storage of episodic and semantic memories, skill learning, priming.
  12. 15. <ul><li>Forgetting is the inability to recall previously learned information </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting rate is steep just after learning and then becomes a gradual loss of recall </li></ul>
  13. 16. Recall immediately after learning Recall several hours after learning Recall from Recall from LTM STM LTM Primacy effect – remembering stuff at beginning of list better than middle Recency Effect – remembering stuff at the end of list better than middle
  14. 17. <ul><li>Distributed practice refers to spacing learning periods in contrast to massed practice in which learning is “crammed” into a single session </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed practice leads to better retention </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Proactive interference : old information interferes with recall of new information </li></ul><ul><li>Retroactive interference : new information interferes with recall of old information </li></ul><ul><li>Decay theory : memory trace fades with time </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated forgetting : involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval failure : the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Tip-of the tongue phenomenon : person can’t easily recall the item, but shows some recall for its characteristics (“…it begins with the letter ….”) </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Amnesia is forgetting produced by brain injury or by trauma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information prior to a trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterograde amnesia refers to problems with recall of information after a trauma </li></ul></ul>Point of Trauma Retrograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia
  18. 21. <ul><li>Reasons for inaccuracy of memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source amnesia : attribution of a memory to the wrong source (e.g. a dream is recalled as an actual event) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeper effect : a piece of information from an unreliable source is initially discounted, but is recalled after the source has been forgotten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misinformation effect : we incorporate outside information into our own memories </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Mnemonic devices are strategies to improve memory by organizing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of Loci : ideas are associated with a place or part of a building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peg-Word system : peg words are associated with ideas (e.g. “one is a bun”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Associations : verbal associations are created for items to be learned </li></ul></ul>