23474986 mandible

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23474986 mandible

  1. 1. Anatomical Terms Used In Description of Bones <ul><li>Foramen: an opening or a hole in a bone </li></ul><ul><li>Canal: Bony tunnel (foramen of some length) </li></ul><ul><li>Canaliculus: a very narrow canal </li></ul><ul><li>Meatus: a narrow passage </li></ul><ul><li>Sulcus: a groove or furrow </li></ul><ul><li>Pit or fovea: a small depression </li></ul><ul><li>Fossa: a large depression (may be articular or non articular </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Facet : a small, smooth articular area of a bone </li></ul><ul><li>Ridge: a linear elevation, usually rough </li></ul><ul><li>Crest: a ridge of some breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Lip: the raised margin of a crest </li></ul><ul><li>Process: localized elevation or projection of large size </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle: a small localized rounded thickening </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberosity: same as tubercle but larger in size </li></ul><ul><li>Head: a round articular area of bone </li></ul><ul><li>Spine: a sharp pointed projection </li></ul><ul><li>lamina: a thin plate of bone </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus: cavity inside a bone eg. Air sinuses of skull. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bones of Skull <ul><li>A. The calvaria/Brain case consists of 8 bones </li></ul><ul><li>Paired:- 1.parietal 2.Temporal </li></ul><ul><li>Unpaired:- Frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid </li></ul><ul><li>B. The facial skeleton consists of 14 bones </li></ul><ul><li>Paired: Maxilla, Zygomatic, Nasal, lacrimal, Palatine, Inf Nasal Concha </li></ul><ul><li>Unpaired: Mandible, Vomer </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mandible <ul><li>Largest & strongest bone of the face and forms the lower jaw. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Body: horse shoe (u) shaped, horizontal and convex forward </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rami: one ramus on each side, projecting upwards from the posterior ends of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses: 2 surfaces- 1. external 2. internal </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 borders- 1.upper(Alveolar), 2. Lower (base) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Surfaces: </li></ul><ul><li>A. external surface : Convex in outline </li></ul><ul><li>Presents: </li></ul><ul><li>Symphisis menti : a faint ridge in the midline in the upper part of the body (indicates fusion of two halves of foetal bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Mental protuberence : triangular raised area below sym menti, & forms the prominence of chin. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental tubercles : small tubercle at each lateral angle of the mental protuberence. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental foramen : a foramen below the interval between the 1 st & 2 nd premolar teeth. It leads into the mandibular canal. It gives exit to mental nerve and vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Ext oblique line : a faint line running upward & backward on each side from the mental tubercle, very prominent behind and continuous with the ant border of ramus. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ant part gives origin to: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depressor labii inferioris: infront </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depressor angulioris: behind. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its post part and the adjoining area gives origin of buccinator. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Platysma is inserted below the oblique line. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Incisive fossa : shallow depression below the incisor teeth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives origin to:-1. Mentalis 2. Parts of orbicularis oris. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Internal Surface: Concave in outline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mylohyoid ridge : (int oblique line): an oblique ridge running forward and downwards on each side from 3 rd Molar tooth to the symphysis menti; very prominent behind. It divides the int surface in to 2 areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Submandibular fossa below the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Sublingual fossa above the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives origin to : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mylohyoid muscle: throughout its whole length. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sup constrictor muscle of pharynx: from its post end. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groove for lingual nerve : a groove above the mylohyoid line but below the last molar tooth. It lodges lingual nerve. Above this groove sup constrictor muscle is attached. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-Mandibular fossa : a triangular hollow area below the mylohyoid line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lodges- 1. submandibular gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> 2. submandibular lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li> 3. facial artery </li></ul><ul><li>Sublingual fossa : a triangular concave area above the mylohyoid line. </li></ul><ul><li> lodges- sublingual salivary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Genial tubercles : 4 in numbers, just above the ant ends of mylohoid lines. They lie in pairs- 2 upper & 2 lower </li></ul><ul><li>upper tubercle- gives origin to genioglossus muscles, one on each side. </li></ul><ul><li>lower tubercle- gives origin to geniohyoid muscles, on each side. </li></ul><ul><li>Mylohyoid groove: runs downwards and forwards from the ramus on to the body below the post end of mylohyoid line </li></ul><ul><li>transmits- mylohyoid vessels and nerves. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Borders <ul><ul><li>Upper border (alveolar part): </li></ul></ul><ul><li>presents: 16 sockets, 8 on each side for lodging the roots of teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Dental formulae: ICPM/2123 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower border (base of mandible): </li></ul><ul><li>-thick and rounded </li></ul><ul><li>-continuous with lower border of ramus behind 3 rd molar teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Presents:- </li></ul><ul><li>#Digastric fossa: a shallow depression on either side of mid-line. It gives origin to ant belly of digastric. </li></ul><ul><li>#Insertion of platysma: lower border & extending anteriorly on to the adjoining ext surface. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Ramus <ul><li>Flattened, quadrilateral part projecting upwards from the post end of the body on each side, gives insertion to all muscles of mastication. </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses: </li></ul><ul><li>2 surfaces: 1. external (lateral) 2. internal (medial) </li></ul><ul><li>4 borders: anterior, posterior, upper, lower </li></ul><ul><li>2 processes: 1. coronoid 2. condyloid </li></ul><ul><li>Surfaces: </li></ul><ul><li>a. lateral (ext) surface: flat surface, rough throughout except in upper & post part which is smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Presents:- </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Insertion of masseter muscle: to a rough area </li></ul><ul><li>Parotid gland lies in smooth upper & post part. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Medial (int surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Presents:- </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibular foramen- near the center,leads into a mandible canal and finally into mental foramen. </li></ul><ul><li>Lingula- a sharp thin process of bone projection from medial margin of mandibular foramen. Gives attachment to sphenomandibular ligaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Mylohyoid groove- begins just behind linguala and runs downwards & forwards to fade out at the post end of submandibular fossa. </li></ul><ul><li>Lodges- mylohyoid vessels & nerves </li></ul><ul><li>4. Medial pterigoid is inserted below & behind the mylohyoid groove. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Borders:- </li></ul><ul><li>Ant border : sharp/ prominent. Continuous above to the anterior border of coronoid process & below the oblique line. </li></ul><ul><li>Post border: thick/ rounded, concave in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Upper (superior) border : </li></ul><ul><li>Presents: </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibular notch- in the middle </li></ul><ul><li>Coronoid process- in front </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid process- behind </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibular notch transmit- masseteric vessels & nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Lower (inferior) border : continuous in front with the base of mandible. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Coronoid process : flat & traingular with the apex pointing upwards while the base is fused with upper & ant part of ramus. Its ant border is continuous with ant border of the ramus & the post border forms the ant boundary of mandibular notch. </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of temporalis muscle: to the apex, margins, whole of medial surface and a part of lat surface close to the apex. </li></ul><ul><li>Masseter covers lateral surface. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Condyloid process : projects upwards from the upper & post part of ramus. </li></ul><ul><li>Presents:- </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Mandible: thick and expanded upper part. Articulates with the articular part of mandibular fossa of temporal bone to form TMJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Neck of Mandible: the constricted part just below the head. It gives attachment to lat. Ligament of TMJ. </li></ul><ul><li>Ant surface of the neck is hollowed out into a depression called pterygoid fovea or pit which gives insertion to lat pterygoid muscle. </li></ul>
  13. 15. cervical vertebrae <ul><li>Vertebral column consists of a number of separate irregular bones called vertebrae. Forms the central axis of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Protects spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Supports and transmits body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Provides attachment to axial muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Provides movement of the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>There are 33 vertebrae & 31 pairs of spinal nerves </li></ul>12 thoracic 12 thoracic 1 coccyx 4 coccyx 5 sacral 5 sacral 5 lumber 5 lumber 8 cervical 7 Cervical number Spinal Number Vertebrae
  14. 16. Characteristics of vertebrae: <ul><li>A typical vertebrae has 2 parts </li></ul><ul><li>Body – Ant or ventral </li></ul><ul><li>Neural arch- post or dorsal </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral foramen: lies between body and arch. In between vertebrae there are intervertebral discs. Vertebral foramen lodges spinal cord with its meninges & blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Body of vertebrae: </li></ul><ul><li>Shape and size: nearly cylindrical and shape varies in different regions. </li></ul><ul><li>6 surfaces: Ant/post, upper/lower, 2 lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral (neural ) arch: </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs of pedicles </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs of lamina </li></ul><ul><li>Seven processes- </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Articular-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Arch is connected to the body by the pedicles. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>pedicles- short, thick & passes backwards from the junction of lat & post surface of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Laminae- broad plates lying behind & medial to pedicles. They fuse behind in a median plane into the spinous process. </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous process- passes backward and downward from the junction of the 2 laminae. </li></ul><ul><li>Articular processes- 4 in number, 2 superior, 2 inferior. Arises from junction of pedicles & laminae. </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse processes- 2 in number projects lat from the junction of pedicle and laminae. In thoracic region they articulates with ribs. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing features of vertebrae: </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical- presence of foramen in transverse process called foramen transversarium. </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic- presence of costal facet on the body </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber- no foramen no costal facets on the body. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Cervical vertebrae <ul><li>7 in numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Identification: presence of foramen transversarium in the transverse process </li></ul><ul><li>Typical c.v: 3,4,5,6 </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical c.v: 1,2,7 </li></ul><ul><li>1 st c.v – atlas </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd c.v- axis </li></ul><ul><li>7 th c.v- vertebra prominens </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of typical vertebrae: </li></ul><ul><li>Body : </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest of all vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse> AP measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Post surface has 2 vascular foramen, to transmit basi vertebral vein & NA. </li></ul><ul><li>Ant. & post surfaces are flat. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Attachments: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Anterior surface: </li></ul><ul><li>Ant long ligament: to upper and lower borders </li></ul><ul><li>B. Posterior surface: </li></ul><ul><li>Post long ligament: to upper and lower borders </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vertebral foramen: </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than the body </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pedicles: </li></ul><ul><li>Projects laterally and backwards </li></ul><ul><li>4. Laminae: </li></ul><ul><li>Long and narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Ligamentum flava attached to upper and lower part of anterior surface. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>5. Spine: </li></ul><ul><li>short and bifid </li></ul><ul><li>Ligmentum nuchae is attached to it </li></ul><ul><li>6. Articular processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Form an articular pillar which projects laterally at the junction of pedicles and laminae. </li></ul><ul><li>Articular facets are flat and oval </li></ul><ul><li>7. Transverse process: </li></ul><ul><li>pierced by foramen called foramen transversarium </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits: vertebral artery & vein </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: </li></ul>
  19. 22. Atlas <ul><li>Distinguishing points: </li></ul><ul><li>No body </li></ul><ul><li>No spine </li></ul><ul><li>It has 2 arches: ant & post </li></ul><ul><li>2 lateral masses </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral masses: </li></ul><ul><li>Lie obliquly between 2 arches </li></ul><ul><li>Superior articular facets: </li></ul><ul><li>Faces upwards and medially </li></ul><ul><li>Concave and elongated (kidney shaped) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Inferior articular facet: </li></ul><ul><li>Faces downwards and backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Round, slightly concave and flat </li></ul><ul><li>2. Anterior arch: </li></ul><ul><li>Short, curved anteriorly </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to lateral masses </li></ul><ul><li>There is a rough tubercle on the anterior aspect called the rough tubercle </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>3. Posterior arch: </li></ul><ul><li>Upper surface has a wide groove behind the lateral masses </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior tubercle: small tubercle at the posterior part. It represents spinous process. </li></ul><ul><li>Attachments: </li></ul><ul><li>4. Transverse processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Quite long and strong </li></ul><ul><li>Ends laterally in a tubercle </li></ul><ul><li>Attachments: </li></ul>
  21. 25. Axis (2 nd cervical vertebrae) <ul><li>Distinguishing point: </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of odontoid process (dens) </li></ul><ul><li>Odontoid process: </li></ul><ul><li>Strong tooth like process projecting from superior surface of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Half inch long </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the body of the atlas </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a pivot around which atlas rotates </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Body: </li></ul><ul><li>the odontoid process arises from the superior surface </li></ul><ul><li>On the lateral side of the upper surace a large circular facet is present which articulates with the inferior facet of the lateral mass of atlas </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>3. laminae: </li></ul><ul><li>Thickest and strongest of all c.v </li></ul><ul><li>Gives attachment to ligamentum flava </li></ul><ul><li>4. spine: </li></ul><ul><li>Large and very strong </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Transverse process: </li></ul><ul><li>Very small </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: </li></ul>
  23. 28. seventh cervical vertebrae <ul><li>Called vertebra prominence because of its long and thick prominent spinous process </li></ul><ul><li>spine: </li></ul><ul><li>Long, thick, horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Not bifurcated, ends behind in a tubercle </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Transverse process: </li></ul><ul><li>Big size </li></ul><ul><li>Foramen transversarium is relatively small </li></ul><ul><li>F.T may be double or absent </li></ul><ul><li>Transversed by accessory vertebral vein </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: </li></ul>

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