Ch02 AP Human

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Ch02 AP Human

  1. 1. Chapter 2: PopulationCourtesy of NASA © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Field Note: Basic Infrastructure “The words wafted in the air as my colleague and I took a minute to process them. We were in Shanghai, China, visiting with a Chinese student who had spent a semester at our small college in a town of 26,000 in rural South Dakota. My colleague had asked the student what he missed most © Erin Fouberg about our small town of Aberdeen.Shanghai, China He replied without hesitating, “Basic infrastructure.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Key QuestionWhere in the world do people live and why? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Field Note: Myanmar, Burma“An overpass across one of Yangon’s busy streets provides a good perspective on the press of humanity in lowland Southeast Asia. Whether in urban areas or on small back roads in the countryside, people are everywhere—young and old, fit and infirm. When population densities are high in areas of poverty and unsophisticated infrastructure, vulnerabilities to natural hazards can be particularly great. This became stunningly evident in 2008 when a tropical © Alexander B. Murphy cyclone devastated a significant swath of the Irrawaddy Delta south of Yangon, killing some 100,000 people and leaving millions homeless.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Where in the World Do People Live and Why?• Population density: a country’s total population relative to land size• Assumes an even distribution of population to the land © H.J. de Blij, P.O. Muller, and John Wiley & Sons © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Where in the World Do People Live and Why?Physiologic Population Density• The number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land Concept Caching: Rice Terraces- Bail, Indonesia © Matt Ebnier © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Field Note: Luxor, Egypt © Alexander B. Murphy © Alexander B. Murphy Moving away from the river a few blocks, the land becomes sandy and wind-sculpted. Egypt’s arable lands are along the Nile River Valley.“The contrasting character of the Egyptian landscape could not be more striking. Along the NileRiver, the landscape is one of green fields, scattered trees, and modest houses, as along thisstretch of the river’s west bank near Luxor. But anytime I wander away from the river, brown,wind-sculpted sand dominates the scene as far as the eye can see. Where people live and whatthey do is not just a product of culture; it is shaped by the physical environment as well.” © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Where in the World Do People Live and Why?Population Distribution• Descriptions of locations on the Earth’s surface where individuals or groups (depending on the scale) live.• Geographers often represent population distributions on dot maps, in which one dot represents a certain number of a population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. World Population Distribution © H.J. de Blij, P.O. Muller, and John Wiley & Sons © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. As we discussed in the field note at the beginning of this chapter,the populations of China and India account for 40 percent of theworld currently, and India is predicted to outpace China’spopulation in the 2030s. How will Figure 2.5 look different 50 yearsfrom now? If you were updating this textbook in 50 years, wherewould the largest population clusters in the world be? © H.J. de Blij, P.O. Muller, and John Wiley & Sons © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Where in the World Do People Live and Why?Reliability of Population Data• Census: Federal government funding depends on population data.• Political implications of under- representation of populations.• United Nations, World Bank, and Population Reference Bureau collect data on world populations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. East Asia• Almost 25% of world’s population• Population concentrated in Korea, Japan, China• Over 1.3 billion people in China © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. South Asia• Physical geography barriers separate population clusters Himalaya Mountains; Indus River Valley Confined region with rapidly growing population• Bangladesh: 152 million people in an area the size of Iowa © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. North America• Megalopolis Huge urban agglomerations; Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C This accounts for more than 20% of US population © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Key Question• Why Do Populations Rise and Fall in Particular Places? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Population: Rise and Fall• Thomas Malthus: An Essay on the Principles of Population• Grows faster than food supply; food grows linearly, population grows exponentially © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Population Growth: World, Regional, National Scales• Births – Deaths = Natural Increase Does not factor immigration (in- migration) or emigration (outmigration) into the equation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Regional and National• Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Number of births in a year per 1000• Crude Death Rate (CDR) Number of deaths in a year per 1000• Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Average number of children born to a woman of childbearing age © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Field Note: Bordeaux, France“My mind was on wine. I was in Bordeaux,France, walking down the street to theBordeaux Wines Museum (Musée des Vins Concept Caching:de Bordeaux) with a friend from the city. Bordeaux, FranceHaving just flown from Dakar, Senegal,after spending several weeks inSubsaharan Africa, I found my currentsurroundings strikingly different.Observing the buildings and the peoplearound me, I noticed that after having beenamong so many young children inSubsaharan Africa, the majority of theinhabitants I encountered in Bordeauxwere adults. I turned to my friend andasked, “Where are all the children?” He © Harm de Blijlooked around, pointed, and replied, “Theregoes one now!” In Bordeaux, in Paris, in allof France and the rest of Europe, there arefewer children and populations are aging. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Data from: US Census Bureau © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Future Population Growth• Stationary Population Level (SPL) The level at which a national population ceases to grow Anticipated dates for population stabilization are often moved back Ex. Brazil and India © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. The Demographic Transition © H.J. de Blij, P.O. Muller, and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Demographic Transition• Factors limiting population growth: Famine, epidemics, plagues, wars• Factors enhancing population growth: Agricultural advances, Industrial Revolution, sanitation, vaccinations © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Key Question• Why Does Population Composition Matter? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Population Composition• The composition is the structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.• Age and sex are key indicators of population composition, and demographers and geographers use population pyramids to represent these traits visually. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Population Composition (cont’d)• Young vs. elderly in any population will determine different social needs• Geographers are concerned with both spatial distribution and population composition © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Figure 2.16 Age–Sex Population Pyramids for Countries with High Population Growth Rates. Countries with high total fertility rates, high infant mortality rates and low life expectancies will have population pyramids with wide bases and narrow tops.Data from: UN, World Population ProspectsFigure 2.17Age–Sex Population Pyramidsfor Countries with LowPopulation Growth Rates.Countries with lower total fertilityrates and longer life expectancieshave population pyramids shapedmore uniformly throughout. Data from: UN, World Population Prospects © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Key Question• How Does the Geography of Health Influence Population Dynamics? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Geographies of Health• Infant Mortality• Child Mortality• Life Expectancy © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Study Figure 2.19, the infantmortality rate (IMR) by state in theUnited States. Hypothesize whythe IMR is low in some regions ofthe country and high in others.Shift scales in your mind, andtake one state and choose onestate to consider: how do youthink IMR varies within thisstate?What other factors are involved atthis scale and this level ofgeneralization to explain the Data from Centers for Disease Controlpattern of IMRs? Use thepopulation Internet sites listed atthe end of this chapter todetermine whether yourhypotheses are correct. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Influence on Health and Well-Being• Health is closely related to location and environment• When an outbreak of a particular disease occurs its source and diffusion are studied by specialists in medical geography• Medical geographers study diseases, and they also use locational analysis to predict diffusion and prescribe prevention strategies © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Infectious Diseases• 65% of all diseases are infectious• Malaria - Vectored• HIV/AIDS- Nonvectored © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Chronic and Genetic Diseases• Also called degenerative diseases• Afflict middle and old age populations• 100 years ago in the United States: tuberculosis, pneumonia, and heart diseases• Today: Cancer, heart disease, stroke and accidents are the leading causes of death in the United States © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Field Note: Johannesburg, South Africa“The day was so beautiful and thechildren’s faces so expressive I couldhardly believe I was visiting an AIDShospice village set up for children. TheSparrow Rainbow Village on the edgesof Johannesburg, South Africa, is theproduct of an internationally fundedeffort to provide children with © Alexander B. MurphyHIV/AIDS the opportunity to spendwhat time they have in a clean, safe Concept Caching: Cachingenvironment. Playing with the children Stop AIDSbrought home the fragility of human lifeand the extraordinary impacts of amodern plague that has spreadrelentlessly across significant parts ofSubsaharan Africa.” © Barbara Weightman © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Guest Field Note: Marich Village, KenyaThis drawing was done by a Pokot boy in a remote primary school in northwesternKenya. He agreed to take part in my fieldwork some years after I had startedresearching young carers in Subsaharan Africa. Since those early interviews inZimbabwe I have been acutely aware of young carers’ invisibility—you can’t tellwho is a young carer just by looking at them. Indeed, invisibility is a characteristicof many aspects of the social impacts of HIV/AIDS. This young person drewhimself working in the fields and taking care of cattle. African young people helpwith farming and herding for many reasons, but for young caregivers, assistingtheir sick family members in this way is especially important. © Elsbeth Robson © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Key QuestionHow Do Governments AffectPopulation Change? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Population and Government• Expansive population policies: Encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase• Eugenic population policies: Designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. Population and Government (cont’d) • Restrictive population policies e.g., One-Child Policy in China – Limitations: Sweden – Contradictions: © H.J. de Blij Roman CatholicChengdu, China doctrine © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Data from: Population Reference Bureau © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. Additional Resources200 Countries, 200 Years, 4 Minuteshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbkSRLYSojo © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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