Forceps

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Forceps

  1. 1. FORCEPS DELIVERY – An Overview Prof. M.C.Bansal MBBS,MS,MICOG,FICOG Professor OBGY Ex-Principal & Controller Jhalawar Medical College & Hospital Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur.
  2. 2. Introduction • In the last several decades, obstetrics, as a science has undergone phenomenal development with a proper understanding of the entire process of pregnancy & childbirth. • The present day labour management is basically influenced by two factors: – The availability of various modalities of antepartum & postpartum foetal monitoring that gives the obstetrician precise knowledge of the foetal condition, which enables him not only to terminate the pregnancy & labour but also document his decision. – The developments in the fields of anaesthesia, antibiotics, blood transfusion, surgical aids & techniques have made a once dreaded operation - "caesarean section ", very safe to-day.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 2
  3. 3. Introduction • In view of these developments, the expectations of all concerned - patient, relatives, attending doctors & authorities including legal system has undergone a sea change so that a small mishap will be viewed seriously. • In such a scenario, the practicing obstetrician of today is likely to have reservations about using instrumental labour management methods of unpredictable course & outcome. Hence today instrumental deliveries are becoming rarer and rarer. In the last two decades, not only very few developments have taken place in this field, many of the instrumental deliveries have become obsolete. • However in the present day concept of active management of labour , forceps still have their own place and should be considered in suitable cases, particularly in developing countries like India.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 3
  4. 4. History• Earliest mention of instrumental delivery in Vedic era - "Ankush."• Albucasis described forceps with teeth on the inner surface for dead foetus.• WILLIAM CHAMBERLAIN – – Fled from France in 1569 & practiced forceps delivery as a family secret in Southampton. This was kept as a family secret for over 100yrs and four generations. – He had two sons. • Peter I - had greater distinction & attended notable women in society. Was summoned by R.C.P. & Jailed in 1612. He had no sons. • Peter II - who had several sons, died in 1626.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 4
  5. 5. History• Dr Peter III- the most prominent one studied in Cambridge, Oxford, and Padua. Elected a fellow of R.C.P. Died in 1683 in Woodham Mortimer Hall.It is believed that the family treasure was kept buried here, which was latter unearthed in 1813 by the then occupant Mrs.Kembell.• Hugh- had interest in politics, was forced to flee to France, where in 1673 he sold the family secret to Mauriceau. After few years he went to Holland & again sold the secret (only one blade) to Roser Roomhuysen.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 5
  6. 6. History• Hugh (son of Hugh)-who was highly educated and respected had patients from best families including Duke of Buckingham allowed the family secret to leak.• The Chamberlain family used four pairs of forceps of different sizes with only cephalic curve.• Levret (1747)-introduced the pelvic curve• Smellie (1751)- reinforced pelvic curve & introduced English lock and used in aftercoming head.• Tarnier (1877)-introduced axis traction.• Barton and Kjielland - introduced the two specialized forceps.• Since then very few and minor developments have taken place. Moreover since the advent of Vacuum extractor, many of the earlier high forceps applications have become obsolete.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 6
  7. 7. Classification of forceps application• Classical (old) Classification : - – Low/outlet forceps (no distinction): - forceps applied when the foetal head/skull has reached the pelvic floor, sagital suture has reached the A- P diameter of pelvis and scalp is visible without separating the vulva. – Mid forceps: - forceps applied when head is engaged but criteria for low forceps not reached. – High forceps: - forceps applied when head is not engaged.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 7
  8. 8. Classification of forceps applicationNewer classification as per A.C.O.G.1981(revised in 1991):-Low forceps Foetal scalp is visible without separating the vulva Foetal skull has reached the pelvic floor Sagital suture is in the A.P.diameter or in the Lt./Rt. Occiputo anterior/posterior position Rotation does not exceed 45degreesOutlet forceps The leading point of the skull is 2cm or more below the ischeal spine but not on the pelvic floor Sagital suture is in the A.P.diameter or in the Lt./Rt. Occiputo anterior/posterior positionMid forceps The leading point of the skull is 2cm or less above the spine but head is engaged. Rotation not consideredHigh forceps EXCLUDED12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 8
  9. 9. Types of ForcepsSeveral hundred types of forceps have been designed whichcan be classified into various types-.• Classical instruments: -Originally designed by James Young Simpson, Wrigley & George L.Elliot Jr in mid 19th century commonly used for outlet & low pelvic rotational delivery.• Modified classical instruments: -Overlapping solid blades with extended shanks like Tucker-Melane forceps, Elliot type commonly used as mid pelvic rotators or outlet blades. May be occasionally pseudofenestrated like Luikarts modification.• Specialized instruments : -Designed for specific indications like- – Bartons for transverse arrest in platypeloid pelvis, – Keillands for mid pelvic rotation & correction of asynclitism and – Pipers for delivery of Aftercoming head in breech.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 9
  10. 10. Types of ForcepsSeveral hundred types of forceps have been designed whichcan be classified into various types-.• Divergent or parallel blades instrument: -. – Designed to limit foetal cranial compression. Examples -Laufe, Shute & Moolgaoker.• Axis traction instruments: -. – As a separate handle like bills handle to be attached to any standard forceps. – Axis traction as an integral part of the forceps like Howk- Dennons& de Wees forceps.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 10
  11. 11. Functions• Traction: -This is the most important function. Pull required in a primigravida is 18 kgs & in a multipara it is 13 kgs.• Compression effect: -This is minimal when properly applied & should not be more than necessary to grasp the head. However it has some pressure effect on the well-ossified base of the skull.• Rotation of head: -This occurs with the use of Kejillands forceps and also in low forceps cephalic application with the occiput in the 2 or 10 o clock position.• Protective cage: - When applied on a premature baby it protects from the pressure of the birth canal. When applied on the aftercoming head it lessens the sudden decompression effect.• As a vectis: - By applying one blade to deliver the head in caesarean section.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 11
  12. 12. Indications for forceps delivery• Delay in second stage: -. – Due to uterine inertia. – Failure of progress of labour- if no progress occurs for more than 20 to 30 minutes, with the head on the perineum. Definition of prolonged second stage of labour redefined by A.C.O.G. (1988/1991): - – Nullipara- • <3 hrs with regional anaesthesia • <2 hrs without regional anaesthesia – Multipara- • <2 hrs with regional anaesthesia • <1hr without regional anaesthesia12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 12
  13. 13. Indications for forceps delivery• Foetal indications: - – Foetal distress in second stage when prospect of vaginal delivery is safe: - • Abnormal heart rate pattern • Passage of meconium • Abnormal scalp blood ph – Cord prolapse in second stage – Aftercoming head of breech – Low birth wt. Baby – Post maturity12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 13
  14. 14. Indications for forceps delivery• Maternal indication: - – Maternal distress – Pre-eclampsia – Post caesarian pregnancy – Heart diseases – Intra partum infection – Neurological disorders where voluntary efforts are contraindicated or impossible12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 14
  15. 15. Prerequisites (to be fulfilled before forceps application.)• Suitable presentation & position: -. – Vertex, anterior face or aftrcoming head are the ideal positions.• Cervix must be fully dilated.• Membranes must be ruptured.• Baby should be living.• Uterus should be contracting & relaxing.• Bladder must be empty.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 15
  16. 16. Preliminaries (before forceps application )• Documentation: - – All instrumental deliveries should be dictated in medical record as any surgical procedure & it should include: Consent of the patient, indication for operation, anaesthesia, personnel involved, type of instrument, difficulties & remedies, resulting maternal & foetal complications or injuries and blood loss.• Anaesthesia:- – Pudendal block or Labio-perineal infiltration for outlet forceps. – Regional or General anaesthesia for low & mid forceps.• Catheterisation:-• Internal examination: - – To asses the state of cervix & membranes, presentation & position, pelvic outlet, TDO & sub pubic angle.• Episiotomy: - – Should be done either before application of forceps or during traction when the perineum bulges.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 16
  17. 17. Types of application (of forceps blades )• Cephalic application -. – Blades are applied along the sides of the head, grasping the biparietal diameter in between the widest part of the blades and the long axis of the blades correspond to the occiputo-mental plane.• Pelvic application: -. – Blades are applied on the lateral pelvic wall ignoring the position of the head if the head is not rotated. Serious compression effect on the cranium can occur, so it should be avoided. – When the head is sufficiently rotated, pelvic & cephalic applications naturally coincide and so pelvic application is only justified in low forceps operations.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 17
  18. 18. Technique (of low & outlet forceps application )1. Identification of blades & their application- – The instrument should be placed in front of the pelvis with the tip pointing upwards and pelvic curve forwards. First the left blade should be applied guided by the right hand & then the right blade with the left hand.2. Locking of blades: - – The blades should articulate with ease indicting correct application.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 18
  19. 19. Technique (of low & outlet forceps application )3. Clinical checks for correct forceps application: - – Sagital suture lies in the midline of the shanks. – The operator is unable to place more than a fingertip between the fenestration of the blade and the foetal head on either side. – Posterior frontanalle is not more than one finger breadth above the plane of the shanks of the forceps.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 19
  20. 20. Technique (of low & outlet forceps application )4. Traction: - – Steady & intermittent traction to be applied during contraction, first downwards (horizontal), backwards, forwards & lastly upwards. – In outlet forceps - Only two fingers are to be introduced. Traction is applied straight horizontal, upward & then forwards. – Removal of blades - Right blade should be removed first.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 20
  21. 21. Technique (of low & outlet forceps application )5. In Occiputo-posterior position – – Blades are to be applied as usual but they should be equidistant from sinciput & occiput – Traction - Horizontal till the root of the nose is under the pubic symphysis, then upward till the occiput emerges over the perineum & finally downwards.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 21
  22. 22. Technique (of low & outlet forceps application )6. In face presentation- – Blades are to be introduced along the Occiputo-mental diameter. – Traction is applied downwards till the chin appears under the symphysis pubis & then upwards delivering the nose, eyes, brow & occiput.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 22
  23. 23. Technique (of mid forceps application )• Forceps used are - long curved with or without axis traction device & Keilland’s.• Indication - following manual rotation in occiputo posterior position.• General anaesthesia is preferable.• Blades are to be introduced only after manual correction of malposition of occiput.• Traction - same as low forceps without axis traction. With axis traction, the traction rods should remain parallel with the shanks and should be removed when the base of the occiput comes under the symphysis.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 23
  24. 24. Forceps for Aftercoming head• Pipers forceps are specially designed for this purpose.• Forceps to be applied when the occiput lies against the back of the symphysis• Blades to be applied from below after raising the legs.• Traction to be maintained in an arc, which follows the axis of the birth canal.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 24
  25. 25. Keillands forceps application• Indication: - – Can be applied in unrotated vertex / face presentation and for correction of asynclitism.• Application: - – Anterior blade is applied first followed by the posterior blade. – In Wondering method in deep transverse arrest:- The anterior blade is applied over the face and then moved over to the anterior parietal bone. The posterior blade is applied between the head and the sacrum. – Blades also can be applied directly over the parietal bones.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 25
  26. 26. Keillands forceps application • Complication: - – Disengagement of the head may occur leading to cord prolapse. • Scanzoni-Smellie maneuver: - – Twice application. First the posterior blade is applied posteriorly over the posterior ear and then the anterior blade is applied over the anterior ear and head is rotated for 45o towards sacrum or 135 o towards symphysis. Then blades are removed and reapplied. • Traction is applied as per Pajots maneuver: - – Traction is applied horizontally with the right hand while pressing downward with the left hand. • General anaesthesia is necessary.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 26
  27. 27. Complications / DangersComplications/dangers of forceps delivery: - are mostly due to faultytechnique rather than the instrument. • Maternal- – Injury-. • Extension of the episiotomy involving anus & rectum or vaginal vault. • Vaginal lacerations and cervical tear if cervix was not fully dilated. – Post partum haemorrhage –. • Due to trauma, Atonic uterus or Anaesthetisia. – Shock –. • Due to blood loss, dehydration or prolonged labour. – Sepsis –. • Due to improper asepsis or devitalisation of local tissues. – Anaesthetic hazards. – Delayed or long-term sequel –. • Chronic low backache, genital prolapse & stress incontinence.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 27
  28. 28. Complications / DangersComplications/dangers of forceps delivery: - are mostly due tofaulty technique rather than the instrument. • Fetal- – Asphyxia. – Trauma- • Intracranial haemorrhage. • Cephalic haematoma. • Facial / Brachial palsy. • Injury to the soft tissues of face & forehead. • Skull fracture – Remote-cerebral palsy. – Foetal death-around 2%.12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 28
  29. 29. Prophylactic/Elective forcepsIntroduced by Dee Lee (1920), refers to outlet forceps delivery,only to shorten the second stage of labour to preventanticipated maternal or foetal complications in - • Eclampsia • Heart disease • Previous c.s. • Post maturity • Low birth wt babies • During epidural anaesthesia12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 29
  30. 30. Trial Failed forceps forceps• Knowing that a certain • When a vigorous but degree of disproportion at unsuccessful attempt is mid pelvis may make the made with the forceps, procedure incompatible, anticipating a successful forceps delivery. low/mid forceps delivery is • Mostly it is due to lack of attempted, abandoning it at obstetric skill and poor the earliest in favour of clinical judgment Caesarean section. • Factors responsible are-• So it should be done only in Disproportion, Incomplete the O.T., keeping everything cervical dilatation & ready for C.S. malposition of foetal head12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 30
  31. 31. Conclusion• Considering all aspects, forceps delivery has still got a place in modern obstetric practice and should be considered in certain cases.• If performed judiciously by proper selection of cases and careful & timely application, forceps delivery can be useful in reducing not only unnecessary caesarean sections but also foetal & maternal complications due to prolonged labour12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 31
  32. 32. Towards a safe motherhood12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 32

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