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With Regards
 This is being Reproduced for the benefits of
Student.
 Our sincere thanks and warm regards to the
Author o...
Uterus
The uterus in pregnancy
www.udel.edu
cellbio.utmb.edu
Thick layer of
interlacing muscle
fibers
stratum functionalis:
•sloughed off during menstruation and
regenerated each cycle
•grows to 6mm thick in about 10 days
st...
Endometrium
Proliferative phase
Straight glands
Secretory phase
Sacculated glands
Menstrual phase
Disrupted glands
BasalRER
BasalRER
+
A
picalglycogenA
picalglycogen
Q
uiescent
Q
uiescent
Glycogen is produced and secreted cyclically
cellbio.utmb.edu
Proliferative
Secretory
Menstrual
Endometrium
www.endotext.org
Orig. From Noyes RW, Hertig AW, Rock J.
Dating the endometrial biopsy. Fertil Steril 1950; 1:...
Endometrial tissue growing outside uterus
Causes pain as tissue responds to hormones
Can be treated with hormones or surge...
Allows the body to control its fertility by:
• controlling the maturation of oocytes
• altering the readiness of the uteru...
•Menarche – age 9-14
•Onset of menstruation
•Menopause – age 45-55
•Oocytes no longer produced
•Hormone production reduced...
Menstruation
Clinical correlation: Menstruation may cease with anorexia, high
amounts exercise, or hypothalamic disorders....
day:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|___________________________________________________________________
|<--menstrual-->|<------...
anterior pituitary
FSH LH
estrogens
estrogens +
progesterone ovaries
Menstrual Cycle: I
corpus luteum
GnRH
LH
FSH
progesterone
estrogens
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
+
|
|
|
|
|
|
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|
|
|
|
|___________________________________________________________________
|<--menstrual-->|<--------- p...
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
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|
|
|
|
|___________________________________________________________________
|<--menstrual-->|<--------- p...
Charting menstrual cycle
body temp - raises 0.1-0.5 deg in secretory phase (progesterone)
cervical mucus – becomes slipper...
Taking advantage of hormones:
birth control pills – progesterone 50-150ug (& estrogen 20-35ug)
ovulation test – detects LH...
pituitary gland
uterus
ovaries
Menstrual
Cycle: III
Ovaries,
Pituitary,
Uterus
FSH
prolactin
GnRH
oxytocin
LH
progesterone...
Menstrual: Days 1 - 5
– the corpus luteum degenerates
• estrogen and progesterone levels drop
• spiral arteries degenerate...
The ovary: menstrual phase
Low estrogen levels mean
FSH levels rise. In response,
15 -20 primordial follicles
begin to mat...
The Pituitary: menstrual phase
anterior
pituitary
posterior
pituitary
hypothalamus
GnRH
Low levels of
estrogens induce
FSH...
The endometrium: menstrual
phase
Day 28 Day 3 Day 5
Proliferative (follicular): Days 6 - 15
- ovarian follicles develop
- estrogen levels increase
- the endometrium regenerat...
The ovary: proliferative phase
estrogens
At the end of the proliferative
phase, high levels of LH induce
ovulation
Pituitary Gland: proliferative
phase
anterior
pituitary
posterior
pituitary
hypothalamus
GnRH
High levels of estrogen from...
The endometrium: proliferative
phase
Day 10
Secretory (luteal): Days 16-28
– corpus luteum forms, estrogens and progesterone are produced
– the endometrial gland beco...
The ovary: secretory phase
after ovulation, the
remaining follicle cells
form a corpus luteumestrogens +
progesterone
Pituitary Gland: secretory
phase
anterior
pituitary
posterior
pituitary
FSH
hypothalamus
LH
high progesterone levels
inhib...
The endometrium: secretory
phase
Day 25
But what if pregnancy occurs?
hCG
Hormones of pregnancy
corpus luteum
GnRH
LH
FSH
progesterone
estrogens
+
-
-
hCG
X
X
X
+
+
+
+
+
+
The ovary: pregnancy
hCG made by the developing embryo
causes the corpus luteum to continue
making estrogens and progester...
The pituitary Gland: pregnancy
anterior
pituitary posterior
pituitary
FSH
hypothalamus
LH high progesterone levels
inhibit...
The endometrium: pregnanacy
 undergoes decidualization
 is called ‘decidua’
 is a topic for the next lecture
www.snafudesigns.com
Female Reproductive Tract Anomalies 2
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Female Reproductive Tract Anomalies 2

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Female Reproductive Tract Anomalies 2

  1. 1. With Regards  This is being Reproduced for the benefits of Student.  Our sincere thanks and warm regards to the Author of this article, Prof. M.C.Bansal. prof Veena Acharya.
  2. 2. Uterus
  3. 3. The uterus in pregnancy
  4. 4. www.udel.edu cellbio.utmb.edu Thick layer of interlacing muscle fibers
  5. 5. stratum functionalis: •sloughed off during menstruation and regenerated each cycle •grows to 6mm thick in about 10 days stratum basalis: • not sloughed off during menstruation • approximately 1mm thick • Contains bases of glands and blood vessels Endometrium Lutz Slomianka, Univ. West. Australia
  6. 6. Endometrium Proliferative phase Straight glands Secretory phase Sacculated glands Menstrual phase Disrupted glands
  7. 7. BasalRER BasalRER + A picalglycogenA picalglycogen Q uiescent Q uiescent Glycogen is produced and secreted cyclically
  8. 8. cellbio.utmb.edu Proliferative Secretory Menstrual
  9. 9. Endometrium www.endotext.org Orig. From Noyes RW, Hertig AW, Rock J. Dating the endometrial biopsy. Fertil Steril 1950; 1:3 Gland mitoses Pseudostratification of nuclei Basal vacuolation Secretion Stromal edema Pseudodecidual reaction Stromal mitoses Leukocytic proliferation
  10. 10. Endometrial tissue growing outside uterus Causes pain as tissue responds to hormones Can be treated with hormones or surgery
  11. 11. Allows the body to control its fertility by: • controlling the maturation of oocytes • altering the readiness of the uterus for implantation
  12. 12. •Menarche – age 9-14 •Onset of menstruation •Menopause – age 45-55 •Oocytes no longer produced •Hormone production reduced BUT, see: http://www.snopes.com/pregnant/medina.asp
  13. 13. Menstruation Clinical correlation: Menstruation may cease with anorexia, high amounts exercise, or hypothalamic disorders. The amount of body fat is signaled to the hypothalamus by substances such as leptin and insulin, and menstruation will not occur unless some minimal amount of body fat is present. The age of menarche is also affected by the same mechanism. Comparative medicine: Humans ovulate continuously throughout the year, but many mammals ovulate seasonally (during “estrus” – e.g. rats, cats), or only upon sexual stimulation (e.g. ferrets).
  14. 14. day: | | | | | | | | | | | | |___________________________________________________________________ |<--menstrual-->|<--------- proliferative ------->|<-----------|----- secretory -----|------->| 1 5 15 20 25 28 |-ovul.-| |<--implantation-->| http://www.wisc.edu/ansci_repro/
  15. 15. anterior pituitary FSH LH estrogens estrogens + progesterone ovaries
  16. 16. Menstrual Cycle: I corpus luteum GnRH LH FSH progesterone estrogens + + + + + + + - +
  17. 17. | | | | | | | | | | | | |___________________________________________________________________ |<--menstrual-->|<--------- proliferative ------->|<-----------|----- secretory -----|------->| 1 5 15 20 25 28 |-ovul.-| |<--implantation-->| day: estrogensFSH progesteroneLH+ ++ - - estrogens hormonelevels -
  18. 18. | | | | | | | | | | | | |___________________________________________________________________ |<--menstrual-->|<--------- proliferative ------->|<-----------|----- secretory -----|------->| 1 5 15 20 25 28 |-ovul.-| |<--implantation-->| day: Pituitary Corpus Luteum hormonelevels Ovarian Follicle (Placenta) FSH Estrogen LH Estrogen Progesterone hCG
  19. 19. Charting menstrual cycle body temp - raises 0.1-0.5 deg in secretory phase (progesterone) cervical mucus – becomes slippery and stretchable at ovulation calendar method – least effective method
  20. 20. Taking advantage of hormones: birth control pills – progesterone 50-150ug (& estrogen 20-35ug) ovulation test – detects LH surge pregnancy test - hCG
  21. 21. pituitary gland uterus ovaries Menstrual Cycle: III Ovaries, Pituitary, Uterus FSH prolactin GnRH oxytocin LH progesterone estrogens hCG, estrogens, progesterone, etc.
  22. 22. Menstrual: Days 1 - 5 – the corpus luteum degenerates • estrogen and progesterone levels drop • spiral arteries degenerate – the endometrium is sloughed off – FSH is produced
  23. 23. The ovary: menstrual phase Low estrogen levels mean FSH levels rise. In response, 15 -20 primordial follicles begin to mature. The corpus luteum stops producing hormones and degenerates. A corpus albicans forms.
  24. 24. The Pituitary: menstrual phase anterior pituitary posterior pituitary hypothalamus GnRH Low levels of estrogens induce FSH production
  25. 25. The endometrium: menstrual phase Day 28 Day 3 Day 5
  26. 26. Proliferative (follicular): Days 6 - 15 - ovarian follicles develop - estrogen levels increase - the endometrium regenerates - LH is produced - FSH levels drop
  27. 27. The ovary: proliferative phase estrogens At the end of the proliferative phase, high levels of LH induce ovulation
  28. 28. Pituitary Gland: proliferative phase anterior pituitary posterior pituitary hypothalamus GnRH High levels of estrogen from developing ovarian follicles stimulate LH production.
  29. 29. The endometrium: proliferative phase Day 10
  30. 30. Secretory (luteal): Days 16-28 – corpus luteum forms, estrogens and progesterone are produced – the endometrial gland become sacculated and begin to secrete fluid – FSH and LH production is suppressed
  31. 31. The ovary: secretory phase after ovulation, the remaining follicle cells form a corpus luteumestrogens + progesterone
  32. 32. Pituitary Gland: secretory phase anterior pituitary posterior pituitary FSH hypothalamus LH high progesterone levels inhibit LH production. high estrogen levels inhibit FSH production
  33. 33. The endometrium: secretory phase Day 25
  34. 34. But what if pregnancy occurs? hCG
  35. 35. Hormones of pregnancy corpus luteum GnRH LH FSH progesterone estrogens + - - hCG X X X + + + + + +
  36. 36. The ovary: pregnancy hCG made by the developing embryo causes the corpus luteum to continue making estrogens and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy estrogens progesterone
  37. 37. The pituitary Gland: pregnancy anterior pituitary posterior pituitary FSH hypothalamus LH high progesterone levels inhibit LH production. high estrogen levels inhibit FSH production
  38. 38. The endometrium: pregnanacy  undergoes decidualization  is called ‘decidua’  is a topic for the next lecture
  39. 39. www.snafudesigns.com

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