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leaves (senna, eucalyptus, rosemary & sage)

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practical pharmacognosy, 1st year pharmacy students, lab 4 , leaves (senna, eucalyptus, rosemary & sage)

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leaves (senna, eucalyptus, rosemary & sage)

  1. 1. leaves (Senna – Eucalyptus – Rosemary – Sage ) Ph./ Mahmoud Sallam Faculty of pharmacy Al-azhar university.
  2. 2. Contents: I. Senna leaves : ‫السنامكي‬ (morphology, T.S., powder and chemical test). II. Eucalyptus leaves : ‫ر‬‫الكافو‬ (morphology and T.S.). III. Rosemary leaves : ‫ي‬‫مار‬‫ز‬‫و‬‫الر‬ (morphology). IV. Sage leaves : ‫املريمية‬ (morphology).
  3. 3.  Origin: the dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia (Alexandrian senna) & Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna).  Family: Leguminosae (Fabaceae). I. Senna leaves‫سنامكى‬
  4. 4. Green.Color: Cauline.Insertion: Alternate.Phyllotaxis: Stipulate. Leaf base: Stipules : Petiolate.Leaf petiole:  Compound paripinnate.  Lanceolate – ovate.  Mucronate.  Entire.  Asymmetric.  Pinnate reticulate.  Pubescent (hairy).  Papery. Lamina:  Composition:  Shape:  Apex:  Margin:  Base:  Venation:  Surface:  Texture:
  5. 5. 1) Lamina area:  Smooth.  Polygonal cells, having straight walls.  Paracytic.  Non-glandular, unicellular, curved and warty hairs.  May contain mucilage. A. Upper epidermis and lower epidermis:  Cuticle:  Epidermal cells:  Stomata:  Trichomes:  Content:  Isobilateral.  Continuous over midrib region.  Clusters of Ca-ox are scattered in spongy tissue and palisade B. Mesophyll:  Type:  Upper palisade:  Content:
  6. 6. 2) Midrib area:  Formed of polygonal elongated cells.A. Upper epidermis and lower epidermis:  Formed of collenchyma besides the lower epidermis and parenchyma in the other region. B. Cortical tissue:  Formed of xylem to the upper side.  Phloem to the lower side .  Arch of pericyclic fibres below the vascular bundle and a compact mass of fibres above.  The pericycle formed of lignified fibre accompanied by crystal sheath. C. Vascular tissue:  Vascular bundle:  Pericycle:
  7. 7.  Colour: green.  Odour: characteristic.  Taste: bitter mucilagenous.  Main diagnostic elements (M.D.E.): 1. Paracytic stomata. 2. warty hairs: Non-glandular, unicellular, conical with warted walls. 3. cluster crystals of Ca-ox. 4. crystal sheath: lignified fibers surrounded by parenchymatous sheath containing prisms of Ca-Ox.
  8. 8. Warty hair:
  9. 9. Cluster crystals of Ca-Ox:
  10. 10. Crystal sheath:
  11. 11. 1. Anthraquinone derivatives glycosides: a) Dianthrone (Sennasoides A, B, C and D). b) Anthranol (aleo-emodin, and rhein aglycones). 2. Flavonoid: Kaempferol. 3. Mucilage.
  12. 12. Borntraeger’s test: - Boil with 4 ml alcoholic KOH, 2:3 min. - Dilute with water. - Filter. - Acidify with Dil. HCL. - Cool , shake well with 5ml ether or benzene. - Separate the ether or benzene into clean test tube and shake with 2 ml of dilute solution of NH4OH. Rose-red to intense red (with C. acutifolia) , orange color (with C. angustifolia) The aqueous layer. Filtrat e. 0.2 g of the crushed or powdered senna leaf
  13. 13. Modified Borntraeger's test (For dianthrones): - Boil with 4 ml alcoholic KOH, 2:3 min. - Dilute with water. - Filter. - Acidify with Dil. HCL. - Few drops H2O2. - shake well with 5ml ether or benzene. - Separate the ether or benzene into clean test tube and shake with 2 ml of dilute solution of NH4OH. Rose-red to intense red. The aqueous layer. Filtrat e. 0.2 g of the crushed or powdered senna leaf
  14. 14.  Origin: dried leaves of Eucalyptus globulus.  Family: Myrtaceae. II. Eucalyptus leaves ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫و‬ ‫ر‬‫الكافو‬
  15. 15. Dark shining green.Color: Cauline.Insertion: Alternate.Phyllotaxis: Petiolate.Leaf petiole:  Simple.  Lanceolate to Falcate (Sickle-shaped).  Tapering, acuminate.  Entire.  Symmetric.  Pinnate reticulate anastomose near the margin.  Glabrous, glandular with numerous small dots of cork.  Thick and leathery. Lamina:  Composition:  Shape:  Apex:  Margin:  Base:  Venation:  Surface:  Texture:
  16. 16. Mesophyll:. isobilateral
  17. 17.  Origin: dried or fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L.  Family: Labiatae (Lamiaceae) III. Rosemary leaves ‫ي‬‫مار‬‫ز‬‫و‬‫الر‬ ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫و‬
  18. 18. Upper surface: dark green. Lower surface: pale green. Color: Cauline.Insertion: Whorled.Phyllotaxis: Sessile .Leaf petiole:  Simple.  Linear folded inward along the margins (revolute).  Obtuse.  Entire.  Decurrent.  Pinnate reticulate.  Leathery. Lamina:  Composition:  Shape:  Apex:  Margin:  Base:  Venation:  Texture:
  19. 19.  Origin: dried leaves of Salvia officinalis.  Family: Labiatae (Lamiaceae) IV. Sage leaves ‫املريمية‬ ‫ق‬‫ر‬‫و‬
  20. 20. Grayish-green.Color: Cauline.Insertion: Opposite.Phyllotaxis: Petiolate.Leaf petiole:  Simple.  Oblong to ovate.  Acute to Mucronate.  Crenulate.  Symmetric.  Pinnate reticulate.  Wrinkled.  Papery. Lamina:  Composition:  Shape:  Apex:  Margin:  Base:  Venation:  Surface:  Texture:
  21. 21. Ph./ Mahmoud Sallam

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