10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER

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A talk sponsored by the MIT Postdoctoral Association with support from the Office of the Vice President for Research.

In the rapidly changing world of research and scholarly communications researchers are faced with a rapidly growing range of options to publicly disseminate, review, and discuss research—options which will affect their long-term reputation. Junior scholars must be especially thoughtful in choosing how much effort to invest in dissemination and communication, and what strategies to use.

In this talk, I briefly discuss a number of review of bibliometric and scientometric studies of quantitative research impact, a sampling of influential qualitative writings advising this area, and an environmental scan of emerging researcher profile systems. Based on this review, and on professional experience on dozens of review panels, I suggest some steps junior researchers may consider when disseminating their research and participating in public review and discussion.

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  • 5 Minutes
  • 5 Minutes
  • - Who is that dashing fellow?
  • - Who is that dashing fellow?
  • - Who is that dashing fellow?
  • Google scholar is quite limited both in journal covered by metrics and in metrics available
  • Self Citation
    Acts as impact enforcement, not illegitimate [van Raan 2008]
    Collaboration – collaborations are responsible for disproportionate portion of impact [Wuchty, et al. 2007]
    Regularity – strong association between part of very high impact group and publishing t least 3 times/year [Ionnadis, et al 2014]
    Open access associated with higher citations:
    Generally associated with higher citations [Eyesenback, 2006; Norris, et al. 2008]
    For a possible interaction with higher impact, see journals [Koler-Povh, et al 2014]
    Open access publishing of ETD’s does not obstruct publication as a print book (based on publisher surveys) [Seamsns 2013]
    Sharing data
    See CODATA 2013 for a review
    Citation measures one type of use
    Downloads are imperfectly correlated with citations, typically much larger, vary by discipline [Bollen et al 2005, Gorraiz et al., 2013]
    Applied research impact correlates only weakly with journal impact [Sutherland, et al. 2011]
    Clear Titles
    Papers with compound titles more highly cited [Fatemah, et al 2014]
    Pleasant titles and mild humor is ok, but avoid primarily humrous titles [Sagi & Yechiam 2008]
    Clear Keywords and Abstract
    Papers with keywords distinct from titles more highly cited [Fatemah, et al 2014]

    Mainstream social meaia
    See Bornman 2014a,b on value of twitter for measuring complementary impact
  • 5 Minutes
  • 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER

    1. 1. Prepared for Postdoctoral Association Invited Talk --MIT September 2014 (Updated 9/17) 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER Dr. Micah Altman <escience@mit.edu> Director of Research, MIT Libraries Non-Resident Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
    2. 2. The MIT libraries provide support for all researchers at MIT: • Research consulting, including: bibliographic information management; literature searches; subject-specific consultation • Data management, including: data management plan consulting; data archiving; metadata creation • Data acquisition and analysis, including: database licensing; statistical software training; GIS consulting, analysis & data collection • Scholarly publishing: open access publication & licensing libraries.mit.edu 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    3. 3. DISCLAIMER These opinions are my own, they are not the opinions of MIT, Brookings, any of the project funders, nor (with the exception of co-authored previously published work) my collaborators Secondary disclaimer: “It’s tough to make predictions, especially about the future!” -- Attributed to Woody Allen, Yogi Berra, Niels Bohr, Vint Cerf, Winston Churchill, Confucius, Disreali [sic], Freeman Dyson, Cecil B. Demille, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Edgar R. Fiedler, Bob Fourer, Sam Goldwyn, Allan Lamport, Groucho Marx, Dan Quayle, George Bernard Shaw, Casey Stengel, Will Rogers, M. Taub, Mark Twain, Kerr L. White, etc. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    4. 4. Related Publications • Smith, Yoshimura, Karen, M. Altman, et al, Registering Researchers in Authority Files, OCLC [Forthcoming] • Allen, Liz, Amy Brand, Jo Scott, Micah Altman, and Marjorie Hlava. "Credit where credit is due." Nature 508 (2014): 312-313. • CODATA Data Citation Task Group (Altman M, Arnaud E, Borgman C, Callaghan S, Brase J, Carpenter T, Chavan V, Cohen D, Hahnel M, Helly J.) Out of Cite, Out of Mind: The Current State of Practice, Policy and Technology for Data Citation. Data Science Journal . 2013;12:1–75 • Altman, Micah, and Mercè Crosas. "The Evolution of Data Citation: From Principles to Implementation." IASSIST Quarterly (2013): 63. • IWCSA Report (2012). Report on the International Workshop on Contributorship and Scholarly Attribution, May 16, 2012. Harvard University and the Wellcome Trust. • http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/attribution_workshop • Altman, Micah, and Gary King. "A proposed standard for the scholarly citation of quantitative data." D-lib 13, no. 3 (2007): 5. • Altman Micah, Simon Jackman. Nineteen Ways of Looking at Statistical Software. Journal Of Statistical Software . 2011;42:1–12. • Altman, Micah. "Funding, Funding." PS: Political Science & Politics 42, no. 03 (2009): 521-526. Reprints available from: informatics.mit.edu 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    5. 5. Perspectives * Foundations * * Third Person * * Second Person * * First Person * * Self-Experimentation * 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    6. 6. First Principles* for a successful career as a researcher* *Aka, building blocks . 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    7. 7. The Basics Choice Chance Heredity Environment 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    8. 8. Particular things that help in general…  Positive affectivity skills/strengths  Metacognition skills/strengths  Executive function skills/strengths  Character strengths  Talents  Social cognition skills/strengths  Collaboration skills  Negotiation skills  People management skills  Written communication  Verbal communication  Project management  Marketing  Social & professional network support  Personal resources  Strategic planning  Effortful practice  Exercise  Diet  Sleep  Personal relationships  Stress management  Internal motivation  Iteration  Feedback  Self-monitoring 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    9. 9. A Sample of Specialize Academic Skills Influenced by General Strengths • Giving a job talk • Giving an invited talk • Surviving in a job interview • Critiquing / reviewing scholarly work • Contributing to university committees • Teaching • Managing a research project • Preparing a grant proposal • Preparing a scientific article • Preparing a book proposal • Data management • Responding to reviews • Mentoring postdocs • Scholarly communication skills and approaches • Running a workshop • Starting a company • Leading a scientific community • Editing a journal • Chairing a panel • Co-authoring on a paper • Collaborating in a research group … 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    10. 10. Many Skills are Not Taught • Success in research and the academy draws on a variety of skills, traits and resources. • Some skills are explicitly taught and developed in academic training, e.g.: domain skills, research methodology • Some skills, typically those that are particularly ‘academic’ but not part of a specific discipline, may be transmitted, implicitly through modeling, and mentorships • Some academic skills neither taught nor modeled, and many valuable skills may be viewed as external to the research enterprise 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    11. 11. Zooming In… (Almost all) of the rest of the talk will focus on scholarly communication & impact… 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    12. 12. Third Person Perspective*: Observations from Scientometrics *Possibly objective, certainly not omniscient. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    13. 13. ‘Impact’ Factors: Overview What are impact factors? • Descriptive statistics • Usually based on citations • Commonly treated as a proxy for the level of influence of an article, person, or journal Common measures • ISI Journal Impact Factor: The frequency with which the “average article” has been cited in a particular year. It is based on the most recent two years of citations. It is only supplied for journals indexed by ISI in the Web of Science. • Article Citation Count: Total number of citations received from other articles to target article. • H-Index: The maximum number of articles h such that each has received at least h citations libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/publishing/impact-factors/ 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    14. 14. Author Impact: Example – Google Scholar 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    15. 15. Author Impact: Example – Web of Science 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    16. 16. Author Impact: Example – Web of Science 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    17. 17. Journal Impact: Example – Scopus 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    18. 18. Journal Impact: Database Comparison Google Scholar Scopus Web of Science Journals Covered Top 100 ranked in each language Mostly english-language Many (selected) Journals Metrics H5 Median Many Impact factor, Many others Visualization No Yes Yes Longitudinal analysis No Yes Yes Discipline Rankings No No Yes 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    19. 19. Sharing, Collaboration, Clarity Likely Improve Impact • Collaboration/team science increases impact • Open access associated with substantially higher citations • Self Citation in moderation is associated with reinforced impact • Sharing data is associated with higher citation rates • Publishing regularly is associated with much higher impact • Citation measures only one type of use – you can collect evidence and measure others • Use clear, titles, and meaningful keywords and abstracts • Mainstream social media, especially twitter, can indicate broader use 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    20. 20. Not-so-positive findings 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER Daniel Schectman’s Lab Notebook Providing Initial Evidence of Quasi Crystals • Null results are less likely to be submitted and published  submit all your results • Publication bias leads to overestimates of effects/significance in many fields • Many data sharing and replication policies are not followed  share even when you are not forced to • Good science may not pass peer review be persistent • Much research is not replicable  make yours replicable • Many publications are not cited • Multidisciplinary work less cited • Edited volumes are not well cited  think carefully about publication venue, significance of research • Retraction rates in scientific journals have substantially increased • Author order is overemphasized in evaluation  discuss authorship early, use other ways of describing contributions and distributing credit • Delays in peer-review, and publishing are frequent, and important  track your submissions, and politely, but actively manage delays • Not enough time spent on research  develop a research habit, and build research in your schedule
    21. 21. Limitations of data 1. Citation differs systematically from sharing, reading, or ‘use’ 2. Relationships signaled by citation are heterogenous: citations may indicate evidentiary support, definitions, disagreement, kudos,… 3. Cited objects are heterogenous – e.g. journals include letters, comments, reviews and original research 4. Databases may have limited or inconsistent coverage of publishers, fields, years, or types of publications (e.g. conference proceedings), types of objects (databases, software, books, articles), language, journal size 5. Some types of objects such as software and data, are often used without being cited 6. Much of the scientific research based on study of single field or scientific community {See for a review CODATA 2013, Cameron 2005] Limitations of measures 6. Levels and change in measures vary across fields, disciplines – cross disciplinary comparison is difficult, normalization necessary. 7. Most measures are vulnerable to manipulation by groups of actors 8. Measures are typically presented as is they were population descriptive statistics -- without any estimate of uncertainty 9. Although self-stability of measures is relatively high [for H-index, see Hirsch 2007], prediction validity of measures such as journal impact measure and h-index [Perez 2012; Penner et al 2013] is lower 10. Cross-predictive validity is much lower for h-index [Bollen et al 2009; Schreiber 2013], other measures 11. Most measures are descriptive estimates – they are not forecasting or causal inferences 12. Few studies of the external validity of measures 12. Rankings induced by indices may change in counterintuitive ways over time when relative performance remains stable [Ludo & Eck 2012] 13. Few studies on error and bias in estimators 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    22. 22. Second Person* Perspectives * Second person, but first rate -- we’ve read dozens of academic advice books, so you don’t have to. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    23. 23. From 10 Simple Rules … Graduate Students • Share your scientific success with the world Postdoctoral Positions • Negotiate first authorship before you start. Getting Published • If you do not write well in the English language, take lessons early • Become a reviewer early in your career. • Decide early on where to try to publish your paper. • Quality (of journals) is everything. Building Reputation • Think Before You Act • Do not ignore criticism • Do not ignore people • Diligently check everything you publish • Always declare conflicts of interest • Do your share for the community • Do not commit to tasks you cannot complete • Do not write poor reviews • Do not write references for people who do not deserve it • Never plagiarize, or doctor your data Bourne, Philip E. "Ten simple rules for getting published." PLoS computational biology 1, no. 5 (2005): e57.; Gu, Jenny, and Philip E. Bourne. "Ten simple rules for graduate students." PLoS computational biology 3.11 (2007): e229.; Bourne, Philip E., and Virginia Barbour. "Ten simple rules for building and maintaining a scientific reputation." PLoS computational biology 7, no. 6 (2011): e1002108. Bourne, Philip E., and Iddo Friedberg. "Ten simple rules for selecting a postdoctoral position." PLoS computational biology 2, no. 11 (2006): e121. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    24. 24. From A Ph.D. is Not Enough! Establish a research program: • “no technical skill is worth knowing how to select exciting research projects” • Find a theme to your work that is compelling to you and interesting to others • Timing is everything; consider what you will have finished, when, and its future value • Finish some things • Make yourself useful Peter J. Feibelman, A Ph.D. is Not Enough. Basic Books. 1993, 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    25. 25. From The Chicago Guide to Your Academic Career • Divide your research into publishable segments • Aim for top journals in your field but be realistic in matching the quality and impact of your work with journal standards • Ensure that the title and abstract of your article provide an informative summary of the content of the manuscript • Provide comprehensive and fair coverage of the relevant literature • Pay attention to the ethics of authorship Goldsmith, John A., John Komlos, and Penny Schine Gold. The Chicago guide to your academic career: A portable mentor for scholars from graduate school through tenure. University of Chicago Press, 2010. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    26. 26. From Survive and Thrive • Overarching questions for building reputation: • In what ways can you be strategic about making yourself visible? • Have you identified strategies that you are comfortable pursuing? • Can you work with your mentors to identify ways to improve visibility in positive ways? Crone, Wendy C. "Survive and thrive: A guide for untenured faculty." Synthesis Lectures on Engineering 5, no. 1 (2010): 1-125. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    27. 27. From Marketing for Scientists • Everything you get from other people comes because it satisfies their needs or desires • Marketing is the craft of seeing things from other perspectives, understanding others’ wants and needs, finding ways to meet them • Manage your marketing funnel – converting people who never heard of you -> know your work -> collaborators -> advocates • Develop your brand & signature research idea • If you can’t be first in a category, set up a new category you can be first in Kuchner, Marc J. Marketing for scientists: how to shine in tough times. Island Press, 2011. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    28. 28. From How to Succeed as a Scientist • When to publish? – As soon as possible after main body of work is completed. • Where to publish? – Target your preferred readers. – Consider impact factors. • What to publish? – Be selective – Consider order of authorship Langdale, Jane A. How to Succeed as a Scientist. Cambridge University Press, 2011. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    29. 29. First Person Perspective* * First Person Voice: Stream of consciousness, possibly unreliable narrator 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    30. 30. First Person: Quasi-Academic Bona-Fides • H-Index: 18 (by google-scholar) • Publications: 65+ (not all peer-reviewed) • Software packages: 6+ (0 patents) • Citations 970 (generously inclusive) • Grant funding to date: > $10M (not all as PI) • Awards, honors: a few (for policy impact, not NAS, etc.) • Awards committees: some • Other committees: too many • Invited talks: dozens • Editorial boards: a few (not chief editor) • Grant review panels: tons (mostly NIH) • External reviewer - # of journals: tons • Grad students advised: 1 • Post-docs advised: 11 (quasi-officially) • Courses developed: 12+ (most short-courses) • Klout Score: 76 (< 400 Twitter followers) • Erdos #: 4 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    31. 31. Idiosyncratic* Recommendations for Scholarly Communications • Identify and use opportunities to communicate: – Accept invited talks, where practical – Announce when you will be speaking, teaching – Share your presentations, writings, and data • Create a scholarly identity – Obtain an ORCID, domain name, twitter handle, LinkeIn profile, Google Scholar profile – Create a short bio and longer CV – Develop a research theme, and signature idea • Communicate broadly – Publish writings as Open Access when possible – Publish data and software as open data and open source – Use social media (LinkedIN, Twitter) to announce new publications, teaching, speaking • Develop communications skills early – Take writing lessons early – Take public speaking lessons early • Monitor your impact – Monitor news, citation, social media metrics, and altmetrics that reflect the impact of your work – Keep records – Do this systematically, regularly, but not reactively or obsessively • Focus on Clarity and Significance – Do research that is important to you and that you think is important to the world – When writing about your research, work to maximize clarity – including in abstracts, titles, and citations • Give credit generously – Cite software you use – Cite data on which your analyses rely – Don’t be afraid to cite your own work – Discuss authorship early, and document contributions publicly * Based in part on formal research, in part on experience… 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    32. 32. Unsorted & Unsolicited Advice • Do research that is important to you and that you think is important to the world (repeated, for emphasis) • Manage your research program – find a core theme, a signature idea, and regularly review comparative strengths, comparative weaknesses, timely opportunities and future threats • Collaborate with people you respect, and like working with, start with small steps • Take a positive and sustained interest in the work and career of others, this is the foundation of professional networking • Make a moderate, but systematic effort to understand and monitor the institutions within which your work is embedded. • Identify your core strengths. Build a career around those. • Identify the weaknesses that are continual stumbling blocks. Make them good enough. • Pay attention to your world: exercise, sleep, diet, stress, relationships • Don’t manage your time – manage your life: know your values, choose your priorities, monitor your progress • Align your career with your core values 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    33. 33. Self-Experimentation: 10 Simple Steps* *Question: How do you tell an extroverted researcher? Answer: When she talks, she looks down at your shoes. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    34. 34. Self Experimentation*: 10 Simple Steps Identify yourself -- register for: 1. An identifier – ORCID 2. Information hubs: ORCID; LinkedIN; your own domain name  forward to LinkedIN ; Slideshare 3. Communication channels: twitter, LinkedIN Describe yourself 4. Write and share a 1-paragraph bio 5. Describe your research program in 2 paragraph 6. Create a CV [Post these on your LinkedIn and ORCID profiles] Share 7. Share (on Twitter & LinkedIN) news about something you did or published; an upcoming event in which you will participate; interesting news and publications in your field 8. Make writing; data; publication; software available as Open Access (through your institutional repository, SlideShare, FigShare, Dataverse) Monitor …check and record these things regularly, but not too frequently (once a month) -- and no need to react or adjust immediately 9. Set up tracking– google scholar, google alert, 10. Find your klout schore, H-index, 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER *Question: How do you tell an extroverted researcher? Answer: When she talks, she looks down at your shoes.
    35. 35. Tools • Google Scholar: Profiles, H-Index, New Publication Alerts – scholar.google.com – Choose: Create an account • Google Alert: tracking mentions on the web – www.google.com/alerts • ORCID: A persistent unique identifier for you; a place for your profile – orcid.org/register • Publish or perish: Personal impact metrics galore – www.harzing.com/pop.htm • Klout: Social impact measures – klout.com • Altmetric bookmarklet: Scholarly altmetrics on recent paper for free – /www.altmetric.com/bookmarklet.php For more bibliometric tools and data see: informatics.mit.edu/classes/overview-citation-analysis 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    36. 36. Recommended Readings Academic Career Guidance • • Crone, Wendy C. Survive and thrive: A guide for untenured faculty. Morgan Claypool, 2010. • Feibelman, Peter J., A Ph.D. is Not Enough. Basic Books. 1993, • Goldsmith, John A., J. Komlos, and P.S. Gold. The Chicago guide your academic career. University of Chicago Press, 2010. • Kuchner, Marc J. Marketing for scientists: how to shine in tough times. Island Press, 2011. • Langdale, Jane A. How to Succeed as a Scientist. Cambridge University Press, 2011. • PLOS, Ten Simple Rules Collection: bit.ly/PLOSTEN Scholarly writing and proposals • • Yang, Otto Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant Application, Springer 2005. • Thompson, Waddy, Complete Idiot’s Guide to Grant Writing, Alpha 2007. • Altman, Micah. "Funding, Funding." PS: Political Science & Politics 42, no. 03 (2009): 521-526. • Luey, Beth. Handbook for academic authors (5th ed). Cambridge University Press, 2009. • Hartley, James. Academic writing and publishing: A practical handbook. Routledge, 2008. Communication • Williams, Joseph M. 2009. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace, Longman • Campbell, K., Huxman, S.S. Rhetorical Act: Thinking, Speaking and • Cialdini, Robert B. "Influence: The psychology of persuasion." (1993). • Dixit, Avinash K. Thinking strategically: The competitive edge in business, politics, and everyday life. WW Norton & Company, 1991. • Hale-Evans, Ron. 2006. Mind Performance Hacks, O’Reilly Publications. • Highsmith, Jim. Agile Project Management, Addison-Wesley, 2004. • Jain, Ravi , Triandis, H. C., & Weick, C. W. (2010). Managing research, development and innovation: Managing the unmanageable (Vol. 35). John Wiley & Sons. • Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking, fast and slow. Macmillan, 2011. • Nalebuff, Barry, and I. Ayres, 2003. Why Not?, Harvard Business School Press. • Peterson, Christopher. A primer in positive psychology. Oxford University Press, 2006. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    37. 37. References • Allen, Liz, Amy Brand, Jo Scott, Micah Altman, and Marjorie Hlava. "Credit where credit is due." Nature 508 (2014): 312-313. • Altman Micah, Simon Jackman. Nineteen Ways of Looking at Statistical Software. Journal Of Statistical Software . 2011;42:1–12. • Altman, Micah, and Gary King. "A proposed standard for the scholarly citation of quantitative data." D-lib 13, no. 3 (2007): 5. • Altman, Micah, and Mercè Crosas. "The Evolution of Data Citation: From Principles to Implementation." IASSIST Quarterly (2013): 63. • Altman, Micah. "Funding, Funding." PS: Political Science & Politics 42, no. 03 (2009): 521-526. • Bishop, D. (2012) 'How to Bury Your Academic Writing'. http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2012/08/29/how-to-bury- your-academic-writing/ • Bollen, Johan, et al. "Toward alternative metrics of journal impact: A comparison of download and citation data." Information Processing & Management 41.6 (2005): 1419-1440. • Bollen, Johan, Herbert Van de Sompel, Aric Hagberg, and Ryan Chute. "A principal component analysis of 39 scientific impact measures." PloS one 4, no. 6 (2009): e6022. • Bornmann, Lutz. "Alternative metrics in scientometrics: A meta-analysis of research into three altmetrics." arXiv preprint arXiv:1407.8010 (2014). • Bornmann, Lutz. "Which kind of papers has higher or lower altmetric counts? A study using article-level metrics from PLOS and F1000Prime." arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.2863 (2014). • Brembs, Björn, Katherine Button, and Marcus Munafò. "Deep impact: unintended consequences of journal rank." Frontiers in human Neuroscience 7 (2013). • Cameron, Brian D. "Trends in the usage of ISI bibliometric data: Uses, abuses, and implications." portal: Libraries and the Academy 5, no. 1 (2005): 105-125. • CODATA Data Citation Task Group (Altman M, Arnaud E, Borgman C, Callaghan S, Brase J, Carpenter T, Chavan V, Cohen D, Hahnel M, Helly J.) Out of Cite, Out of Mind: The Current State of Practice, Policy and Technology for Data Citation. Data Science Journal . 2013;12:1–75 • CODATA Data Citation Task Group (Altman M, Arnaud E, Borgman C, Callaghan S, Brase J, Carpenter T, Chavan V, Cohen D, Hahnel M, Helly J.) Out of Cite, Out of Mind: The Current State of Practice, Policy and Technology for Data Citation. Data Science Journal . 2013;12:1–75 • David J. Samuels. The modal number of citations to political science articles is greater than zero: Accounting for citations in articles and books. PS: Political Science and Politics, 44:783–792, 2011 • Einav, Liran, and Leeat Yariv. "What's in a surname? The effects of surname initials on academic success." The Journal of Economic Perspectives (2006): 175-188. • Eysenbach, Gunther. "Citation advantage of open access articles." PLoS biology 4, no. 5 (2006): e157. • Fanelli, Daniele. "Negative results are disappearing from most disciplines and countries." Scientometrics 90, no. 3 (2012): 891-904. • Franco, Annie, Neil Malhotra, and Gabor Simonovits. 2014. "Publication Bias in the Social Sciences: Unlocking the File Drawer." Science. • Gans, Joshua S. and George B. Shepherd. How are the mighty fallen: Rejected classic articles by leading economists. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(1):165–179, 1994. • García-Pérez, Miguel A. "Limited validity of equations to predict the future h index." Scientometrics 96, no. 3 (2013): 901-909. • Ginther, Donna K., Walter T. Schaffer, Joshua Schnell, Beth Masimore, Faye Liu, Laurel L. Haak, and Raynard Kington. "Race, ethnicity, and NIH research awards." Science 333, no. 6045 (2011): 1015-1019. • Gorraiz, Juan, Christian Gumpenberger, and Christian Schlögl. "Usage versus citation behaviours in four subject areas." Scientometrics: 1-19. 2014. • Greenberg D, Rosen AB, Olchanski NV, Stone PW, Nadai J, Neumann PJ. Delays in publication of cost utility analyses conducted alongside clinical trials: registry analysis. BMJ 2004;328: 1536-7. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    38. 38. References (Continued) • Hamilton, David P. Research papers: Who’s uncited now?”. Science, 251(25), 1991. • Hirsch, Jorge E. "Does the h index have predictive power?." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 49 (2007): 19193-19198. • Hopewell, Sally, et al. "Publication bias in clinical trials due to statistical significance or direction of trial results." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1.1 (2009). • Hopewell, Sally, Kirsty Loudon, Mike J. Clarke, Andrew D. Oxman, and Kay Dickersin. "Publication bias in clinical trials due to statistical significance or direction of trial results." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, no. 1 (2009). • Hurtado, Sylvia, Kevin Eagan, John H. Pryor, Hannah Whang, and Serge Tran. "Undergraduate teaching faculty: The 2010-2011 HERI faculty survey." Higher Education Research Institute: University of California, Los Angeles (2012). • Ioannidis JPA. Effect of the statistical significance of results on the time to completion and publication of randomized efficacy trials. JAMA 1998;279: 281-6. • Ioannidis, John PA, Kevin W. Boyack, and Richard Klavans. "Estimates of the Continuously Publishing Core in the Scientific Workforce." PloS one 9, no. 7 (2014): e101698. • Ioannidis, John PA, Kevin W. Boyack, and Richard Klavans. "Estimates of the Continuously Publishing Core in the Scientific Workforce." PloS one 9, no. 7 (2014): e101698. • IWCSA Report (2012). Report on the International Workshop on Contributorship and Scholarly Attribution, May 16, 2012. Harvard University and the Wellcome Trust. • Koler-Povh, Teja, Primož Južnič, and Goran Turk. "Impact of open access on citation of scholarly publications in the field of civil engineering." Scientometrics 98, no. 2 (2014): 1033-1045. • Levitt, Jonathan M., and Mike Thelwall. "Is multidisciplinary research more highly cited? A macrolevel study." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no. 12 (2008): 1973-1984. • Norris, Michael, Charles Oppenheim, and Fytton Rowland. "The citation advantage of open‐access articles." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no. 12 (2008): 1963-1972. • Penner, Orion, Raj K. Pan, Alexander M. Petersen, Kimmo Kaski, and Santo Fortunato. "On the predictability of future impact in science." Scientific reports 3 (2013). • Peters, Douglas P., and Stephen J. Ceci. "Peer-review practices of psychological journals: The fate of published articles, submitted again."Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5, no. 02 (1982): 187-195. • Rostami, Fatemeh, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, and Mohammad Hajizadeh. "The effect of characteristics of title on citation rates of articles." Scientometrics98, no. 3 (2014): 2007-2010. • Sagi, Itay, and Eldad Yechiam. "Amusing titles in scientific journals and article citation." Journal of Information Science 34, no. 5 (2008): 680-687. • Schreiber, Michael. "How relevant is the predictive power of the< i> h</i>- index? A case study of the time-dependent Hirsch index." Journal of Informetrics 7, no. 2 (2013): 325-329. • Seamans, Nancy H. "Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Social Sciences and Humanities?." College & Research Libraries (2013). • Smith, Yoshimura, Karen, M. Altman, et al, Registering Researchers in Authority Files, OCLC [Forthcoming] • Sutherland, William J., David Goulson, Simon G. Potts, and Lynn V. Dicks. "Quantifying the impact and relevance of scientific research." PloS one 6, no. 11 (2011): e27537. • van Raan, Anthony FJ. "Self‐citation as an impact‐reinforcing mechanism in the science system." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59, no. 10 (2008): 1631-1643. • Waltman, Ludo, and Nees Jan Van Eck. "The inconsistency of the h‐index."Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 63.2 (2012): 406-415. • Wuchty, Stefan, Benjamin F. Jones, and Brian Uzzi. "The increasing dominance of teams in production of knowledge." Science 316, no. 5827 (2007): 1036-1039. 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    39. 39. Online Advice Where to go: • Stack Exchange: academia.stackexchange.com • Quora: quora.com/Academia • Reddit: reddit.com/r/academia • Chronicle of Higher Ed. chronicle.com/forums/ • Ph.D. Comics phdcomics.com/ What to do: 1. Do not be afraid to ask 2. State the question clearly 3. Use a clear title 4. Learn the customs 5. Do your homework 6. Proofread 7. Be courteous More: Dall'Olio GM, Marino J, Schubert M, Keys KL, Stefan MI, et al. (2011) Ten Simple Rules for Getting Help from Online Scientific Communities. PLoS Comput Biol 7(9): e1002202. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002202 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER
    40. 40. Questions? E-mail: escience@mit.edu Web: informatics.mit.edu 10 SIMPLE STEPS TO BUILDING A REPUTATION AS A RESEARCHER, IN YOUR EARLY CAREER

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