Mall Pedagogy
        Kurt Love, Ph.D.
 Central Connecticut State University
            EDSC 425
*Born to Shop*

Are we born “shoppers” or is shopping a learned
behavior?
How do we “learn” to shop?
How do we “teach” sho...
Mainstream Curriculum

What is the mainstream curriculum of the mall?
  Goals?
  Objectives?
  Activities?
Mainstream Curriculum of the Mall
  Who are the designers of the mall curriculum?
    Corporations?
    Advertisers?
    Z...
Professor Capitalism Says...
 Corporations and businesses gain the largest profit
 when the consumer associates pleasure w...
“Booby” Trap
“Booby” Trap


Bikini Baristas
Professor Capitalism Says...
 Fortunate for the pleasure-doling businesses, pleasure
 comes in countless forms.
 Major sou...
Mainstream Mall Curriculum
  What are the clear messages of the mall curriculum
  for the docile consumer?
    Shopping is...
“Hidden Curriculum” of the Mall
What are the implicit messages of the mainstream
curriculum of the mall?
  Pleasures teach...
Null Curriculum

What are the messages that the mainstream
curriculum of the mall does not want its
consumer/learners to k...
Null Curriculum
Pleasures sell & make lots of money for a few people
Those few people rely on the consumers to want “tradi...
Shop or Revolt?
   Will people really be inclined to work for social,
      cultural, and ecological change if they...
  h...
Credit Card + Mall = Democratically Flaccid
Give them a credit card, and you can be sure that they
won’t seriously challen...
Null Curriculum

What about those pesky tags showing where the
product was made?
Zoned for Slavery
Story of Stuff
Professor Capitalism Says...

 The purpose of education is to make the economy
 strong
 The purpose of education is to mak...
What is the Mainstream
            Curriculum?
                Education is a moral right.
             Education is a pat...
Traditional Pedagogy
•   Historically that which has been the content of
    the traditional curricula and teaching practi...
Purposes of Education


What are the purposes of education in the U.S.?
Purposes of Education
       Different pedagogies serve different purposes:
Exposing Patriarchy                  Feminist ...
Hidden Curriculum of
        Traditional Pedagogy
Anthropocentrism - Centering humans and
human activities in the absence ...
Hidden Curriculum of
       Traditional Pedagogy
Sexism - Male as the dominant sex, holding the
positions of power and imp...
Hidden Curriculum of
        Traditional Pedagogy
Corporatism/Capitalism - Uncritical views
of capitalism and corporate pr...
Hidden Curriculum of
        Traditional Pedagogy
Religionism - Promotion of Christianity and
especially Christian values,...
Hidden Curriculum in a
         Teacher’s Practice
                    Heterosexism
               Sexism           Naturi...
Religionism Militarism       Anthropocentrism



                                                     Traditional Teaching...
Religionism Militarism       Anthropocentrism



                                                   Traditional Teaching
 ...
Learning Models &
           Practice
•   Learning is a change in the intellectual
    structure of a person’s mind.

•   ...
Hidden Curriculum in a
  Teacher’s Practice
 What did did you learnschool today, dear little boyboy mine?
   What you lear...
Learning Models &
            Practice
•   Learning is a process that occurs in a social context where
    the teacher and...
Transformational Learning
•   To what extent does Kolb’s definition of transformative
    learning incorporate sociocultura...
Student Empowerment
• How are students empowered in
  transformational or transformative
  learning?
 •   Critically quest...
Transformative Teaching
                                       Reading the World

                                        ...
Learning Models &
           Practice
•   Learning is a change in the intellectual
    structure of a person’s mind.

•   ...
Religionism Militarism       Anthropocentrism

            Classism

    Heterosexism
                      Sexism
       ...
Transformative Teaching
                                             Reading the World

                                  ...
Transformative Teaching
                                           Reading the World

                                    ...
Transformative Teaching
                                             Reading the World

                                  ...
Learning Models &
            Practice
•   Learning is a process that occurs in a social context where
    the teacher and...
Null Curriculum
•   What are the pieces of the mainstream curriculum
    that are meant to be silenced?

    •   Science a...
Your Turn
•   Write a set of 5 questions that a teacher would ask
    her/his students if she/he was operating with the
  ...
Your Turn

•   Write a set of 5 questions of a teacher who uses the
    following learning theories:
     •   Learning is ...
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Mall Learning

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The mall serves as a metaphor for us to see hidden curriculum and null curriculum in education

Published in: Education, Spiritual

Mall Learning

  1. 1. Mall Pedagogy Kurt Love, Ph.D. Central Connecticut State University EDSC 425
  2. 2. *Born to Shop* Are we born “shoppers” or is shopping a learned behavior? How do we “learn” to shop? How do we “teach” shopping?
  3. 3. Mainstream Curriculum What is the mainstream curriculum of the mall? Goals? Objectives? Activities?
  4. 4. Mainstream Curriculum of the Mall Who are the designers of the mall curriculum? Corporations? Advertisers? Zoning boards? Town Councils? Consumers? Westerners?
  5. 5. Professor Capitalism Says... Corporations and businesses gain the largest profit when the consumer associates pleasure with the product. Thus, the consumer needs to “learn” that they will experience pleasure when they purchase the product.
  6. 6. “Booby” Trap
  7. 7. “Booby” Trap Bikini Baristas
  8. 8. Professor Capitalism Says... Fortunate for the pleasure-doling businesses, pleasure comes in countless forms. Major sources of pleasure are in only a few categories: 1. Sensual Pleasure (includes Sexual Pleasure) 2. Status, Power, and Privilege Pleasure 3. Monetary Pleasure (a.k.a. Spending Less Pleasure) 4. Charity Pleasure
  9. 9. Mainstream Mall Curriculum What are the clear messages of the mall curriculum for the docile consumer? Shopping is a fun experience Shopping is healthy and normal Shopping is a patriotic activity The more you shop, the better shopping is
  10. 10. “Hidden Curriculum” of the Mall What are the implicit messages of the mainstream curriculum of the mall? Pleasures teach us to see the world in a way that where the goal is to seek pain-free living Pleasures are the measure of success and happiness Pleasures are morally earned Middle class people are moral people The more money you spend, the better the product
  11. 11. Null Curriculum What are the messages that the mainstream curriculum of the mall does not want its consumer/learners to know?
  12. 12. Null Curriculum Pleasures sell & make lots of money for a few people Those few people rely on the consumers to want “traditional middle class values,” which include “keeping up with the Jones’s” Pleasures distract us from more important issues affecting society and ecology Pleasures control us by keeping us distracted Pleasures control the U.S. Pleasures keep the “masses” at bay in times when democratic participation is needed most Pleasures dull critical questioning
  13. 13. Shop or Revolt? Will people really be inclined to work for social, cultural, and ecological change if they... have a supersaturated marketplace which doles out “pleasure” to anyone with a credit card? Won’t people feel “good enough” with their big screen TVs and iPods not to voluntarily put themselves through the emotional tolls of working for justice?
  14. 14. Credit Card + Mall = Democratically Flaccid Give them a credit card, and you can be sure that they won’t seriously challenge social and ecological injustices Then, pump them full of “love songs”
  15. 15. Null Curriculum What about those pesky tags showing where the product was made? Zoned for Slavery Story of Stuff
  16. 16. Professor Capitalism Says... The purpose of education is to make the economy strong The purpose of education is to make good workers The purpose of education is to make good consumers
  17. 17. What is the Mainstream Curriculum? Education is a moral right. Education is a patriotic activity. Math is the universal language. Science is the universal process of investigation of nature. Literature... The Arts... History...
  18. 18. Traditional Pedagogy • Historically that which has been the content of the traditional curricula and teaching practices have served those in the dominant groups (i.e. White, upper class, men). • As a result, many educators, students, and researchers have provided critiques determining that many forms of discrimination are embedded within the mainstream curricula and teaching practices.
  19. 19. Purposes of Education What are the purposes of education in the U.S.?
  20. 20. Purposes of Education Different pedagogies serve different purposes: Exposing Patriarchy Feminist Pedagogy Exposing Power Imbalances Exposing Human Ecojustice Pedagogy Domination Over Nature Critical Pedagogy Working for Social Justice Maintain a Status Quo with a Hidden Curriculum of Traditional Pedagogy Discrimination
  21. 21. Hidden Curriculum of Traditional Pedagogy Anthropocentrism - Centering humans and human activities in the absence of our relationship with the Earth and all other life forms. Eurocentrism - Europeans and those of European descent hold the “true” definitions of life. Racism - The White race described as most privileged.
  22. 22. Hidden Curriculum of Traditional Pedagogy Sexism - Male as the dominant sex, holding the positions of power and importance. Heterosexism - Heterosexuals as the “normal” sexual orientation, omission of sexuality in historical accounts, fueled by homophobia. Naturism - Humans treating the Earth as if it is of secondary importance compared to the needs and desires of humans; humans are not seen as a part of nature.
  23. 23. Hidden Curriculum of Traditional Pedagogy Corporatism/Capitalism - Uncritical views of capitalism and corporate practices, often seen as morally right. Militarism - Uncritical views of military practices, often described as morally right. Patriotism - Uncritical views of one’s country, often described as morally right.
  24. 24. Hidden Curriculum of Traditional Pedagogy Religionism - Promotion of Christianity and especially Christian values, often seen as morally right. Classism - Discrimination against poor and working class, often viewed as being immoral.
  25. 25. Hidden Curriculum in a Teacher’s Practice Heterosexism Sexism Naturism Anthropocentrism Corporatism Eurocentrism Classism Patriotism/ Racism Militarism Teaching Practice
  26. 26. Religionism Militarism Anthropocentrism Traditional Teaching Patriotism M L U Classism Sexism Heterosexism C U R I Racism R Religionism Militarism Anthropocentrism U Patriotism C Classism Sexism U M L Heterosexism C U Racism R I R U C Docility Teacher does not problematize the Students have no skills for “hidden” disrupting injustice curriculum with students Students do not recognize injustice Docility
  27. 27. Religionism Militarism Anthropocentrism Traditional Teaching Patriotism M L U Classism Sexism Heterosexism C U R I Racism R Religionism Militarism Anthropocentrism U Patriotism C Classism Sexism U M L Heterosexism C U Racism R I R U C Docility Christopher Columbus was a Columbus is a neutral great explorer who person in history discovered the New World Columbus was brave and strong Docility
  28. 28. Learning Models & Practice • Learning is a change in the intellectual structure of a person’s mind. • Learning is a process that occurs exclusively in the brain, specifically the cerebral cortex (information storage) and cerebellum (motor coordination). • Knowledge is culturally and historically neutral
  29. 29. Hidden Curriculum in a Teacher’s Practice What did did you learnschool today, dear little boyboy mine? What you learn in in school today, dear little of of I learned that Washington never told a lie mine? I Ilearned that soldiersnot so bad learned that war is seldom die I learned about that great ones we have had I learned the everybody's free We fought in the teacher said to me That's what Germany and in France And that's what II learned in my chance And someday might get school today And that's what I Ilearned in school today That's what learned in school That's what I learned in school What did you learn in school today, dear little boy of mine? What did you learn in school today,my friends boy of I learned that policemen are dear little I learned thatmine? never ends justice II learned that our government must becrimes learned that murderers die for their strong Even if we make a and never wrong It's always right mistake sometimes And that'sleaders learned finest men Our what I are the in school today So we elect them againin school That's what I learned and again And that's what I learned in school today That's what I learned in school
  30. 30. Learning Models & Practice • Learning is a process that occurs in a social context where the teacher and students cause the learning. The learner can also be the teacher. • Learning is when the learner is exposed to diversity of relationships and interactions and gains a more diverse understanding. • Learning is a process of changing one’s relationships with her/his community, which consist of interconnections with nature and society. • Knowledge is not culturally and historically neutral. Knowledge is a product of power relationships and can reinforce hegemonic processes.
  31. 31. Transformational Learning • To what extent does Kolb’s definition of transformative learning incorporate sociocultural relationships in the process of learning? • From Cooley (2007, p. 306): Kolb (1984) proposed that learning occurs when an event is followed first by reflection and then by critical discourse, after which we modify our actions or choose a new experience. From this,we form abstract concepts and generalizations that we then test by starting the process over again and again. Knowledge, then, “is created through transformation of experience” (p. 38). The recursive nature makes it “a transformational process” (p. 38). With regard to personal change, we are faced with an event that forces us to make a choice. Our choices determine future events that result in future choices. Through this process of choice–event–choice, we create our lives.
  32. 32. Student Empowerment • How are students empowered in transformational or transformative learning? • Critically question social, cultural, and ecological power imbalances • Engage with intergenerational knowledges • Learning is directly connected to the issues of their community and their identities
  33. 33. Transformative Teaching Reading the World Context For Learning Curriculum How is Christopher Columbus seen by different peoples? Movement Who benefits from Columbus seen as a “hero?” Towards Who benefits from Columbus seen as a Social Justice Columbus seen as “hero” gives legitimacy to Europeans who used colonization, murderer & colonizer? genocide, and slavery for hundreds of years in the Americas.
  34. 34. Learning Models & Practice • Learning is a change in the intellectual structure of a person’s mind. • Learning is a process that occurs exclusively in the brain, specifically the cerebral cortex (information storage) and cerebellum (motor coordination). • Knowledge is culturally and historically neutral
  35. 35. Religionism Militarism Anthropocentrism Classism Heterosexism Sexism Patriotism C U L U M Traditional Teaching R I Racism R Religionism Militarism Anthropocentrism U Patriotism C Classism Sexism U M L Heterosexism C U Racism R I R U C Docility Scientists think in specific ways that Science is the best way to lead us towards understand the universe truth about the White males are most capable of universe doing the important scientific Docility work
  36. 36. Transformative Teaching Reading the World Context For Learning Curriculum How does science help us better understand the universe? Movement How does science limit our views of nature and ourselves? Towards Social Justice Science helps us understand the universe through observation, measurement, and mathematics. Other ways of knowing are not included and are devalued which limits our understanding of the universe.
  37. 37. Transformative Teaching Reading the World Context For Learning Curriculum What does our understanding of the atom tell us about nature and ourselves? Movement How does this view of the atom limit our views of nature and ourselves? Towards Social Justice Although this view of the atom helps us in many ways, it is not without problems in how we objectify ourselves and nature. This view of the atom is patriarchal in that it describes nature as a “machine” made up of “parts.”
  38. 38. Transformative Teaching Reading the World Context For Learning Curriculum How does describing nature as a collection of systems help us better understand nature? Movement How does describing nature as a collection of systems limit our views of nature and Towards Viewing nature as a collection of systems helps us ourselves? Social Justice understand how nature is full of patterns and networks of causes and effects. However, this also tells us that nature is “lifeless” and devalued as “objects” and not “subjects.” It is devoid of spirituality.
  39. 39. Learning Models & Practice • Learning is a process that occurs in a social context where the teacher and students cause the learning. The learner can also be the teacher. • Learning is when the learner is exposed to diversity of relationships and interactions and gains a more diverse understanding. • Learning is a process of changing one’s relationships with her/his community, which consist of interconnections with nature and society. • Knowledge is not culturally and historically neutral. Knowledge is a product of power relationships and can reinforce hegemonic processes.
  40. 40. Null Curriculum • What are the pieces of the mainstream curriculum that are meant to be silenced? • Science and math contribute to an objectified view of nature devoid of something greater than ourselves. • History (a.k.a. His Story), the Arts, World Language, and Literature are largely biased favoring the colonizers, and perpetually blame the victims for the horrific conditions that they experience on a daily basis.
  41. 41. Your Turn • Write a set of 5 questions that a teacher would ask her/his students if she/he was operating with the following theories of learning: • Learning is a change in the intellectual structure of a person’s mind. • Learning is a process that occurs exclusively in the brain, specifically the cerebral cortex (information storage) and cerebellum (motor coordination). • Knowledge is culturally and historically neutral
  42. 42. Your Turn • Write a set of 5 questions of a teacher who uses the following learning theories: • Learning is a process that occurs in a social context where the teacher and students cause the learning. The learner can also be the teacher. • Learning is when the learner is exposed to diversity of relationships and interactions and gains a more diverse understanding. • Learning is a process of changing one’s relationships with her/his community, which consist of interconnections with nature and society. • Knowledge is not culturally and historically neutral. Knowledge is a product of power relationships and can reinforce hegemonic processes.

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