No Child Left BehindGeorge W. Bush signed into law on Jan 8,2002All states need to design and implementstandardized assessmentsNo national achievement standard; states settheir own standards
NCLB: Arguments ForDecrease the “achievement gap”Increase scores overall for all studentsFederal government steps in for “failing”state governmentsIncreased accountability on schools andteachers
NCLB: Arguments Against Teaching to the Test; narrowing of knowledge Overemphasis on the “basics” Elimination of the Arts, Technology, PE, etc. All schools will be “failing” by 2014 Increased student resistance to school Unnecessary emotional stress on students Only a few studies show that high-risk testing is making a difference
Education DebtInstead of labeling the students as deﬁcient(“achievement gap”)...Acknowledging the society inequities as theproblems that create differences in testperformances Funding gap Wealth gap Health gap
Funding Gap: City vs. SuburbNYC = $11,000, Manhasset = $22,000Chicago = $8,000, Highland Park = $17,000 Education Debt
Wealth Gap:People of Color vs. White White families are more able to pass down wealth from generation to generation Parents buying their children a car, paying a down payment on a house, etc. Savings accounts: White women =$44,000 Latinas = $120 Black women = $100 Education Debt
Health Gap:People of Color vs. White Black people live a shorter life on average in the U.S. Less access to health care Burden of living in locations of elevated pollution Education Debt
History of NCLBRod Paige, Superintendent of Houston Schools whenGeorge W. Bush was Governor of TexasPaige fabricates numbers in order to make it look likeHouston schools improved (both PBS and CBS report thisfabrication)Paige uses the same model of accountabilityBush becomes president and makes Paige the U.S.Secretary of EducationBush and Paige advocate for a similar model ofaccountability at the national level
Is NCLB Closing the “Achievement Gap”?From NY Times (April 28, 2009)‘No Child’ Law Is Not Closing a Racial GapDespite gains that both whites and minorities did make, the overall scores of theUnited States’ 17-year-old students, averaged across all groups, were the same asthose of teenagers who took the test in the early 1970s. This was largely due to a shiftin demographics; there are now far more lower-scoring minorities in relation towhites. In 1971, the proportion of white 17-year-olds who took the reading test was87 percent, while minorities were 12 percent. Last year, whites had declined to 59percent while minorities had increased to 40 percent.The scores of 9- and 13-year-old students, however, were up modestly in reading, andwere considerably higher in math, since 2004, the last time the test was administered.And they were quite a bit higher than those of students of the same age a generationback. Still, the progress of younger students tapered off as they got older.
National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP) Grade 4 Reading = 42% proﬁcient (n = 2900 students across CT in 2009) No signiﬁcant change since 1992 Grade 8 Reading = 43% proﬁcient (n = 2800 students across CT in 2009) Signiﬁcant change for the ﬁrst time No signiﬁcant change from 1998-2007 (34-37%) Grade 4 Math = 46% proﬁcient (n = 2700 students across CT in 2009) No signiﬁcant change since 2003, but signiﬁcant compared to the 1990’s (1992 = 24%, 1996 & 2000 = 31%, 2005 = 42%, 2007 = 45%) Grade 8 Math = 40% proﬁcient (n = 2800 students across CT in 2009) No signiﬁcant change from 1996-2007; signiﬁcant from 2007 = 35%
Race To The TopFederal grants awarded to states, not individualschools$4.35 billion from American Recovery andReinvestment Act 2009States need to have certain educational policies inorder to be eligible such as no caps on the numberof charter schools, merit-based pay for teachers,tying test scores to teachers’ evaluations, movingpower from local to state level, adoption of CommonCore Standards, and encouraging more testing
RTTT HistoryArne Duncan was the CEO of Chicago PublicSchools when Barak Obama was senator of Illinois.Duncan used a business model to control schools inChicago closing down neighborhood schools andopening charter schools in their place.President Obama appoints Duncan as Secretary ofeducation.Duncan and Obama advocate for RTTT and get itpassed in the “stimulus package” of 2009.
RTTT: Arguments ForIncreased accountability on teachers andschoolsIncrease competition and choice amongschools by creating more charter schoolsAlignment to one set of national standards
RTTT: Arguments Against No studies show that charter schools are any better than public schools. No studies show that choice and competition make a difference. High-risk standardized testing has made no long-term difference with the achievement gap.