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Coun 915 krumsboltz' learning theory of career counseling final

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KRUMBOLTZ‘SKRUMBOLTZ‘S
LEARNING THEORYLEARNING THEORY
OF CAREEROF CAREER
COUNSELING (LTCC)COUNSELING (LTCC)
By:By:
Lola So...

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DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH
• What is a Theory?
A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set of
assumptions or hypothesis tha...

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DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH
• Structural Theories focus on individual
characteristics and occupational tasks.
e.g. Trait an...

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Coun 915 krumsboltz' learning theory of career counseling final

  1. 1. KRUMBOLTZ‘SKRUMBOLTZ‘S LEARNING THEORYLEARNING THEORY OF CAREEROF CAREER COUNSELING (LTCC)COUNSELING (LTCC) By:By: Lola SonaikeLola Sonaike
  2. 2. DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH • What is a Theory? A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set of assumptions or hypothesis that allows you to explain the past and predict the future. • There are two types of theories Structural Theories and Developmental Theories.
  3. 3. DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH • Structural Theories focus on individual characteristics and occupational tasks. e.g. Trait and Factor, PEC, Holland’s Typology Approach • Developmental Theories focus on human development across life-span e.g. Super, Krumboltz , Decision Making, Cognitive
  4. 4. ABOUT KRUMBOLTZABOUT KRUMBOLTZ • Who is he?
  5. 5. LET’S SPY HIS RESUMELET’S SPY HIS RESUME
  6. 6. SO WHAT DOES HISSO WHAT DOES HIS THEORYTHEORY SAY?SAY? According to Krumboltz, an infinite number of accumulated learning experiences determine one’s current occupational situation. – Interests are developed based on personally enjoyable experiences – New beliefs are developed and changed based on new information that causes a re-examination of all beliefs. – Values change as one acquires experiences and greater insight.
  7. 7. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) (Contd)(Contd) • The process of career development involves four factors: - Genetic endowment and special abilities - Environmental Influences - Learning experiences - Task Approach Skills
  8. 8. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) (Contd)(Contd) • Genetic: This include inherited qualities that may set limits on the individual’s career opportunities. This may be physical, mental or special abilities • Environmental influences: in terms of how it affects skill development, activities and career preferences. • Learning Experiences: - Instrumental learning experiences (‘learnings’ through reactions to consequences). That is learnings through direct observable results of actions and through the reactions of others.
  9. 9. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) (Contd)(Contd) • Learning Experiences (Contd) – Associative learning experiences This involves negative and positive reactions to previously “neutral” statements. e.g. “You’re going to be a great cop with those flat feet!.” “All bankers are rich” “All politicians are dishonest” Task Approach Skills Skills that have been developed over time. That is problem-solving skills, work habit. Note that skills are often modified as a result of desirable and undesirable experiences.
  10. 10. BY THE WAYBY THE WAY Krumboltz based his theory on Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. He also worked with: Mitchell and Gesalt
  11. 11. WHAT ABOUT SOCIALWHAT ABOUT SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH?LEARNING APPROACH? • A social-learning theory approach to career decision making was first proposed by Krumboltz, Mitchell, and Gesalt (1975), and then several years later by Mitchell and Krumboltz (1990). More recently, Mitchell and Krumboltz (1996) have extended the earlier social-learning theory approach to include Krumboltz’s learning theory of career counseling, and they now suggest that the entire theory be referred to as learning theory of career counseling (LTCC)
  12. 12. KEY NOTES TO COUNSELORSKEY NOTES TO COUNSELORS • The factors that influence preferences in the social- learning model are composed of numerous cognitive processes, interactions in the environment, and inherited personal characteristics and traits. • Genetic and environmental factors are also involved in the development of preferences. For example, a basketball coach might reinforce tall players for their skills than short players. • Value models, positive words, and images such as a booklet describing an occupation in glamorous terms, will lead to positive reactions to that occupation.
  13. 13. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES • How can a counselor determine an individual’s problematic beliefs and generalization? • Identifying content from which certain beliefs and generalizations have evolved is a key ingredient for developing counseling strategies for individuals who have career decision-making problems. The counselor’s role is to probe assumptions and presuppositions of expressed beliefs and to explore alternative beliefs and courses of action. Assisting individuals to understand the validity of their beliefs is a major component of the social-learning model.
  14. 14. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES (Contd)(Contd) • Intervention strategies suggested by Mitchell and Krumboltz include the use of job clubs. Individuals can offer support to each other in the job search process. A wide range of media should be made available to clients, and local employers should offer high school students structured work-based learning experiences. • Career counselors should use behavioral counseling techniques, including role playing or trying new behaviors, desensitization when dealing with phobias, and paradoxical intention. The latter technique suggests that a client engage in types of behavior that have created a problem. (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996)
  15. 15. WHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTSWHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTS FOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORYFOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORY • The learning theory of career counseling has been developed only recently and therefore relevant research is yet to be accomplished. The original theory, social-learning theory of career decision making, claimed validity from the development of educational and occupational preferences, the development of task approach skills and factors that cause people to take action, and from an extensive database on general social-learning theory of behavior.
  16. 16. SOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THATSOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THAT MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE:MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE: • My Vocational Situation (Holland, Daiger, and Power 1980) • A Questionnaire to Determine Beliefs about Career Decision Making (Mitchell and Krumboltz, cited by Mitchell 1980 • Inventory on Anxiety in Decision Making (Mendonca 1974) • An Attitudinal Assessment of Decision Making (Item wording by Clarke Carney) • Efficacy Questionnaire (Mitchell, Krumboltz, and Kinnier, Cited in Mitchell 1980) PLEASE SEE HANDOUT FOR MORE INVENTORIES AND FOR BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH INVENTORY
  17. 17. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/ IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS APPLICATIONS - People need to expand their capabilities and interests, not base decisions on existing characteristics only - People need to prepare for changing work tasks, not assume that occupations will remain stable. - People need to be empowered to take action, not merely given a diagnosis - Career counselors need to play a major role in dealing with all career problems, not just with occupational selection.
  18. 18. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/ IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS IMMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING • The role of career counselors and the goals of career counseling need to be reevaluated. Counselor need to continue to promote client learning but perhaps in a different way. Counselors may have to become coaches and mentors to help individuals meet the changes in work force requirements. • Counselors should attempt to discover unlimited experiences among clients and offer proper learning solutions. • Assessment results can be used to create new experiences
  19. 19. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES (Contd)(Contd) The counselor should address the following problems: • Client may fail to recognize that a remediable problem exists (individuals have a tendency to assume that most problems are a normal part of life and cannot be altered. • Client may fail to exert the effort needed to make a decision or solve a problem (individuals exert little effort to explore alternatives, they take the familiar way out. • Client may eliminate a potentially satisfying alternative for inappropriate reasons (individuals over generalize from false assumptions and overlook potentially worthwhile alternatives). • Client may choose poor alternatives for inappropriate reasons (the individuals are unable to realistically evaluate potential careers because of false beliefs and unrealistic expectations). • Persons may suffer anguish and anxiety over perceived inability to achieve goals (individual goals may be unrealistic or in conflict with other goals).
  20. 20. LET’S BRAINSTORMLET’S BRAINSTORM COMPETITION TIME
  21. 21. COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC)COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) WITH FEW OTHER THEORIESWITH FEW OTHER THEORIES COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) WITH TRAIT-AND-FACTOR THEORY Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Trait-and-Factor Individuals have unique patterns of ability or traits that can be objectively measured and correlated with requirements of occupations. Traits primarily refer to abilities and interests. Parson's three step- model included stydying the individual, surveying occupation, and matching the individual with The primary goal of using assessment data was to predict job satisfaction and success. Contemporary practices stress the relationships between human factors and work environments. Test data is used to observe the similarity between client and current workers in a career field. Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach skills are work habits, mental sets, emotional responses and cognitive responses Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  22. 22. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON-KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON- ENVIRONMENT FIT THEORYENVIRONMENT FIT THEORY COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH PERSON-ENVIRONMENT-FIT Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Person Environment-Fit Individuals bring requirements to a work environment, and the work environment makes its requirements of individuals. To survive, individuals and work environments must achieve some degre of congruence. Personality structure is a stable charactristic made up of abilities and values. Ability dimensions indicate levels of work skills. Values are considered as work needs. Satisfactoriness refers to clients who are more achievement oriented. Satisfaction refers to more self fulfilled oriented clients. Work adjustment refers to a worker's attempt to improve fit in a work environment. Client abilities (work skills) and values (work needs) are criteria used for selecting work environments. Work requirements determine reinforcers available by occupations. Knowledge of clients who are more achievement (satisfactoriness) or self-fulfilled (satisfaction) oriented enhances career choice Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach skills are work habits, mental sets, emotional responses and cognitive responses Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self- concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  23. 23. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’SKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’S LIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACHLIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACH COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH SUPER'S LIFE SPAN LIFE SPACE APPROACH Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Super's Lifes-Span, Life-Space Approach Career Development is multidimensional. There are developmental tasks throughout the life- span.Vocational maturity is acquired through successfully accomplishing developmental tasks within a common series of life stages. Individuals implement their self- concepts into careers that will provide th most efficient means of self-expression. Success in one liferole facilitates success in another. Stages of vocational development are Growth, Exploratory, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline. Developmental tasks are Crystalization, specification, Implentation Stabilization and Consolidation. Self-concept is the driving force that establishes a career pattern. Attitudes and competencies are related to careery growth and identified as career Maturity. Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In dev elopment societal factors interact with biological psychological factors. Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  24. 24. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHNKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHN HOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACHHOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACH COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH HOLLAND'S TYPOLOGY APPROACH Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Holland's Typology Approach Career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work. Individuals search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles. There are six kinds of occupational environments and six matching personal orientations. The six types of categories for individuals and work environment are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional Consistency refers to personality, i.e. those client's who relate strongly to one or more of the categories. Differentiation refers to those who have poorly defined personality styles. Identity refers to the degree in which one identifies with a work environment. Congruency is a good match between individual and work environment. Individuals are products of thir environment. Stability of career choice depends on dominance of personal orientation. Individuals who fit a pure personality type will express little resemblance to other types. Clients who have many occupational goals have low identity. Congruence occurs when client's personality type matches the corresponding work environment. Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  25. 25. ReferencesReferences • Krumboltz, J. D. (1979). A Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making. In . Mitchell, A.M.., Jones, F. B., & Krumboltz, J. D., (Eds), Social Learning and Career Decision Making, edited by Mitchell, pp. 19-49 • Krumbotlz, J. D., (1994). The career beliefs inventory, Journal of Counseling and Development, 72(4), 424-428 • Krumbotlz, J. D., (1996). A learning theory of career counseling. In M. L. Savickas & W. B. Walsh (Eds.) . Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp 55-80), Palto Alto, CA: Davies-Black. • Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1987). The effects of cognitive restructuring and decision-making training on career indecision. Journal of Counseling and Development, 66, 171-174 • Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1990). Social learning approach to career decision making; Krumboltz’s theory. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.). Career choice and development (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass • Niles, S. G, & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2002). Career development interventions in the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Companion website: http://www.prenhall.com/niles) • Nystul, M.S. (1999), 5th edition. Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective, Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pp (321–342)
  26. 26. THE ENDTHE END

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