Understanding Audiences & Communities: Arts and Entertainment Experience (Un)marketing


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Our work as artists and creatives does not exist in a vacuum. The communities within which we work, our peers and partners, as well as the audience who experience and participate in our work are important. This presentation we discuss different ideas and was for identifying, interacting with and learning from audiences and communities. We'll also discuss the different approaches to audiences in the arts and creative sectors including fan subcultures.

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Understanding Audiences & Communities: Arts and Entertainment Experience (Un)marketing

  1. 1. Ar & ts ^ Entertainment “Experience” UnMarketing Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  2. 2. 1. Entertainment & Stakeholder Value Why do people participate in arts & entertainment activities? ! What value do they seek from the experience? ! What benefits do they reap? ! ! Nearly everyone understands that arts participation is beneficial at some level, although few people – including many arts managers and board members – can articulate more than a few general ideas as to how it is beneficial. ! ! The arts industry suffers for lack of a simple value framework that communicates our worth to society and to the individuals we interact with and create for?! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  3. 3. Values Derived from A&E Experiences (1) Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  4. 4. Values Derived from A&E Experience (2) 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  Cognitive value in that it productively engages the brain, activates the imagination and directly or indirectly helps adults and children acquire new or improved cognitive skills.
 ! Aesthetic value, the prima facie benefit of arts participation, is the most subjective and intrinsic of all values surrounding arts participation; during the art experience (and possibly for a lifetime thereafter), the participant’s quality of life is altered in some way by the art. 
 ! Physical values surrounds some arts experiences, particularly dance, but also any of the other arts experiences that engage the body, such as playing a musical instrument or working with clay. The body acquires new skills or achieves consonance with mind and spirit. 
 ! Many people talk about the Emotional Value of music, but any arts experience that elicits an emotional response has intrinsic value. Art acts as a conduit for emotion, providing the participant with a means of feeling. 
 ! Almost all arts participation has Socio-cultural value, in that it connects people with their community or with their cultural heritage. For many, art is also a means of understanding other cultures. Art is memory. 
 ! Sometimes subtly, sometimes not, art has Political value. For artists and audiences alike, art is an essential means of formulating and expressing political views. 
 ! Some people talk about the Spiritual value of art, but it is generally not something that most people can articulate. More likely, people talk about “being transformed” or “renewed” or “energized” by an arts experience. ! In addition to these seven value clusters, another overarching value set surrounds arts participation – the set of values associated with identity formation, such as self-confidence, self-esteem, pride and dignity. ! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  5. 5. Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  6. 6. Workshop Session 1: What “value” can/do attendees/audiences derive from your arts & entertainment experience? Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  7. 7. 2. A&E Involvement, Participation & Attendance ! ! How do people participate in the arts in the course of a year? ! What kinds of art and creative forms and activities do they engage with, and in what numbers?! What motivates that engagement? ! What do we mean by arts & entertainment involvement, Attendance and Participation?! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  8. 8. Arts Involvement ! . . . is the perceived personal importance and/or interest attached to the experience and/or consumption of an A&E Entertainment ! •  It is also person’s perceived relevance of the experience based on their inherent needs, values, and interests.! •  As involvement increases, the people have greater motivation to comprehend, engage and participate. ! •  People are more likely to be involved when:! –  Experience is important to them! –  Experience has emotional appeal! –  Experience is continually [long term] of interest to the consumer! –  Experience entails significant risk! –  Experience is identified with the norms of a group! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  9. 9. Two Main Types of A&E Involvement •  Two types:! –  Situational - Occurs over a short time period and is associated with a specific situation, such as a friend has two tickets to a concert and ask your to attend with them.! –  Enduring - Occurs when people show a consistent high-level of interest in a product and frequently spend time thinking about the product, such as an artist of theatre art.! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  10. 10. Arts & Entertainment: Attendance … A"endance  is  defined  as  those  who  have  a.ended  in  the  past  12  months  at  least  one  of  the   following:     •  exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture ! •  craft exhibition ! •  video or electronic art event! •  event connected with books or writing! •  street arts or circus! •  carnival ! •  culturally-specific festival ! •  play or drama ! •  other theatre performance such as musicals, pantomime ! Date: 9/24/13! opera or operetta ! classical music performance ! jazz performance ! other live music event ! ballet ! contemporary dance ! African people’s dance, South Asian and Chinese dance ! •  Sports event and/or experience! •  other live dance event! •  Etc …! •  •  •  •  •  •  •  /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  11. 11. Arts & Entertainment: Participation Par*cipa*on  is  defined  as  those  who  have  done  in  the  past  12  months  at  least  one  of  the   ! following:     ! ! •  ballet! •  made films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holidays)! •  other dance (not for fitness).! •  used a computer to create original •  sang to an audience or rehearsed for a artworks or animation! performance! •  textile crafts such as embroidery, •  played a musical instrument to an crocheting or knitting! audience or rehearsed for a •  wood crafts such as wood turning, performance! carving or furniture making! •  played a musical instrument for your •  other crafts such as calligraphy, pottery own pleasure! or jewellery for yourself! •  written music! •  written any stories or plays! •  rehearsed or performed in a play / •  written any poetry! drama! •  rehearsed or performed in an opera / operetta! •  painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture! •  photography as an artistic activity (not family or holiday ‘snaps’)! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  12. 12. Five Modes of Arts Participation http://www.wolfbrown.com/images/articles/ValuesStudyReportComplete.pdf! ! 1.  Inventive Arts Participation engages the mind, body and spirit in an act of artistic creation that is unique and idiosyncratic, regardless of skill level. ! 2.  Interpretive Arts Participation is a creative act of self-expression that brings alive and adds value to pre-existing works of art, either individually or collaboratively. ! 3.  Curatorial Arts Participation is the creative act of purposefully selecting, organizing and collecting art to the satisfaction of one’s own artistic sensibility. ! 4.  Observational Arts Participation encompasses arts experiences that an individual selects or consents to, motivated by some expectation of value. ! 5.  Ambient Arts Participation involves experiencing art, consciously or subconsciously, that is not purposefully selected – art that “happens to you.”! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  13. 13. Workshop Session2: How can/do people become involved, attend and participate in your Arts & Entertainment Experience ? Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  14. 14. 3. Segmenting Entertainment Audiences •  An established market research technique that breaks down a given market/ group of people into distinct consumer ‘types’ ! –  Identifies shared wants and needs! –  Enables more precise targeting and tailored marketing and communications! –  Used by many arts and creative organizations (e.g. Tate and RSC, Arts Institute) and by media and public bodies (e.g. BBC, FOX, Sport England, National Trust)! Date: 9/24/13! 1.  TWO APPROACHES! Using data & information to ! –  Effectively segment markets! –  Identifying attractive segments to target/reach! –  Developing an effective positioning strategy (message)! 2.  Using data & information to develop relationships by! 1.  2.  3.  Focusing on individuality in audiences and networks! Customizing communications ‘messages’ and ‘creative’ ! Selecting appropriate ‘media channels’ or contexts to engage with them! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  15. 15. The STP Process Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  16. 16. Aims & Benefits of STP Process “80% of profits usually derived by 20% of customers” 
 Pareto’s Principle! •  Enhancing the competitive/sustainable position of an event or experience by providing direction & focus for strategies. ! •  Examining and identifying growth opportunities in the market through the identification of new audiences, growth market segments or new experience benefits. ! •  More effective and efficient matching of organizational resources to specific audiences or market groups promising the greatest ROMI. ! Date: 9/24/13! Aims   identifiable differences exist between segments (segment heterogeneity).! +! similarities exist between members within each segment 
 (members homogeneity). ! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  17. 17. Importance of the STP Process •  Strategy
 (What/who to focus on and why).! •  Resource allocation
 (How much and where should we spend?).! •  Feedback, evaluation & performance measurement
 (Focuses monitoring and evaluation efforts)! IMPROVED  COMMUNICATION  EFFECTIVENESS   Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  18. 18. Criteria for Segmenting Audiences & Networks Why?   (+Who)   Who  my   audiences   are  and   where  are   they?     How,   Where   and  When   (+Who)   Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  19. 19. Criteria for Segmenting Audiences & Networks Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  20. 20. Classification of Segmentation Variables Measurement ObjecFve SubjecFve General  Level   (Consump)on) Age   EducaFon  Level   Geographic  Area   Family  life-­‐cycle Lifestyle   General  Values   Personality Domain-­‐specific   Level   (A&E  Type  of   Experience) ParFcipaFon  Frequency   SubsFtuFon   Complementary PercepFon   ARtude,  preference,   interests,  opinions,     domain-­‐specific  values Specific  Level   (Branded  Experience) Brand  loyalty  (behaviour)   Recency,  ParFcipaFon   Frequency,     Monetary  Value  (RFM) Brand  loyalty  (aRtude)   Brand  preference   Purchase  intenFon Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  21. 21. E.g., The 13 audience segments (UK) h.p://www.artscouncil.org.uk/what-­‐we-­‐do/research-­‐and-­‐data/arts-­‐audiences/arts-­‐based-­‐segmentaFon-­‐research/13-­‐segments/   Highly  engaged   Some   engagement   a.end  &     may  also   parFcipate   Urban  arts  eclec*c    3%   Tradi*onal  culture   vultures    4%   Fun,  fashion  and   friends    16%   Bedroom  DJs    2%   Mature  explorers    11%   Mid-­‐life  hobbyists    4%   Dinner  and  a  show    20%   Re*red  arts  and  craZs     4%   parFcipate   only   Family  &  community   focused    9%   Not  currently   engaged   Date: 9/24/13! Time-­‐poor  dreamers    4%   Older  and  home-­‐bound     11%   A  quiet  pint  with     the  match    9%   Limited  means,  nothing   /drkellypage! fancy    3%   @drkellypage!
  22. 22. Who  my   audiences   are  and   where  are   they?     Organisational Characteristics How,   Where   and  When   (+Who)   Why?     (+Who)   Source:  McDonald  and  Dunbar  (2004).  Reproduced  with  kind  permission. Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  23. 23. Workshop Session 3: Describe the main groups of people to target / reach about your A&E Experience? Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  24. 24. Targeting (T) •  Purpose: To determine which, if any, of the segments uncovered should be the focus of communications.! •  Evaluation of Market Segments - DAMP! –  Distinct – is each segment clearly different from other segments?! –  Accessible – can buyers be reached through appropriate promotional programmes and distribution channels?! –  Measurable – is the segment easy to identify and measure?! –  Profitable – is the segment sufficiently large to provide a stream of constant future revenues and profits?! •  Rating approach for different segment attractiveness factors:! –  –  –  –  –  •  Market growth! Segment profitability – current & potential revenues! Segment size! Competitive intensity – new entrants; buyer power! Cyclical nature of the industry ! Each of these attractiveness factors can be rated on a scale of 0-10 and loosely categorized as high, medium or low in attractiveness.! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  25. 25. Targeting Approaches §  Strategy for each customer §  Predominate in B2B markets §  E.g., MR, Car Purchase §  No segments (Mass) §  Strategy for whole market §  Limited segment differentiation §  Too Expensive §  Strategy for one segment §  Several target markets §  Niche Marketing §  Exploit segment differences §  With Limited resources §  Strategy for each segment §  Loss of economies of scale Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  26. 26. Targeting Strategies Strategy Descrip*on Example §  Based  on  profiling  and  regression  analyses   Individual  Level   §  Depends  on  the  availability  of  demographic   and/or  behavioral  data   TargeFng §  Offer  personalized  to  the  prospect Customized  direct   mail  le.ers  to   members §  Individual-­‐level  data  is  not  available     Segment  Level   §  Depends  on  geodemographic  and/or   psychographic  profiling   TargeFng §  Absence  of  one-­‐to-­‐one  relaFonal  interacFon   Direct  mail  (junk   mail)  le.ers  to  the   household  in  a   geographic  region Self-­‐selecFon Date: 9/24/13! §  TargeFng  achieved  through  markeFng   programs  such  as  introductory  pricing  or   promoFonal  incenFves   §  Direct  response  mechanism  through  mass   media  for  prospect  generaFon 0800  numbers   compeFFons /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  27. 27. Workshop Session 4: Select the main groups of people you will focus on to raise awareness about your Arts & Entertainment Experience? Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  28. 28. Positioning Strategy •  How an experience is perceived by a target group of people /audiences so that it is distinguished from competition as being the best at satisfying a particular need. customers’ minds.! •  Two fundamental elements: ! 1.  Experience attributes: the functionality and capability and experience that an experience offers.! 2.  Communication: the way in which a branding experience is communicated and how consumers perceive the brand relative to other competing brands in the market place. ! Where and how we compete! •  •  Target market (Where / Who / Why)! Differential Advantage (How): e.g. Experience, promotion, distribution, pricing, procedures, process, people.! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  29. 29. Keys to Successful Positioning Clarity Consistency (Target Market & Differential Advantage) (duration & marketing strategy) Successful positioning Credibility Competitiveness (plausibility & reality) (unique & value-added) Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage! 18
  30. 30. Creating a Competitive Position Identify Target Market Stage 1: Identify key/important product class characteristics Stage 2: Identify differences/similarities between competing brands Stage 3: Decide on a competitive positioning strategy Market Research e.g., customer survey Mapping & Segment Analysis e.g., perceptual map or CA Competitive Approach & Positioning Statement Marketing Mix Decisions Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  31. 31. Positioning Statement To: ! ! ! ! The brand/product of: Emphasizes: ! ! must mention: ! and omit: ! ! ! EXAMPLE: ! To: ! ! ! ! The brand/product of: Emphasizes: ! ! must mention: ! ! ! ! ! and omit: ! ! Date: 9/24/13! ! ! ! ! ! ![GROUP / TARGET MARKET] ! ! ![BRAND NAME]! ![XYZ CHARACTERSITICS/ATTRIBUTES]! ![MOST IMPORTANT CLAIM]! ![NEGATIVE/COMPETITIVE CLAIMS]! ! ! ! ! ! ! !15-25 Internet Users !! !Love Steal Us from Lonlieness! !the youth-based real narrative in Bridgend, Wales! !the number and differing ways the story is co-created !with differing community members! !history of Bridgend, socio-economic profile of Bridgend ! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  32. 32. Workshop Session 5: Write a positioning statement for how you will market your A&E Experience to these groups? Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  33. 33. Assignment 2: Creating a Fan Persona Are we seeing the rise in “fan &/or tribe subculture” around creative and cultural experiences? Or has it always been there? Your assignment for next week is to:! ! 1.  Read page 194-195 “Segmenting by Persona’s” from your textbook.! 2.  Choose a creative or cultural experience that has a fan, tribe or cult following. This could include: an artist (Elvis), fictional character (Harry Potter), series (Breaking Bad), cultural enterprise (Arts Institute), Movie (Star Wars) or event (Superbowl). ! 3.  Conduct some research online about the highly involved “fan” and collect information about the different criteria that could be used to describe them (e.g., values/benefit sought, engagement, participation, demographics, behavior, dress, etc.). 
 ! Write 1-2 pages describing the “persona” of the “typical fan” or “tribal member” for the “well known” creative or cultural experience you selected. Be as creative as possible in describing this fictional character as if they are a real person. ! 4.  5.  Due Week Before Class. On Moodle! Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!
  34. 34. Ar & ts ^ Entertainment “Experience” UnMarketing Date: 9/24/13! /drkellypage! @drkellypage!