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themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
The Science of Wellbeing
An introduction
Jo Mitchell
Clinical Psychologist, PhD
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
The Agenda
• To explore positive psychology theory and research
• To apply ideas for buil...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
What is mental health?
“…a state of wellbeing in which the
individual realizes his or her...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
But we got distracted…
“The scientific study of what enables individuals and
communities ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Positive Psychology
The scientific study of
what enables individuals &
communities to thr...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Shifting the Prevalence of Mental Health towards Flourishing
(Huppert & So, 2013)
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
What is not positive psychology?
• All new, cohesive or complete
• A replacement for trad...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
What is wellbeing?
• More than the absence of illness
• Variation in wellbeing – languish...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Benefits of wellbeing
Meta-analysis by Lyubomirsky, King & Diener (2005)
Social
• More so...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Benefits of wellbeing cont...
Health
• Better physical health (e.g., strengthened immune
...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Measuring Wellbeing
• Satisfaction With Life Scale (5-items) http://bit.ly/1iJl4qE
• Flou...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Lyubomirsky, Sheldon & Schkade
What determines wellbeing?
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
W E L L B E I N G
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
W E L L B E I N G
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
WELLBEING
WORKOUT
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
5 Ways to Wellbeing
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au 5 Ways to Wellbeing
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
• What do you currently do?
• What would you like to do?
• What gets in your way?
• What ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Ref: Seligman et al., 2005, 2010, 2011
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Micro moments
Never underestimate the power of small things
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Emotions
• What are the consequences of
unpleasant emotions for you? (e.g.,
anger, sadnes...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Emotions
• What are the consequences of pleasant
emotions for you? (e.g., contentment,
jo...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
The role of positive emotions
Broaden momentary
thought-action repertoire
Build enduring ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Positive emotions
• Openness to new ideas and experiences
• Broaden cognitive, physical a...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Psychosocial reserves for times of threat or opportunity
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
In the moment, positive emotions
• Broaden Attention and Thinking (Fredrickson & Branigan...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Over time, positive emotions
• Increase well-being
(Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002; Tugade & ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Over time, positive emotions
• Increase work productivity (Marks & Fleming, 1995)
• Impro...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Positive emotion & physical health
Positive affect modulates the relationship between hos...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Positive emotion & longevity
Emotional state and motivation assessed
by autobiographical ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Neuromuscular Disease & Gratitude
Neuromuscular disease study, daily
gratitude journal in...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
• RCT (gratitude vs neutral life events vs daily hassle groups)
• More likely to have mad...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Key Message
For optimal wellbeing
get frequent daily hits of
positive emotions
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Tuning-in to positive emotions
• How much is enough?
• Is their a ratio of positive to
ne...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Your neglected superpower
Ron Gutman, www.ted.com/talks
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Gratitude Journal
• Write about 2-3 things that you
are grateful for
• Make them recent (...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
• How do you create positive emotion
in your life?
• Do you get enough hits of positive
e...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
what you
stand for
as a person
Values Are..?
Connection, adventure,
learning, love
Legacy, achievement,
safety, kindness
Hope, power,
competence, success
VALUES GOALS
How do VALUES contribute to our
WELLBEING and PERFORMANCE?
Values & wellbeing
Values congruence predicts wellbeing
(Elliot & Sheldon, 1997; Ferssizidis, Adams, Kashdan,
Plummer, Mis...
Value congruence:
wellbeing & burnout amongst mental
health practitioners
(Veage et al, 2014)
Values clarification exercis...
EQUALITY
COURAG
E
JUSTICE
CREATIVITY ACHIEVEMENTHOPE
TRADITION
POWER
PERSISTANCELOVE
WHO DO YOU
ADMIRE?
SPOTTING
VALUES IN
YOURSELF
Values mean little without...
VALUES
Knowing what you stand for in
life
COMMITTED ACTION
Doing what matters everyday
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
“Instead of mercilessly judging and criticizing yourself
for various inadequacies or shortcomings, self-
compassion means ...
Compassion Meditation Effect on
Neuroendocrine, Innate Immune &
Behavioral Responses to Stress
Pace et al., (2009). Psycho...
LKM & Social Connectedness
Hutcherson, Seppala, Gross (2008). Emotion.
• A brief LKM exercise to examine whether social
co...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
“There is no need
for temples; no
need for
complicated
philosophy. Our
own brain, our own...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Should the medical profession ask about
patient happiness?
Dr Sarah Pressman, Professor o...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
“Other people matter”
Chris Peterson
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Greatest Risk to Health?
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Greater Risk to Health?
Mortality Risk &
Social Connectedness
Hold-Lundstadt, Smith & Layton (2010). Plos
Medicine.
• Meta analysis of 148 researc...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Micro-moments
in relationships
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Relationship Ratio
John Gottman, relationship expert
• Ratio of positive to negative inte...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
How do you respond when…
• Your partner tells you “I just got promoted”
• Your child/teen...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Active-constructive
• Do you react with genuine interest? "That’s is great news. How are ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Ref:Gable,S.L.,Gonzaga,G.,&Strachman,A.(2006)
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Capitalising
ACR leads to amplifying the pleasure of
the good situation and contributing ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Random Acts of Kindness
5 random acts of kindness per week,
6 week study
• E.g. a smile, ...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
The happiness of a close contact increases
the chance of you being happy by 15%
The happi...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
References
Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me wh...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
• Who are the people in your
life?
• How do you nurture or care for
these relationships?
...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
“People with no sense of ikigai were
50% more likely to die from any cause,
compared to t...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Altruistic Behaviour
“...a strong correlation exists between the well-being,
happiness, h...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
• What is your ikigai?
• What gives your life a sense of
purpose and meaning?
• Write you...
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
Thank You!
“Happiness is always here,
it is always now.”
Osho
APS Positive Psychology #1 (intro to wellbeing science)
APS Positive Psychology #1 (intro to wellbeing science)
APS Positive Psychology #1 (intro to wellbeing science)
APS Positive Psychology #1 (intro to wellbeing science)
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These slides were used for APS Study Group presentations in 2016:
- East Brighton (FlightWise), Thursday 20th October 2016
- Albury psychologists and allied mental health professionals, La Maison on Friday 29th July 2016

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APS Positive Psychology #1 (intro to wellbeing science)

  1. 1. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au The Science of Wellbeing An introduction Jo Mitchell Clinical Psychologist, PhD
  2. 2. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au The Agenda • To explore positive psychology theory and research • To apply ideas for building health and wellbeing • www.slideshare.net/drjomitchell • www.themindroom.com.au/library
  3. 3. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au What is mental health? “…a state of wellbeing in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her own community” World Health Organisation, 2001, p.1.
  4. 4. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au But we got distracted… “The scientific study of what enables individuals and communities to thrive.” International Positive Psychology Association, 2008
  5. 5. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  6. 6. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  7. 7. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Positive Psychology The scientific study of what enables individuals & communities to thrive. International Positive Psychology Association,
  8. 8. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  9. 9. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Shifting the Prevalence of Mental Health towards Flourishing (Huppert & So, 2013)
  10. 10. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au What is not positive psychology? • All new, cohesive or complete • A replacement for traditional approaches to mental health • A ‘Pollyanna’ approach Despondex: (Language WARNING) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jd4tugPM83c
  11. 11. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  12. 12. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  13. 13. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  14. 14. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au What is wellbeing? • More than the absence of illness • Variation in wellbeing – languishing to flourishing • Major conceptual approaches: 1. Hedonic (feeling good) 2. Eudaimonic (functioning well)
  15. 15. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Benefits of wellbeing Meta-analysis by Lyubomirsky, King & Diener (2005) Social • More social support and richer social interactions • More satisfying & longer marriages • More prosocial behaviour Work • Greater productivity • Lower absenteeism
  16. 16. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Benefits of wellbeing cont... Health • Better physical health (e.g., strengthened immune system, less pain, and greater longevity) • Better mental health (e.g., lowered stress, depression & anxiety) Personal • More activity, energy & flow • Increased creativity & self-confidence • Better self-regulation & ability to cope Meta-analysis by Lyubomirsky, King & Diener (2005)
  17. 17. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Measuring Wellbeing • Satisfaction With Life Scale (5-items) http://bit.ly/1iJl4qE • Flourishing Scale (8 items) bit.ly/1Xe0vme • Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (14 items) bit.ly/1vy0K1r • Work on Wellbeing (50+ items) www.workonwellbeing.com • AWE (52 + 8 demographic items) www.aweschools.com
  18. 18. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Lyubomirsky, Sheldon & Schkade What determines wellbeing?
  19. 19. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  20. 20. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au W E L L B E I N G
  21. 21. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au W E L L B E I N G
  22. 22. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au WELLBEING WORKOUT
  23. 23. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au 5 Ways to Wellbeing
  24. 24. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au 5 Ways to Wellbeing
  25. 25. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au • What do you currently do? • What would you like to do? • What gets in your way? • What helps?
  26. 26. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Ref: Seligman et al., 2005, 2010, 2011
  27. 27. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Micro moments Never underestimate the power of small things
  28. 28. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Emotions • What are the consequences of unpleasant emotions for you? (e.g., anger, sadness, fear) • What type of behaviour do they trigger?
  29. 29. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Emotions • What are the consequences of pleasant emotions for you? (e.g., contentment, joy, curiosity) • What type of behaviour do they trigger?
  30. 30. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au The role of positive emotions Broaden momentary thought-action repertoire Build enduring personal resources Transform people & produce upward spirals Positive emotions Friendships, creativity, persistence, problem solving, flexibility… Fredrikson & Joiner (2002) joy ↔ play curiosity ↔ explore contentment ↔ savour & integrate
  31. 31. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Positive emotions • Openness to new ideas and experiences • Broaden cognitive, physical and social resources • Fosters collaboration, friendship, love
  32. 32. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Psychosocial reserves for times of threat or opportunity
  33. 33. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au In the moment, positive emotions • Broaden Attention and Thinking (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2002) • Helps people to be more creative, learn faster and make better decisions quicker (Isen, 2000, Positive affect and decision making) • Undo Lingering Negative Emotional Arousal (Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998; Fredrickson, Mancuso, Branigan & Tugade, 2000) • Fuel Resilient Coping (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh & Larkin, 2002; Tugade & Fredrickson, 2002)
  34. 34. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Over time, positive emotions • Increase well-being (Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002; Tugade & Fredrickson, 2002) • Build optimism, tranquility, and resilience (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin, 2002) • Prevent depression (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin, 2002)
  35. 35. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Over time, positive emotions • Increase work productivity (Marks & Fleming, 1995) • Improve physical health (Cohen et al., 2003). • Lead to longevity (Danner D, Snowdon D, Friesen W, 2001)
  36. 36. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Positive emotion & physical health Positive affect modulates the relationship between host resistance and disease onset or progression. Marshland, Pressman, Cohen (2007) Psychneuroimmunology, 4th Ed. Positive affect associated with greater resistance to objectively verifiable colds and fewer reported cold symptoms. Cohen, S., et al., (2003). Emotional Style and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. Psychosomatic Medicine 65, 652-657.
  37. 37. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Positive emotion & longevity Emotional state and motivation assessed by autobiographical writing, e.g., contentment, gratitude, hope, love, at start of career (n=180 Catholic nuns, mean age 22) Most cheerful vs least cheerful quarter • 90% vs 34% alive at 85 • 54% vs 11% alive at 94 Danner, Snowdon & Friesen (2001). Positive emotion in early life and longevity. J Pers & Soc Psych, 80:804-13.
  38. 38. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Neuromuscular Disease & Gratitude Neuromuscular disease study, daily gratitude journal intervention for 21- days, resulted in more/better (compared to control group): • Positive moods & energy • Feelings of connection to others • Optimistic ratings of one’s life • Sleep duration and sleep quality (Emmons & McCullough, 2003)
  39. 39. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au • RCT (gratitude vs neutral life events vs daily hassle groups) • More likely to have made progress toward important personal goals (academic, interpersonal and health-based) over a two-month period. • Exercised more regularly • Fewer physical symptoms of ill health • More life satisfaction • More optimistic about the upcoming week. (Emmons & McCullough, 2003) Community & Gratitude
  40. 40. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Key Message For optimal wellbeing get frequent daily hits of positive emotions
  41. 41. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Tuning-in to positive emotions • How much is enough? • Is their a ratio of positive to negative emotions? • How can I amplify positive emotions in my life? CAVEAT: Negative emotions are a normal part of the human experience and are crucial for survival. Accepting and learning to manage negative or unpleasant emotions is an equally important life skill.
  42. 42. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  43. 43. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Your neglected superpower Ron Gutman, www.ted.com/talks
  44. 44. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Gratitude Journal • Write about 2-3 things that you are grateful for • Make them recent (e.g., last 24hrs) • Make them specific (e.g., morning coffee, walked the dog, chat with my sister)
  45. 45. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au • How do you create positive emotion in your life? • Do you get enough hits of positive emotion?
  46. 46. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  47. 47. what you stand for as a person Values Are..?
  48. 48. Connection, adventure, learning, love Legacy, achievement, safety, kindness Hope, power, competence, success
  49. 49. VALUES GOALS
  50. 50. How do VALUES contribute to our WELLBEING and PERFORMANCE?
  51. 51. Values & wellbeing Values congruence predicts wellbeing (Elliot & Sheldon, 1997; Ferssizidis, Adams, Kashdan, Plummer, Mishra, & Ciarrochi, 2010). Prioritising social values linked to wellbeing (Ciarrochi & Bailey, 2008, Ferssizidis, Adams, Kashdan, Plummer, Mishra & Ciarrochi, 2010; Konow & Earley, 2008)
  52. 52. Value congruence: wellbeing & burnout amongst mental health practitioners (Veage et al, 2014) Values clarification exercises may invigorate the sense of meaning in practitioners ‫׳‬work, increasing wellbeing and reducing staff burnout.
  53. 53. EQUALITY COURAG E JUSTICE CREATIVITY ACHIEVEMENTHOPE TRADITION POWER PERSISTANCELOVE
  54. 54. WHO DO YOU ADMIRE?
  55. 55. SPOTTING VALUES IN YOURSELF
  56. 56. Values mean little without...
  57. 57. VALUES Knowing what you stand for in life COMMITTED ACTION Doing what matters everyday
  58. 58. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  59. 59. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  60. 60. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  61. 61. “Instead of mercilessly judging and criticizing yourself for various inadequacies or shortcomings, self- compassion means you are kind and understanding when confronted with personal failings – after all, who ever said you were supposed to be perfect?” Kristin Neff http://self-compassion.org/
  62. 62. Compassion Meditation Effect on Neuroendocrine, Innate Immune & Behavioral Responses to Stress Pace et al., (2009). Psychoneuroendocrinology. • RCT of 61 healthy adults • 6-week compassion meditation training vs health discussion control group • High-practice group had significant decrease in inflammation vs low- & no-practice groups
  63. 63. LKM & Social Connectedness Hutcherson, Seppala, Gross (2008). Emotion. • A brief LKM exercise to examine whether social connection could be created toward strangers in a controlled laboratory context (matched control) • CONCLUSION: LKM increases positive social emotions and decreases social isolation.
  64. 64. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au “There is no need for temples; no need for complicated philosophy. Our own brain, our own heart is our temple; the philosophy is kindness.” Dalai Lama
  65. 65. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Should the medical profession ask about patient happiness? Dr Sarah Pressman, Professor of Psychology & Social Behavior, University of California. The relationship between positive emotions, social relationships and physical health and longevity. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IqiGL4e_c30
  66. 66. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au “Other people matter” Chris Peterson
  67. 67. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Greatest Risk to Health?
  68. 68. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Greater Risk to Health?
  69. 69. Mortality Risk & Social Connectedness Hold-Lundstadt, Smith & Layton (2010). Plos Medicine. • Meta analysis of 148 research studies • > 300,000 people, followed for M = 7.5 years • Social support (friends, family, community) • 50% less likely to die (3.7 years) • Same effect by gender, age, initial health or cause of death
  70. 70. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Micro-moments in relationships
  71. 71. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Relationship Ratio John Gottman, relationship expert • Ratio of positive to negative interactions • Stay together 5.0 + : 1 - • Divorce/separate 0.8 + : 1 -
  72. 72. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au How do you respond when… • Your partner tells you “I just got promoted” • Your child/teen tells you “I passed my English essay” • Your father tells you “I hit a hole-in-one at golf today” • Your best friend tells you “I found the perfect party outfit” Active-Constructive Responding (capitalising)
  73. 73. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Active-constructive • Do you react with genuine interest? "That’s is great news. How are you feeling about that?“ Active-destructive • Do you point out the potential problems or down sides of the good event? "Are you sure you can handle the added responsibility?“ Passive-constructive • Do you say little, but convey that you are happy to hear the news? You smile or nod or say "That’s nice.“ Passive-destructive • Do you seem uninterested? Do you switch topics quickly ”Did you pick up the shopping?"
  74. 74. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Ref:Gable,S.L.,Gonzaga,G.,&Strachman,A.(2006)
  75. 75. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Capitalising ACR leads to amplifying the pleasure of the good situation and contributing to an upward spiral of positive emotion. Capitalising turns out to be the key to strong relationships.
  76. 76. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Random Acts of Kindness 5 random acts of kindness per week, 6 week study • E.g. a smile, offer your seat on a bus, thank someone, help a neighbour http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OrADq7JY0Y4 • Significant increases in well-being at post-assessment Lyubomirsky et al., 2004
  77. 77. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au The happiness of a close contact increases the chance of you being happy by 15% The happiness of a 2nd-degree contact (e.g. friend's spouse) increases it by 10% The happiness of a 3rd-degree contact (e.g. friend of a friend of a friend) by 6%
  78. 78. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au References Gable, S. L., Gonzaga, G., & Strachman, A. (2006). Will you be there for me when things go right? Social Support for Positive Events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 904-917. John Gottman http://www.gottman.com/49799/About-Us.html Fowler, James H. and Nicholas A. Christakis. 2008. Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal 337, no. a2338: 1-9 Pressman, Kollnesher, Cohen (2006). Social Talk and Longevity. Am. Psychosomatic. Soc. Maisel, N.C. & Gable, S.L. (2009) For richer…in good times…and in health: positive processes in relationships. In S.J. Lopez & C.R. Snyder (Eds.) Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. NY: Oxford University Press. Huppert, F.A. (2008). Psychological wellbeing: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences. State of the Science Review: SR-X2, UK Government Foresight Project, Mental Capital and Wellbeing Buonfino, A.; & Thomson, L. (2007). Belonging in Contemporary Britain. The Commission on Integration and Cohesion, Department of Communities and Local Government, Government of Great Britain Bacon,N., Brophy, M., Mguni, N., Mulgan, G. & Shandro A. (2010) The state of happiness: Can public policy shape people's wellbeing and resilience?. London: Young Foundation. Putnam, R (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and decline of American community (Simon & Schuster : New York)
  79. 79. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au • Who are the people in your life? • How do you nurture or care for these relationships? • What are the micro-moments you could capitalise on? “Other people matter” Dr Chris Peterson
  80. 80. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  81. 81. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au “People with no sense of ikigai were 50% more likely to die from any cause, compared to those who did have [an ikigai]. They had a 60% greater risk of death from cardiovascular disease, most commonly stroke, and were 90% more likely to die of external causes.” Sone, T., et al. (2008). J of Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 709-715. Do you have an ikigai?
  82. 82. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  83. 83. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Altruistic Behaviour “...a strong correlation exists between the well-being, happiness, health, and longevity of people who are emotionally and behaviorally compassionate, so long as they are not overwhelmed by helping tasks.”
  84. 84. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  85. 85. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  86. 86. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au • What is your ikigai? • What gives your life a sense of purpose and meaning? • Write your 6-word ikigai
  87. 87. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  88. 88. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au
  89. 89. themindroomww.themindroom.com.au Thank You! “Happiness is always here, it is always now.” Osho
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  • ChristineMacFarlane

    Oct. 4, 2016

These slides were used for APS Study Group presentations in 2016: - East Brighton (FlightWise), Thursday 20th October 2016 - Albury psychologists and allied mental health professionals, La Maison on Friday 29th July 2016

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