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Outline of nursing research ppt1

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Outline of nursing research

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Outline of nursing research ppt1

  1. 1. NURSING RESEARCH Dr. Jayesh Patidar www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Diers  “A systematic study of problems in patient care.” Nursing Research Definitions 9/30/2015 2www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  3. 3. Abdellah  “A systematic detailed attempt to discover or confirm facts that relate to a specific problem to improve the practice and profession of nursing.” 9/30/2015 3www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  4. 4. Polit and Hungler  “A systematic search for knowledge about issues of importance to nursing.” 9/30/2015 4www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  5. 5. Henderson  “A study of the problems in practice relating to the effects of nursing.” 9/30/2015 5www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  6. 6. Ways to “use” nursing research: --journal clubs --critique research for patient care purposes --explaining research to clients --data collection for others --reviewing methodology for IRB --finding research problems --using research results in patient care or education9/30/2015 6www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  7. 7. Why do research?  Professionalism  Accountability  Social Relevance 9/30/2015 7www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  8. 8. Evolution of Nursing Research  Education/Recruitment  Administration/Staffing  Practice  Methodology/Theory based research 9/30/2015 8www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  9. 9. Current Trends  Health Promotion  Nursing Decision Making  Effectiveness of Nursing Intervention in Selected Health Problems  Prevention  Case Studies/Qualitative Research  Ethnographic Studies  Compliance 9/30/2015 9www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  10. 10. Conferences for Research Priorities 9/30/2015 10www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  11. 11. #1 through 1994  HIV  Long term care  Low birth weight  Symptom management  Nursing informatics  Technology  Health Promotion 9/30/2015 11www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  12. 12. #2 through 1999  Develop and test community based nursing models  Assess effectiveness of nursing interventions with HIV  Develop and test approaches to remediate cognitive impairment  Assess coping with chronic illness  Methods for promoting immunocompetence 9/30/2015 12www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  13. 13. Epistemology  Sources of Human Knowledge or “how we know what we know” 9/30/2015 13www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  14. 14. Sources of Knowledge  Tradition or tenacity  Authority  Experience  Intuition  Trial and Error  Logical Reasoning – Induction – Deduction  Scientific Method9/30/2015 14www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  15. 15. Tradition/tenacity  Something we know because we have always known it.  Advantages: Efficient, provides a foundation of truths  Disadvantages: Most traditions have not been evaluated for their value 9/30/2015 15www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  16. 16. Authority  We know a thing because some authoritative source says it is so  Authorities are not infallible, so always question authority--what is the evidence that this is true? 9/30/2015 16www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  17. 17. Experience  Our own experiences may be too limited to generalize from 9/30/2015 17www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  18. 18. Intuition  It just “ seems” right 9/30/2015 18www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  19. 19. Trial and error  Haphazard  unsystematic  inefficient  usually unrecorded  must make the same mistakes or discoveries over and over again 9/30/2015 19www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  20. 20. Logical Reasoning  Induction--developing generalizations from specific observations Induction Specifics Generalizations Deduction  Deduction--developing specific predictions from general principles9/30/2015 20www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  21. 21. Scientific Method  The most advanced method of acquiring knowledge that humans have developed. 9/30/2015 21www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  22. 22. Scientific Method  Order  Control  Empiricism  Generalization  Theoretical Formulation 9/30/2015 22www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  23. 23. Order  Systematic prescribed order in order to have reproducibility and confidence in the results – problem identified – defined – predictions of oucome – information collected according to design – analysis – conclusion 9/30/2015 23www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  24. 24. Control  In trying to isolate relationships among phenomena, scientists must control phenomena and factors not under study. 9/30/2015 24www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  25. 25. Empiricism  Evidence rooted in objective reality and gathered directly or indirectly through the human senses. Research is based in REALITY 9/30/2015 25www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  26. 26. Generalization  No research is ever done just to benefit the subjects, in order to have value it must be generalizable to a wider population. 9/30/2015 26www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  27. 27. Theoretical formulation  Theories are manner of organizing, integrating and deriving abstract conceptualization about the manner in which phenomena are interrelated. 9/30/2015 27www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  28. 28. LIMITS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD  1. Values or ethics  2. Human complexity  3. Measurement problems  4. Control  5. Ethical considerations 9/30/2015 28www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  29. 29. PARADIGMS FOR NURSING RESEARCH  ONTOLOGIC-What is the nature of reality?  EPISTEMOLOGIC-What is the relationship between the inquirer and that being studied?  AXIOLOGIC-What is the role of values in inquiry?  METHODOLOGIC-How should the inquirer obtain knowledge? 9/30/2015 29www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  30. 30. POSITIVIST PARADIGM  Nature is ordered and regular and can be predicted. 9/30/2015 30www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  31. 31. NATURALISTIC OR PHENOMENOLOGIC PARADIGM  Reality not fixed but exists within a context, many interpretations are possible. Nothing is absolutely true or false, only within a context. 9/30/2015 31www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  32. 32.  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH vs  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 9/30/2015 32www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  33. 33. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH  Identification  Description  Exploration  Explanation  Prediction and Control 9/30/2015 33www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  34. 34. Types of Research by Utility  BASIC RESEARCH  APPLIED RESEARCH  COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 9/30/2015 34www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  35. 35. RELATIONSHIPS CAUSAL vs ASSOCIATIONAL
  36. 36. Requirements for causality  concomitant variation  temporal sequencing  absence of competing explanations 9/30/2015 36www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  37. 37. STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS (Quantitative Research)
  38. 38. CONCEPTUAL PHASE  1. Formulating and Delimiting the Problem  2. Reviewing the Literature  3. Developing a Theoretical Framework  4. Identifying the Research Variables  5. Formulating Hypotheses 9/30/2015 38www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  39. 39. DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE  6. Selecting a Research Design  7. Specifying the Population  8. Operationalizing the Variables  9. Conducting the Pilot Study/Making Revisions 9/30/2015 39www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  40. 40. EMPIRICAL PHASE  10. Selecting the Sample  11. Collecting the Data  12. Organizing Data for Analysis 9/30/2015 40www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  41. 41. ANALYTIC PHASE  13. Analyzing the Data  14. Interpreting the Results 9/30/2015 41www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  42. 42. DISSEMINATION PHASE  15. Communicating Results 9/30/2015 42www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  43. 43. STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS (Qualitative Research) Circular and Flexible
  44. 44.  1. Define/Clarify Broad Topic  2. Review of the Literature?  3. Identify Site/Setting  4. Obtain Access  5. Obtain and Test Equipment  6. Begin Data Collection/Analysis  7. Identify Themes/Categories  8. Triangulation/Saturation  9. Formulate Hypotheses/Theories  10. Communicate Findings 9/30/2015 44www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  45. 45. TERMINOLOGY  CONCEPTS/CONSTRUCTS  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK  OPERATIONAL DEFINITION  VARIABLES  DATA  HYPOTHESIS (research or null/statistical)  PROBLEM STATEMENT  RESEARCH DESIGNS  SAMPLE/POPULATION 9/30/2015 45www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  46. 46. Concepts/Constructs  Refined general or abstract idea “good health” “nursing care” 9/30/2015 46www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  47. 47. Conceptual Framework  A series of concepts or ideas connected by statements about the relationships that exist among them 9/30/2015 47www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  48. 48. Operational Definitions  Specifications of the specific and explicit operations which the researcher must perform in order to collect the required information “Operationalizing the concept” 9/30/2015 48www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  49. 49. Variables  Something which varies  An abstract entity which takes on different values. 9/30/2015 49www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  50. 50. DATA  Pieces of information obtained in the course of the study 9/30/2015 50www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  51. 51. Hypothesis  Research--A statement of the expectations of the researcher concerning the relationships of the variables under study HR  Null or Statistical--states that there is no relationship among the variables HO 9/30/2015 51www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  52. 52. Problem Statement  A the research question or a statement about the purpose of the study. 9/30/2015 52www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  53. 53. Research Designs  Basic designs are experimental and non experimental (or descriptive) 9/30/2015 53www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  54. 54. Sample/Population  Sample--the subjects participating in the study  Population--the whole universe of possible subjects  Target population--the group to whom the researcher wishes to generalize the results of the study 9/30/2015 54www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  55. 55. RESEARCH REPORTS  ABSTRACT  INTRODUCTION  METHOD  RESULTS  DISCUSSION  REFERENCES 9/30/2015 55www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  56. 56. Abstract  An abbreviated summary of the research problem, methodology, findings and significance. 9/30/2015 56www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  57. 57. INTRODUCTION  PURPOSE, RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  SIGNIFICANCE OF PROBLEM 9/30/2015 57www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  58. 58. METHOD  SUBJECTS  RESEARCH DESIGN  INSTRUMENTS AND DATA COLLECTION  STUDY PROCEDURES 9/30/2015 58www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  59. 59. RESULTS  STATISTICAL TESTS USED  VALUE OF THE STATISTIC  STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE  THEMES (Qualitative Research) 9/30/2015 59www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  60. 60. DISCUSSION  INTERPRETATION  IMPLICATIONS  LIMITATIONS 9/30/2015 60www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  61. 61. REFERENCES  All of the literature used in writing the research article. Should contain mostly recent and primary sources. 9/30/2015 61www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  62. 62. Thank you 9/30/2015 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in 62

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