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Interpersonal relationships


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Interpersonal relationships

  1. 1.
  2. 2.  One of the most distinctive aspects of human beings is that we are social beings.  Interpersonal relationships are & have been the core of our social system since the dawn of civilization.  Nursing is a therapeutic process & demands an association between the nurse & the patient. 2
  3. 3.  Interpersonal relationships refer to reciprocal social & emotional interactions between two or more individuals in an environment.  Interpersonal relationship is defined as a close association between individuals who share common interests & goals. 3
  4. 4. 4 Dyad TriadGroup
  5. 5. I. Dyad  A dyad consists of two interacting people.  It is the simplest of the three interpersonal dynamics.  One person relays a message & the other listen.  It is one of the most unstable interpersonal dynamic. The interaction ends when one constituent of the dyad refuses to listen or share his or her message.  It is also one of the most intimate interpersonal dynamic as the focus of listening & communication is centered on only one person. 5
  6. 6. II. Triad  A triad consists of three interaction people.  The members engage in the relay & reception of thoughts & ideas.  It is more stable than the dyad as the third members may act as a mediator when there is conflict between the other two. 6
  7. 7. III. Group  A group consists of more than three members & is a collection of traids & dyads.  It is the most stable from of interpersonal relationship. 7
  8. 8. I. Interpersonal relationship for an Individual  Personal growth & development  Source of enjoyment  Sense of security  Context of understanding  Interpersonal needs  Establishing personal identity 8
  9. 9. II. Interpersonal relationship for nurses  Building a positive functional multidisciplinary team  Improving intra-and/or inter-team communication, coordination & cooperation  Building mutual understanding & cooperation  Understanding self  Improved decision making & problem solving 9
  10. 10. III. Interpersonal relationship for patients  Developing a sense of security & comfort  Fostering trust & cooperation  Facilitating communication  Improving socialization  Developing & maintaining positive feelings 10
  11. 11. •Interpersonal relationships are classified based on relational contexts of interaction & the types of mutual expectations between communicators. •Some common types of interpersonal relation are  Friendship  Family & kinship  Professional relationship  Love  Marriage  Platonic relationship  Casual relationships  Brotherhood & sisterhood  Acquaintances 11
  12. 12.  Friendship  Theories of friendship emphasize the concept as a freely chosen association where individuals develop a common ground of thinking & behaving when they enter into the relationship by including mutual love, trust, respect & unconditional acceptance for each other.  Friendship is a relationship with no formalities & the individuals enjoy each other’s presence. 12
  13. 13.  Family and kinship  Family communication patterns establish roles & identify & enable personal & social growth of individuals.  Family relationships can get distorted if there is an unresolved conflict between members.  Most of the time, a significant family member senses other family members have significant emotional difficulties but fails to bring them out unless the physician or nurse enquires . 13
  14. 14. Professional Relationship  Individual working for the same organization are said to share a professional relationship & are called colleagues.  Colleagues may or may not like each other 14
  15. 15. Love  A informalized intimate relationship characterized by passion, intimacy, trust & respect is called love.  Individuals in a romantic relationship are deeply attached to each other & share a special bond 15
  16. 16. Marriage  Marriage is a formalize intimate relationship or a long-term relationship where two individuals decide to enter into wedlock & stay together life-long after knowing each other well. 16
  17. 17. Platonic Relationship  A relationship between two individuals without feelings of sexual desire for each other is called a platonic relationship.  In such a relationship, a man & a woman are just friends & do not mix love with friendship.  Platonic relationships might end in a romantic relationship with partners developing feelings of love for each other. 17
  18. 18.  Casual Relationships  In these relationships, the individuals usually develop a relationship that exclusively lacks mutual love & consists of sexual behavior only that does not extend beyond one night.  These individuals may be known as sexual partners in a wider sense of friends with benefits who consider sexual intercourse only in their relationship. 18
  19. 19. Brotherhood & Sisterhood  Individuals united for a common cause or a common interest (may involve formal membership in clubs, organization, associations, societies, etc.) may be termed as a brotherhood or a sisterhood.  In this relationship, individuals are committed to doing good deeds for fellow members & people. 19
  20. 20. Acquaintances  An acquaintance is a relationship where someone is simply known to someone by introduction or by a few interaction.  There is an absence of close relationship & the individuals lack in-depth personal information about other.  This could also be a beginning of a future close relationship. 20
  21. 21.  Hildegard Peplau (1952) gave the interpersonal relationship model. 21 Orientation Identification Exploitation Resolution
  22. 22.  Hildegard Peplau (1952) gave the interpersonal relationship model. 22 Nurse-patient relationship Nurse •Values •Culture race •Beliefs •Past experience •Expectations •Preconceived ideas Patient •Values •Culture race •Beliefs •Past experience •Expectations
  23. 23. • Start with an initial encounter with nurse & patient • The pact formulation begins between the nurse & the patient. • The nurse clarifies his or her roles & responsibilities within the therapeutic boundary to the patient. • The Nurse identifies the patient’s problem & settles on the type of nursing services needed. 23
  24. 24. • After developing a trustworthy relationship, the patients start clarifying doubts, share perceptions & convey their needs & expectation to the nurse. • There are several factors that may affect this phase in a nurse-patient relationship 24 Nurse •Values •Culture race •Beliefs •Past experience •Expectations •Preconceived ideas Patient •Values •Culture race •Beliefs •Past experience •Expectations Nurse-patient relationship
  25. 25. • The nurse must approach the patient with empathic understanding to perceive the patient’s current feeling. • The nurse must avoid vagueness & ambiguity by using specific terminology rather than abstractions in communication process. • The nurse helps the patients identify their problems in their own context & use the available resources to solve the problem. • The patient’s self esteem will be boosted by having feelings of belongingness. 25
  26. 26. • In this phase, the patient are made to understand the problems by exploring all available avenues to solve the problem. • The nurse can help the patient by extending minimal professional assistance to learn how to solve the problem. • The patient starts exploitation all the available resources in spite of making requests to others to extend help • Finally the patient is able to deal adequately with his or her problems 26
  27. 27. • This is the termination of the professional relationship that begins with convalesce &rehabilitation stage of hospitalization. • The patient’s needs have already been met by the collaborative efforts of the patient & the nurse in previous phases. • If psychological dependence persists between both of them, it become difficult to resolve the transferences or counter transferees. A nurse must aware of the techniques to resolve it. • The relationship must be terminated by maintaining a healthier emotional balance by both the parties. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29 Personal Barriers Personal Barriers
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Sociocultural Barriers Cultural diversity Ethnic diversity Social diversity Language diversity 31
  32. 32. Categories of Barriers Description of Barriers of IPR Methods of Overcomes Barriers of IPR Personal Barriers Gender variation In IPR, gender must to given due consideration Lack of honesty & trust Honesty & trust must be maintained while establishing & building IPRs 32
  33. 33. 33 Categories of Barriers Description of Barriers of IPR Methods of Overcomes Barriers of IPR Personal Barriers Lack of compatibility Compatibility between the individual involved in IPR must be ensured. Feeling of insecurity A sense of security must be ensured between the people involved in an IPRT Ineffective communication Effective communication is a key aspect of efficient IPRs, therefore, effective communication must be ensure. Distorted self- concept Individuals involved in IPRs must have a sound self- concept & +ve self-esteem
  34. 34. 34 Categorie s of Barriers Description of Barriers of IPR Methods of Overcomes Barriers of IPR Personal Barriers Lack of flexibility There must be flexibility in ideology & philosophy of the individuals in a relationship for an effective adaptation & success of the IPR Lack of respect for others rights A mutual senses of respect must be ensured by the people involved in personal & professional relationships Fear of rejection Fear of rejection must be eliminated between the individual involved in a relationship
  35. 35. 35 Categories of Barriers Description of Barriers of IPR Methods of Overcomes Barriers of IPR Personal Barriers Pre-existing psychiatric problem Skilled therapeutic communication is required to interact with individuals suffers from psychiatric or personality problems. Situational barriers Complex interaction setting The individuals must try to make the interaction setting simple & familiar & must make the other person feel important.
  36. 36. 36 Categories of Barriers Description of Barriers of IPR Methods of Overcomes Barriers of IPR Situational barriers • Adverse environmental situations •Lack of territoriality •High density of individuals Special care must be taken while developing a relationship between individuals of diversified territories & high density or interaction in adverse environmental situations. •Lack of distance •Lack of time Even in an organization, individuals must spend quality time with their co- workers to strengthen the bond between them
  37. 37. 37 Categories of Barriers Description of Barriers of IPR Methods of Overcomes Barriers of IPR Sociocultural barriers • cultural diversity •Ethnic diversity •Social diversity Individual can try to overcome cultural diversity to trying to enhance the four primary factors that decide interaction patterns (such as openness, trust, owing & risk to experiment) •Language diversity Individuals must try to enhance interpersonal communication skills (such as maintaining good eye contact, appropriate body language, listening with patience, etc.)
  38. 38.  The johari window model is a simple & useful tool for illustrating & improving self-awareness & mutual understanding between individuals within a group.  The johari window terminology refers to self & others.  Self refers to the person subject to the Johari window analysis & others refers to other people in the person’s group or team. 38
  39. 39.  The johari window model was devised by American psychologist, Joseph Luft & Harry Ingham, in 1955.  The model was first published in proceedings of the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development by UCLA extension Office in 1955.  The Johari window model represents self- awareness of an individual towards himself or herself, & later on become a widely used model for self-development by helping the person understand & learn about improvement of communication skills & IPRs 39
  40. 40. Known to self Unknown to self Known to others Unknown to others The open or public self The unknowing self The Private self The unknown self
  41. 41. The upper left quadrant of the window represents the part of the self that is public; that is, aspect of the self about which both the individual & others are aware.
  42. 42. Examples: Susan, a nurse who is the adult child of an alcoholic, has strong feelings about helping alcoholics to achieve sobriety. She volunteers her time to be a support person on call to help recovering alcoholics. She is aware of her feelings & her desire to help others. Members of the alcoholics Anonymous group in which the volunteers her time are also aware of Susan’s feelings & they feel comfortable calling her when they need help refraining from drinking.
  43. 43. The upper right (blind) quadrant of the window represents the part of the self that is known to others but remains hidden from the awareness of the individual.
  44. 44. Examples: When susan takes care of patients in detox, she does so without emotion, tending to the technical aspects of the task in a way that the clients perceive as cold & judgmental. She is unaware that she comes across to the clients in this way.
  45. 45. The lower left quadrant of the window represents the part of the self that is known to the individual, but which the individual deliberately & consciously conceals from others.
  46. 46. Example: Susan would prefer not to take care of the client in detox because doing so provokes painful memories from her childhood. Because she does not want the other staff members to known about these feelings, however, she volunteers to take care of the detox client whenever they are assigned to her unit.
  47. 47. The lower right quadrant of the window represent the part of the self that is unknown to both the individual & to others.
  48. 48. Example: Susan felt very powerless as a child growing up with an alcoholic father. She seldom knew in what condition she would find her father or what his behavior would be. She learned over her life situation, & left home as soon as she graduated from high school. The need to stay in control has always been very important to susan , & she is unaware that working with recovering alcoholics helps to fulfill this need in her. The people she is helping are also unaware that susan is satisfying an unfulfilled personal need as she provides them with assistance.
  49. 49. • It has become a widely used model for understanding & training self-awareness & personal development & improving communication, IPRs, group dynamics, team development & inter-group relationships. • It puts emphasis on soft skills, behavior, empathy, cooperation, inter-group development & interpersonal development. • It can also be used to improve an individual’s relationship with others or a group’s relationship with other groups. 50
  50. 50. • The model is a simple & useful tool for illustrating & improving self-awareness & mutual understanding between individuals in a group. • The Johari model can also be used to assess & improving self-awareness & mutual understanding between individuals in a group. • The johari window actually represents information – feelings, experiences, views attitudes, skills, intentions, motivation, etc. - within or about a person in relation to their group from four perspectives. • The johari window provides a useful way to graphically visualize the process of self-disclosure. 51
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