Hardness of water

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Hardness of water

  1. 1. HARDNESSOFWATERwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. HARDNESS OF WATER• SPECIAL TREATMENT—REMOVAL OF HARDNESS—[1]Temporary hardness—1]Boiling.2]Addition of lime.3]Addition of sodium carbonate.4]permutit process.[2]Permanent hardness—1]Addition of sodium carbonate.2]Base exchange process.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  3. 3. PURIFICATION OF WATER[1]NATURAL METHODS—1]Evaporation and condensation.2]Storage and oxidation.3]Air,Sunlight and oxidation.4]Filtration through earth.5]Biological purification[2]ARTIFICIAL METHODS.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  4. 4. ATRTIFICIAL METHODS• A] PURIFICARION ON A LARGHSCALE.{1}STORAGE.{2}FILTRATION.A}Slow sand or biological filters.B}Rapid sand or mechanical filters.{3}DISINFECTION.(CHLORINATION).• B]PURIFICATION ON SMALL SCALE.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  5. 5. ELEMENTS OF SLOW SANDFILTERS—• 1]SUPERNATANT (RAW) WATER.• 2]SAND BED.• 3]UNDER-DRAINAGE SYSTEM.• 4]FILTER CONTROL.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  6. 6. RAPID SAND FILTERS—STEPS—1]Coagulation.2]Rapid mixing.3]Flocculation.4]Sedimentation.5]Filtration.-filter bed.-filtration.-back-washing.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  7. 7. CHLORINATION{Disinfection}• 1]METHODS OF CHLORINATION.• 2]BREAK POINT OF CHLORINATION.• 3]SUPERCHLORINATION.The orthotolidine test. [OT]The orthotolidine- Arsenite [OTA] test.OTHER AGENTS-Ozonation.Ultraviolet Irradiation.www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  8. 8. PURIFICATION OF WATER ON SMALLSCALE—• 1] HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF WATER. BOILING— CHEMICAL DISINFECTION-1]Bleaching powder.2]Chlorine solution.3]High test hypochlorite.4]Chlorine tablets.5]Iodine.6]Potassium permanganate. FILTRATION.• 2] DISINFECTION OF WELLS.STEPS- FIND THE VOLUME OF WATER IN A WELL. FIND OUT AMOUNT OF BLEACHING POWDER REQUIRED FOR DISINFECTION. DISSOLVE BLEACHING POWDER IN WATER. DELIVERY OF CHLORINE SOLUTION INTO THE WELL. CONTROL PERIOD. ORTO-TOLIDINE ARSENITE TEST. THE DOUBLE POT METHODwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in
  9. 9. Thank youwww.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.in

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