Examination of Urine
1) Physical Examination – Normal findings of urine
Colour – Pale Yellow or Amber Colour
Appearance/ turbidity – Clear
Volume – 1000 to 2000 ml in 24 hrs.
Reaction – Acidic
PH -4.6- 8
Odor – aromatic odor Smells Like ammonia due to presence of
2) Chemical Examination
Ketones - Negative
Bile salt – Negative
Blood - Negative
Protein - Negative
Bile pigment - Negative
• Test tube 4 to 6, along with
test tube stand.
• Test tube holder 1.
• Spirit Lamp Match box.
• Kidney tray.
• Benedict solution, Nitric acid
or sulphosalic acid.
• Acetic acid
• Red and blue litmus paper
• Ammonium sulphate crystal,
sodium nitroprusside crystal
• Liquor ammonia, Weak
solution of Tr. Iodine
• Sulphur powder
• Measuring cup
• Bottle brush
• To put urine in that.
• To hold the test tube.
• To heat the urine.
• To discard the waste.
• To check urine sugare.
• To test urine for albumin.
• to test urine for reaction.
• to measure specific gravity of
• to test urine for acetone
• to test for bile pigment.
• to test for bile salt
• to measure the amount of
urine. to measure the drops
• Urine for sugar or Benedict’s test
• Purposes – Screening to detect diabetes
• Confirmation diagnosis of diabetes
• Monitoring the effectiveness of
• Heat 5ml of benedict’s
solution over the spirit
Holding test tube away from
• Add 8 drops of urine with
dropper and heat for two
• Again cool & observe the
• Record the date time name
of investigation, and the
result, in the patient’s
• To check the solution
whether it is clear or not .
• To protect yourself.
• To check urine sugar.
• To see the result.
• Proper documentation will
help for the references and
for accurate treatment to
• Colour Changes Urine glucose
• Absence of Colour Change Nil
• Light Green Trace
• Dark Green 1 +
• Yellow 2 +
• Orange 3 +
• Brick Red 4 +
Urine for Albumin- Hot test
• Take urine up to 2/3 of the test tube and heat the
upper 1/3, rotate test tube constantly.
• Then add few drops of acetic acid along the sides
of the test tube and observe for precipitation.
• If the cloud disappears, it is due to phosphate If
the cloud still remain it indicate the presence of
albumin, it will not disappear with acetic acid.
• If urine is highly acidic or highly alkaline, the
reading will be false.
• No precipitate Nil
• Slightly cloudy Trace
• One finger breadth or translucent 1+
• Two finger breadth or translucent 2+
• Three finger breadth or opaque 3+
• Thick Precipitate 4+
• Add 2 ml of sulphosalicylic acid or nitric
acid to 2 ml of urine in a test tube.
• If albumin is Present white precipitate will
be seen where two fluids meet.
• protein is indicated by cloudy Precipitate.
Test For Acetone / Roth era’s
• Purposes – Screening for ketonuria- routine
hospital urine test, pre-surgery, pregnant women,
• Glycosuria- testing for ketone body
• To check for control of diabetes
• To differentiate between diabetic
coma and insulin shock.
• When heavy sugar is found in the urine test for
acetone is done.
• 1) Take 3 cm of ammonium Sulphate crystals in a
• 2) Add equal amount of urine to it.
• 3) Put one crystal of sodium nitroprusside.
• 4) Close the test tube with Cork and shake the
• 5) Add 1.5 cm of concentrate ammonia
• 6) Read the Result immediately. It acetone is
present a permanganate Purple colored ring is
formed at the junction of urine and ammonia
• 7) Discard the urine and clean the articles.
Hey’s test / Test for bile salt.
Take 5 ml of urine in the test tube.
Sprinkle Sulphur Powder on the
surface of the urine.
If the powder sinks down to the test
tube, it indicates the presence of bile
salt in the urine.
Simth’s test / test for bile pigments.
Take ¾ of a test tube with urine.
Add a weak solution of iodine by dropper to
from a layer on the surface of urine .
If green Colour develops at the junction of the
iodine and urine it indicates the presence of
bile pigment in the urine.
Discard the urine and clean the articles.
To test reaction.
Dip one end of a litmus into the urine.
If urine is acidic, blue litmus turn into
It urine is alkaline, red litmus turn into
No change in both litmus papers.
Indicates neutral reaction.
Normal urine is acidic in reaction
• Take conical glass fill 20-
30 ml urine
• Allow a urinometer to float
in the urine
• Take reading just before
• Read the specific gravity
at the eye level.
• To check for specific
• See that the urinometer
does not touch the bottom
and sides of the conical
• To prevent error
• Take the lower meniscus to
prevent error in reading
• Normal specific gravity is 1.003 to 1.030
• Urinometer scale is 1.000 to 1.060
• It is high in diabetes mellitus due to the
presence of sugar , and it can be low in
kidney disease due to the inability of the
kidneys to concentrate the urine.