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Examination of urine


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Examination of urine

  2. 2. Examination of Urine 1) Physical Examination – Normal findings of urine Colour – Pale Yellow or Amber Colour Appearance/ turbidity – Clear Volume – 1000 to 2000 ml in 24 hrs. Reaction – Acidic PH -4.6- 8 Odor – aromatic odor Smells Like ammonia due to presence of volatile acids.
  3. 3. 2) Chemical Examination Ketones - Negative Sugar -Negative Bile salt – Negative Blood - Negative Protein - Negative Bile pigment - Negative
  4. 4. 3) Microscopic Examination – RBC- Negative • Pus cell - Negative • Crystals- Negative • Epithelial cells- Negative • Casts - Negative • AFB- Negative 4) Specific gravity - 1.003 -1.030
  5. 5. • Test tube 4 to 6, along with test tube stand. • Test tube holder 1. • Spirit Lamp Match box. • Kidney tray. • Benedict solution, Nitric acid or sulphosalic acid. • Acetic acid • Red and blue litmus paper • Urinometer • Ammonium sulphate crystal, sodium nitroprusside crystal • Liquor ammonia, Weak solution of Tr. Iodine • Sulphur powder • Measuring cup • Pipette • Bottle brush • To put urine in that. • To hold the test tube. • To heat the urine. • To discard the waste. • To check urine sugare. • To test urine for albumin. • to test urine for reaction. • to measure specific gravity of urine. • to test urine for acetone • to test for bile pigment. • to test for bile salt • to measure the amount of urine. to measure the drops of
  6. 6. Urine Tests • Urine for sugar or Benedict’s test • Purposes – Screening to detect diabetes • Confirmation diagnosis of diabetes • Monitoring the effectiveness of diabetes control
  7. 7. procedure • Heat 5ml of benedict’s solution over the spirit lamp. Holding test tube away from face. • Add 8 drops of urine with dropper and heat for two minutes. • Again cool & observe the Colour changes. • Record the date time name of investigation, and the result, in the patient’s record file. • To check the solution whether it is clear or not . • To protect yourself. • To check urine sugar. • To see the result. • Proper documentation will help for the references and for accurate treatment to the
  8. 8. • Colour Changes Urine glucose Level • Absence of Colour Change Nil • Light Green Trace • Dark Green 1 + • Yellow 2 + • Orange 3 + • Brick Red 4 +
  9. 9. Urine for Albumin- Hot test • Take urine up to 2/3 of the test tube and heat the upper 1/3, rotate test tube constantly. • Then add few drops of acetic acid along the sides of the test tube and observe for precipitation. • If the cloud disappears, it is due to phosphate If the cloud still remain it indicate the presence of albumin, it will not disappear with acetic acid. • If urine is highly acidic or highly alkaline, the reading will be false.
  10. 10. • Precipitation Albumin level • No precipitate Nil • Slightly cloudy Trace • One finger breadth or translucent 1+ • Two finger breadth or translucent 2+ • Three finger breadth or opaque 3+ • Thick Precipitate 4+
  11. 11. Cold Test • Add 2 ml of sulphosalicylic acid or nitric acid to 2 ml of urine in a test tube. • If albumin is Present white precipitate will be seen where two fluids meet. • protein is indicated by cloudy Precipitate.
  12. 12. Test For Acetone / Roth era’s Test • Purposes – Screening for ketonuria- routine hospital urine test, pre-surgery, pregnant women, • Glycosuria- testing for ketone body • To check for control of diabetes • To differentiate between diabetic coma and insulin shock.
  13. 13. • When heavy sugar is found in the urine test for acetone is done. • 1) Take 3 cm of ammonium Sulphate crystals in a test tube. • 2) Add equal amount of urine to it. • 3) Put one crystal of sodium nitroprusside. • 4) Close the test tube with Cork and shake the test tube. • 5) Add 1.5 cm of concentrate ammonia • 6) Read the Result immediately. It acetone is present a permanganate Purple colored ring is formed at the junction of urine and ammonia • 7) Discard the urine and clean the articles. •
  14. 14. Hey’s test / Test for bile salt. Take 5 ml of urine in the test tube. Sprinkle Sulphur Powder on the surface of the urine. If the powder sinks down to the test tube, it indicates the presence of bile salt in the urine.
  15. 15. Simth’s test / test for bile pigments. Take ¾ of a test tube with urine. Add a weak solution of iodine by dropper to from a layer on the surface of urine . If green Colour develops at the junction of the iodine and urine it indicates the presence of bile pigment in the urine. Discard the urine and clean the articles.
  16. 16. Reaction To test reaction. Dip one end of a litmus into the urine. If urine is acidic, blue litmus turn into red. It urine is alkaline, red litmus turn into blue. No change in both litmus papers. Indicates neutral reaction. Normal urine is acidic in reaction
  17. 17. SPECIFIC GRAVITY • Take conical glass fill 20- 30 ml urine • Allow a urinometer to float in the urine • Take reading just before spinning stops • Read the specific gravity at the eye level. • To check for specific gravity • See that the urinometer does not touch the bottom and sides of the conical glass. • To prevent error • Take the lower meniscus to prevent error in reading
  18. 18. • Normal specific gravity is 1.003 to 1.030 • • Urinometer scale is 1.000 to 1.060 • • It is high in diabetes mellitus due to the presence of sugar , and it can be low in kidney disease due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate the urine.