Etiology biopsychosocial factors


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Etiology biopsychosocial factors

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION…• Many factors are responsible forthe causation of mental illness.• These factors may predispose anindividual to mental illness,precipitate or perpetuate the
  3. 3. Predisposing Factors…• These factors determine an individual’ssusceptibility to mental illness.• They interact with precipitating factorsresulting in mental illness. They are:Genetic make upPhysical damage to the central nervoussystem.Adverse psychosocial
  4. 4. Precipitating Factors…• These are events that occur shortlybefore the onset of a disorder &appear to have induced it. Theyare…Physical stressPsychosocial
  5. 5. Perpetuating Factors…• These factors are responsible for aggravatingor prolonging the diseases already existing inan individual.• Psychosocial stress is an example.• Thus, etiological factors of mental illness canbe:1. Biological factors2. Physiological changes3. Psychological factors4. Social
  6. 6. 1. Biological Factors:HeredityBiochemical FactorsBrain
  7. 7. Count…Heredity:• What one inherits is not the illness or itssymptoms, but a predisposition to theillness, which is determined by genesthat we inherit directly.• Studies have shown that three-fourthsof mental defectives & one-third ofpsychotic individuals owe their conditionmainly to unfavorable
  8. 8. Count…Biochemical Factors:• Biochemical abnormalities in the brainare considered to be the cause of somepsychological disorders.• Disturbance in neurotransmitters in thebrain is found to play an important rolein the etiology of certain
  9. 9. Count…Brain Damage:• Any damage to the structure & functioning ofthe brain can give rise to mental illness.• Damage to the structure of the brain may bedue to one of the following causes:– Infection: Example, Neurosyphilis, encephalitis,HIV infection, etc.– Injury: Loss of brain tissue due to head injury– Intoxication: Damage to brain tissue due totoxins such as alcohol, barbiturates, lead,
  10. 10. Count…– Vascular: Poor blood supply, bleeding(intracranial hemorrhage, subarachnoidhemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage)– Alteration in brain function: Changes in bloodchemistry that interfere with brain functioningsuch as disturbance in blood glucose levels,hypoxia, anoxia, & fluid & electrolyte imbalance.– Tumors: Brain tumors– Vitamin deficiency & malnutrition, in particulardeficiency of vitamin B
  11. 11. Count…– Degenerative diseases: Dementia– Endocrine disturbances: Hypothyroidism,thyrotoxicosis etc– Physical defects & physical illness: Acutephysical illness as well as chronicillnesses with all their handicappingconditions may result in loss of
  12. 12. 2. Physiological Changes:• It has been observed that mental disorders aremore likely to occur at certain critical periods oflife namely – puberty, menstruation, pregnancy,delivery, puerperium & climacteric.• These periods are marked not only byphysiological (endocrine) changes, but also bypsychological issues that diminish the adaptivecapacity of the individual.• Thus, the individual becomes more susceptibleto mental illness during this
  13. 13. 3. Psychological Factors:• It is observed that some specific personalitytypes are more prone to develop certainpsychological disorders. For example, thosewho are unsocial & reserved (schizoid) arevulnerable to schizophrenia when they faceadverse situations & psychosocial stresses.• Strained interpersonal relationships at home,place of work, school or college, bereavement,loss of prestige, loss of job,
  14. 14. Count…• Childhood insecurities due to parents withpathological personalities, faculty attitude ofparents (over-strictness, over leniency),abnormal parent-child relationship (over-protection, rejection, unhealthy comparisons),deprivation of child’s essential psychological &social needs, etc.• Social & recreational deprivations resulting inboredom, isolation & alienation.• Stress, frustration & seasonal variations aresometimes noted in the occurrence of mentaldiseases.
  15. 15. Count…• Marriage problems like forced bachelorhood,disharmony due to physical, emotional, socialeducational or financial incompatibility,childlessness, too many children, etc.• Sexual difficulties arising out of improper sexeducation, unhealthy attitudes towards sexualfunctions, guilt feelings about masturbations,pre-& extra-marital sex relations, worriesabout sexual
  16. 16. 4. Social Factors:• Poverty, unemployment , injustice, insecurity,migration, urbanization.• Gambling, alcoholism, prostitution, brokenhomes, divorce, very big family, religion,traditional, political upheavals & other
  17. 17.