Body mechanics


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Body mechanics

  1. 1.
  2. 2. MEANING• EFFECTIVE USE OF BODY AS AMACHINE AND AS A MEANS FORLOCOMOTION•Special techniques tocoordinate your balance andmovement which will help toavoid injuring yourself oryour
  3. 3. Physiology of movements• Purposefull coordinated movements of thebody requires the integrated functioningof the musculoskeletal and
  4. 4. SKELETAL SYSTEM• The framework of bones and cartilageprotects our organs and allows us to movethrough skeletal
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEMIN BODY MECHANICS.• 1.Supports the soft tissues of the body[Maintains body form and body posture]• 2.Furnishes surfaces for the attachment ofmuscles,tendons,and ligaments which inturn pull on the individual bones andproduce
  6. 6. .Their are 206 bones in humanbody classified as-Long bones-Short bones-Flat bones-Irregular
  7. 7. Types and freely movable joints• 1.Ball and socket joint• . E.g Shoulder and hip joint.• 2.Condyloid joint-• E.g wrist joint.• 3.Gliding joint E.g Carpel bone of wristand tarsal bone of feet• 4.Hinge joint E.g Elbow
  8. 8. Muscular
  9. 9. • Bones and joints provides form to thebody• Muscles helps bone to produce movement• The excitibility,contractibility and elasticityof muscles enable them to perform• -Motion• -Maintenance of
  10. 10. Nervous system• The skeletal and muscular system cannotproduce purposefull movement without afunctioning nervous system.• Nerve impulses stimulate muscles tocontract.• Afferent nervous system conveysinformation from receptors in periphery ofbody to the
  11. 11. CONTI…• Nerve cells called neuron conductsimpulses from one part of body toanother.• This information is processed by C.N.Sleading to response.• The efferent system conveys the responsefrom the CNS to the skeletal muscle bythe way of somatic nervous
  12. 12. Importance of Body mechanics• 1.Proper body alignment and postureprevents fatigue and deformities.• 2.Poor posture causes Deformities.• 3.Good posture promotes the physiologicfunctions of the body.• 4.Reduces the expenditure of the
  13. 13. Conti…• 5.Helps to maintain the balance of thebody without undue strain on the bodyparts.• 6.Its contributes to ones beauty.• 7.To prevent strain and injury to thepatient/nurse.• 8.To use appropriate technique whenmoving the
  14. 14. Conti…• To provide safety for the
  15. 15. CONCEPTS OF BODY MECHANICS• The correct use of body mechanics shouldbe evident for every activity and evenduring rest period.BODY ALIGNMENT-Positioning of thejoints,tendons,ligaments and muscleswhile standing,sitting and lying
  16. 16. Conti…If proper body alignment is maintainedperson will not experience undue strainand fatigue.BODY BALANCE- When the center ofgravity is balanced over a wide, stable ofsupport and vertical line falls from centerof gravity and base of
  17. 17. COORDINATED BODY MOVEMENT• While giving nursing care to the patientfrequent use the body is to assist in-Positioning-Turning and lifting the patient andequipment and all the nursing activities.It is important to do thisknowledgeably to avoid musculoskeletalstrain and
  18. 18. PRINCIPLES OF BODY MECHANICS.• 1.Wider the base of support,greater thestability.• 2.Lower the center of gravity greater thestability of nurse.• 3.The equilibrium of an object ismaintained as long as the line of gravitypassess through its base of
  19. 19. • 4.Stronger the muscle group the greaterthe amount of work can be safely done.• 5.Facing the direction of movementsprevents abnormal twisting of the spine.• 6.Dividing balanced activity between armsand legs reduces the risk of back
  20. 20. • 7.Leverage,rolling,turning or pivotingrequires less work than lifting.• 8.When friction is reduced between theobject to be moved and the surface onwhich it is moved,less force is required tomove.• 9.Reducing the force of work reduces therisk of
  21. 21. • 10.Maintaining good body mechanics,reduces fatigue of the muscle group.• 11.Alternating periods of rest and activityhelps to reduce
  22. 22. RULES TO BE FOLLOWED BY NURSESWHILE CARRYING NURSINGACTIVITIES.• Maintain good posture [anatomicalposture].Use the longest and strongestmuscles of extremities for
  23. 23. • WATCH YOUR POSTUREStand straight with your feet flat on thefloor. Keep your arms at your side. Keepyour abdominal muscles tight. This takesStrain off your
  24. 24. Conti…•Keep the object close to the bodyto prevent unnecessary strain onthe muscles. This brings center ofgravity of object close to thecenters of gravity of
  25. 25. Conti….• Keep your back straight• Flex the knees and hip joints but keep thetrunk as vertical as possible. [Moving andshifting]• Avoid jerking and twisting during the lift.• Heavy patients should be moved in bedby sliding rather than
  26. 26. Conti…• Assistance should be requested whenlifting or moving heavy patients.• Stay balanced-Place the feet apart toprovide a wide base of support.Broader base provides a better
  27. 27. Conti…• Keep work close to the body.• Slide,roll,push or pull an object ratherthan lifting it in order to reduce theenergyNeeded to lift the weight against the pullof gravity.– Lift
  28. 28. Conti..• Plan and think through your move-Beforeyou begin the action make sure you areapplying proper body mechanics• Coordinate your movements by tellingpatients or other workers when you areready to move. You may want to count‘1,2,3….lift’’
  29. 29. IllEFFECTS OF IMPROPER BODYMECHANICS IN NURSINGPRACTICE.• Decubitus ulcers/Pressure sores/Bedsores –The pressure of body partsagainst the mattress especially whenthe body parts are not in correctalignment for long period of timethen blood supply becomes depletedand if this continues results in
  30. 30. Cont…• CONTRACTURES :The pressure of tightupper bedding holding the feet in anincorrect position of body alignment willcontribute to development of contracturesand decubiti• FOOT
  31. 31.