Autistic disorder


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Autistic disorder

  2. 2. CONCEPT…• A pervasive development disorder.• Autistic disorder is characterized byinappropriate responses to the environment &pronounced impairments in language,communication, & social interaction.• It begins during childhood & lasts throughout life.• Typically, the autistic child has disorderedthinking.• He may have severe learning difficulties,impaired intelligence, & difficulty understanding &using
  3. 3. Count…• He has trouble understanding the feelings ofothers & the world around him.• Also, he may demonstrate repetitive, self-injurious, or other abnormal behaviors.• An autistic child appears aloof from others &lacks interested in social interactions• Autistic disorder occurs in 10 t012 of every10,000 children & is up to five times morecommon in boys than
  4. 4. CAUSES• No known single cause for autistic exist, butsome studies suggest it may stem fromabnormalities in brain structure or function.Brain scans show differences in brain shape& structure in autistic children.• Other possible causes of autistic disorderinclude medical problems & a geneticpredisposition. Couples with one autistic childhave roughly a 7% chance of having
  5. 5. Count…• Researchers are also investigating possiblelinks between autism and: Pregnancy or delivery complications Environmental factors, such as viralinfections, infant vaccines, metabolicimbalances, & exposure to
  6. 6. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS• Autism may cause symptoms during infancy. It’scommonly discovered when parents notice theirchild doesnt appear to hear.• Young children with autism usually have impairedlanguage development & difficulty expressingtheir needs. They may laugh or cry for noapparent reason. Even those who gainrudimentary language skills can’t communicateeffectively.• Other sign & symptoms of autism include: Indifference toward others Delayed & impaired verbal & nonverbal
  7. 7. Count… Abnormal speech patterns, such asecholalia. Lack of intonation & expression in speech. Repetitive rocking motions. Hand flapping Insistence on sameness Dislike of changes in daily activities &routines. Self-injurious behaviors, such as head-banging, hitting, or
  8. 8. Count… Unusual fascination with inanimateobjects, such as fans & air conditioners. Dislike of touching & cuddling Frequent outbursts & tantrums Little or no eye contact with others Increase or decreased sensitivity to pain No fear of
  9. 9. DIAGNOSIS• Usually, autistic disorder is diagnosed by age 3.• After ruling out other disorders (such asneurological disorders, hearing loss, speechproblem, & mental retardation), the pediatriciantypically refers the child to an autism specialist.The professional may be a child psychiatrist,child psychologist, developmental pediatrician,or pediatric neurologist.• The autism specialist used various methods toidentify the disorder, including a standardizedrating scale to help evaluate the child’s socialbehavior &
  10. 10. Count…• Developmental screening may revealbehaviors that suggest autism, such as: Failure to babble or coo by age 12 months Failure to gesture (point, wave, or grasp) byage 12 months Failure to say single words by age 16months Failure to say two-word phrases on his ownby age 24 months Loss of language or social skills at any
  11. 11. Count…• After evaluation & testing, the autismspecialist diagnosed autistic disorder basedon clear evidence of: Poor or limited social relationships Underdeveloped communication skills Repetitive behaviors, activities, &
  12. 12. TREATMENT• A combination of early intervention, specialeducation, family support, & in some casesmedication may help some autistic children leadmore normal lives.• Early intervention & special education programsmay increase the child’s capacity to learn,communicate, & relate to others. This approachalso may reduce the severity & frequency ofdisruptive behaviors.• Although no drug has been shown to treat autisticdisorder successfully, stimulants such asmethylphenidate may reduce inattentiveness,impulsivity, & overactivity in some
  13. 13. Count…• However, stimulants also may increase thechild’s internal preoccupation, stereotypicalbehavior & social withdrawal.• SSRIs may be useful in managing compulsivebehavior, irritability, & withdrawal.• Family counseling can help the family betterunderstand the disorder & assist them withcoping strategies & behavior modificationtherapies.• In some situations, home care is available toassist with the child’s physical or behavioralmanagement in the
  14. 14. NURSING INTERVENTION• Choose your words carefully when speaking toa verbal autistics child. The child is likely tointerpret words concretely & may interpret aharmless request as a threat.• Offer emotional support & information to theparents. Suggest they meet with parents ofother autistic children for advice on coping withtantrums, toilet training, & other problems.• To promote communication, advice the parentsto have close, face-to-face contact with
  15. 15. Count…• Teach the parents to maintain a regular,predictable daily routine, with consistent timesfor waking up, dressing, eating, attendingschool, & going to bed.• Suggest that the parents use a picture boardshowing the activities that will occur during theday to help the child make transitions moreeasily.• If the child’s routine must changed, instruct theparents to prepare the child for the changes.• Advise the parents to avoid situations known totrigger out
  16. 16. Count…• Teach the parents how to recognize the behaviorsthat precede temper tantrums, such as increasedhand flapping. Instruct them to intervene before atantrum occurs.• Instruct the parents on ways to make the home safer-for instance, by installing locks & gates so the childcan’t wander unsupervised.• If the child’s behavior is self-injurious, advise theparents on ways to prevent injury.• Inform the parents that punishment may worsen self-injurious behavior• Help the parents devise a plan to improve behaviorby giving tangible rewards for desired
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