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  1. 1. 1 Classroom Management Strategies for Effective Instruction Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant Upper Cumberland Special Education Co-operative October 2002
  2. 2. 2 Today’s Agenda Welcome and Opening Activities The Characteristics of an Effective Teacher Effective Behavior Management Strategies Organizing and Managing the Learning Environment Designing Lessons to Enhance Student Learning Closing Activities Lunch is on your own Breaks will be taken as needed
  3. 3. 4 Goals and Objectives… 1. To identify the characteristics of effective teachers 2. To understand why children misbehave and identify effective strategies for dealing with student misbehavior 3. To identify techniques for organizing and managing effective learning environments 4. To identify characteristics of effective lesson planning 5. To identify resources and materials dealing with positive and effective classroom management
  4. 4. 5 Presentation Techniques (Utilizing the Principles of Adult Learning Theory) Discussion Small and large group activities Cooperative learning strategies (i.e., jigsaw, think-pair-share) Self-Reflection Question and answer sessions Active Learning Strategies (i.e., role play, scenarios, simulations) others
  5. 5. 6 Classroom management is… …all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place. Two major goals… 1. To foster student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities 2. To establish a productive working environment. -First Days of School, Wong
  6. 6. 7 Describe a well- managed classroom
  7. 7. 8 Characteristics of a Well- Managed Classroom… Students are deeply involved with their work Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption The climate of the classroom is work- oriented, but relaxed and pleasant.
  8. 8. 9 A well-managed classroom is… A task oriented environment A predictable environment Is ready and waiting for students
  9. 9. 10 Brainstorming Activity… Think of as many responses to the following statement as you can… An effective teacher is…..
  10. 10. 11 A Dangerous Educator… Believes that this job is not about relationships Believes that this is just a job, and when the school day is over, the work’s all done. Believes that he/she can handle any situation, alone. Believes that, “It was good enough for me, by golly, it oughta’ be good enough for them.” Believes that all these kids need is “a good whippin’.”
  11. 11. 12 A Dangerous Educator… Believes that what he/she does outside of here has no bearing Believes that anger shouldn't be part of the curriculum Never makes time to just sit and listen Believes that this kids have no right to be mad Believes that he/she can’t make a difference Believes that punishment is more effective than discipline
  12. 12. 13 A Dangerous Educator… Thinks you shouldn’t smile until Thanksgiving. Believes that morality and values should only be taught at home Sees the act, not the young person behind it. Believes that strict adherence to the rules is the most important goal of any child’s day. Forgets he/she is modeling. Is a “structure monster”. -Malcolm Smith
  13. 13. 14 The Effective Teacher… Establishes good control of the classroom Does things right, consistently Affects and touches lives Exhibits positive expectations for ALL students Establishes good classroom management techniques
  14. 14. 15 The Effective Teacher… Designs lessons for student mastery Works cooperatively and learns from colleagues Seeks out a mentor who serves as a role model Goes to professional meetings to learn Has a goal of striving foe excellence
  15. 15. 16 The Effective Teacher… Can explain the district’s, school’s, and department or grade level’s curriculum Realizes that teaching is not a private practice Is flexible and adaptable Listens, listens, listens Understands the research process
  16. 16. 17 The Effective Teacher… Teaches with proven research-based practices Knows the difference between an effective teacher and an ineffective one
  17. 17. 18 In summary… An effective teacher… Has positive expectations for student success Is an extremely good classroom manager Knows how to design lessons for student mastery
  18. 18. 19 Understanding Our Students Dealing With Student Behavior in Today’s Classrooms
  19. 19. 20 This is not an easy time to work with children and youth… One in six youths (age 10-17) has seen or knows someone who has been shot (Children’s Defense Fund) At least 160,000 students skip class each day because they fear physical harm (NEA) In the last 10 years, the likelihood that a child under 18 will be killed by guns rose almost 250% (FBI Uniform Crime Reports)*
  20. 20. 21 Every U.S. school day, 6,250 teachers are threatened with bodily injury (NEA) More than 150,000 school age children bring a gun to school each school day (Children’s Defense Fund) More than 50% of children in the U.S. fear violent crime against themselves or a family member (Newsweek)*
  21. 21. 22 Every 10 seconds a crime occurs in a U.S. school (Children’s Defense Fund) 70% of those arrested for hate crimes are under age 19 (U.S. News)*
  22. 22. 23 We can trace out-of-control behaviors to a variety of factors… The physical and emotional climate of the child's home and neighborhood The amount of stability and consistency in the child’s family The parenting styles of the child’s parents The power and influence of peers in a child’s life*
  23. 23. 24 the positive and negative role models available to the child The child’s exposure to violent media The child’s emotional and physical health The child’s own attitude toward his/her anger*
  24. 24. 25 The Changing Family In the last two decades, there has been a 200% growth in single parent households (U.S. Bureau of the Census) The number of moms leaving home for work each morning has risen 65% in the past 20 years (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics) Nearly 1 in 4 children in the U.S. are living below the poverty level (Children's Defense Fund)*
  25. 25. 26 More than half of all American children will witness their parent’s divorce (U.S. Bureau of the Census) In the last 10 years, the estimated number of child abuse victims has risen by nearly 50% (National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse) The average child has watched 8,000 televised murders and 100,000 acts of violence before finishing elementary school (American Psychological Association)*
  26. 26. 27 Why Kids Misbehave Basic has several “Functions”:  Attention from peers or adults  Attain power/control  Revenge or Retaliation  Feels Good/Play  Fear of Failure  Getting something (Sensory Input)  Imitation
  27. 27. 28 Proactive Intervention Strategies Classroom Rules Classroom Schedule Physical Space Attention Signal Beginning and Ending Routines Student Work Classroom Management Plan  adapted from the Tough Kid series, and CHAMPs
  28. 28. 29 Classroom Rules…
  29. 29. 30 The Rules for Rules: Keep the number to a minimum (approx. 5). Keep the wording simple. Have rules represent you basic expectations Keep the wording positive, if possible. Make your rules specific. Make your rules describe behavior that is observable.
  30. 30. 31 Classroom Rules, cont. Make your rules describe behavior that is measurable. Assign consequences to breaking the rules. Always include a “compliance rule”. Keep the rules posted. Consider having rules recited daily for first two weeks then periodically..
  31. 31. 32 Examples… Inappropriate Rules:  Be responsible  Pay attention  Do your best  Be kind to others  Respect authority  Be polite Preferred Rules:  Keep hands, feet, and objects to yourself.  Raise your hand and wait for permission to speak.  Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it.  Walk, don’t run, at all times in the classroom.
  32. 32. 33 Consequences The best consequences are reasonable and logical A reasonable consequence is one that follows logically from the behavior rather than one that is arbitrarily imposed The best logical consequences teach the students to choose between acceptable and unacceptable actions.
  33. 33. 34 Activity…. For the following types of student behavior, develop both an example of a logical consequence AND an illogical consequence…  Chews gum  Turns in sloppy paper  Walks in the classroom noisily  Passes paper in incorrectly  Arrives late  Does not bring textbook  Does not bring pencil or pen
  34. 34. 35 Possible Corrective Consequences Proximity management Verbal reprimand/Warning Time owed after class In-class time-out Parental contact Restitution Principal Notification Form Disciplinary Referral It should be noted that prior to enacting corrective consequences, positive reinforcement strategies should be utilized.
  35. 35. 36 Classroom Schedules…
  36. 36. 37 Classroom Schedules Avoid “Down Time” Approximately 70% of the school day is geared for academic engagement. (5.2 hrs.) Begin each activity on-time. “The best behavior plans are excellent academic lesson plans.” – source unknown
  37. 37. 38 Classroom Schedules Budget your academic time  Example: 1 hr. allotment  5 min. Teacher-directed review  10 min. Introduction of new concepts  10 min. Guided practice, working on assignment  25 min. Independent/Cooperative work  10 min. Teacher-directed corrections
  38. 38. 39 Physical Space…
  39. 39. 40 Physical Space Arrange desks to optimize the most common types of instructional tasks you will have students engaged in.  Desks in Rows, Front to Back  Desks in Row, Side to Side  Desks in Clusters  Desks in U-Shape
  40. 40. 41 Physical Space, cont. Make sure you have access to all parts of the room. Feel free to assign seats, and change at will. Minimize the disruptions caused by high traffic areas in the class. Arrange to devote some of your bulletin board/display space to student work.
  41. 41. 42 Physical Space, cont. If needed, arrange for a “Time-Out” space in your classroom that is as unobtrusive as possible. Desks do not have to be in traditional rows, but all chairs should face forward so that all eyes are focused on the teacher
  42. 42. 43 Students Who Cause Behavioral Problems: Aggressive (the hyperactive, agitated, unruly student) Resistant (the student who won’t work) Distractible (the student who can’t concentrate) Dependent (the student who wants help all the time)
  43. 43. 44 Location for Students who cause behavioral problems: Separate—disruptive students; maybe aggressive and resistant students Nearby—disruptive students; maybe distractible, dependent, and resistant
  44. 44. 45 Prepare the Work Area… Arrange work areas and seats so that you can easily see and monitor all the students and areas no matter where you are in the room Be sure that students will be able to see you as well as frequently used areas of the classroom Keep traffic areas clear Keep access to storage areas, bookcases, cabinets, and doors clear Learn the emergency procedures Make sure you have enough chairs for the
  45. 45. 46 Prepare the Work Area… Be sure to have all necessary materials in easily accessible areas Test any equipment to make sure that it works BEFORE you use it Use materials such as tote bags, boxes, coffee cans, dishpans, etc. to store materials that students will need. Arrange work areas where students can go for reading and math groups, science, lab areas, project work, learning centers, and independent study. (Remember, you may not need these areas on the first days of school.
  46. 46. 47 Prepare the Student Area… Plan areas for student belongings  Coats  Binders  Backpacks  Books  Lunchboxes  Lost and found items  others
  47. 47. 48 Prepare the Wall Space… Cover one or more bulletin boards with colored paper and trim, and leave it bare for the purpose of displaying student work and artifacts. Display your discipline plan in a prominent place. Post procedures, assigned duties, calendar, clock, emergency information, schedules, menus, charts, maps, decorations, birthdays, and student work. Have a consistent place for listing the day’s or week’s assignments
  48. 48. 49 Prepare the Wall Space… Post a large example of the proper heading or style for papers to be done in class Post examples of tests students will take, assignments they will turn in, and papers they will write Display the feature topic, theme, chapter, or skill for the day or the current unit
  49. 49. 50 Prepare the bookcases… Do not place the bookcases or display wall where they obstruct any lines of visions Rotate materials on the shelves, and leave out only those items that you are willing to allow students to handle Do not place books or other loose materials near an exit where they can easily disappear or where they may hide emergency information
  50. 50. 51 Prepare the Teaching Materials… Let students know what materials you want them to bring from home. Have a place and a procedure ready for the storage of these materials. Have a seating plan prepared. Have basic materials ready Find and organize containers for materials. Store seldom used materials out of the way Place electronic media where there are electrical outlets and where the students will not trip over the wires; have extension cords, adapter plugs, and batteries Obtain a supply of the forms that are used for daily school routines Organize, file, inventory
  51. 51. 52 Prepare Yourself and Your Area… Do not create a barrier between yourself and the students. Place your desk away from the door so that no one can take things from your desk and quickly walk out. Communicate to your students that everything in and on you desk is to be treated as personal property and off limits to them
  52. 52. 53 Prepare Yourself and Your Area… Keep your personal belongings in a safe location Have emergency materials handy  Personal items  Extra lunch money Obtain the materials that you need before you need them
  53. 53. 54 Teachers who are ready maximize student learning and minimize student misbehavior.
  54. 54. 55 Attention Signals…
  55. 55. 56 Attention Signal Decide upon a signal you can use to get students’ attention. Teach students to respond to the signal by focusing on you and maintaining complete silence.
  56. 56. 57 Example: The “Hand Raise” Say: “Class, your attention please.” At the same time, swing right arm in a circular motion from the 9:00 position to the 12:00 position. This prompts all students to stop, look at you and raise hand.
  57. 57. 58 Advantages to Hand Raise It can be given from any location in the room. It can be used outside the classroom. It has both a visual and auditory component. It has the “ripple effect”.
  58. 58. 59 Discipline,Routines and Procedures…
  60. 60. 61 Punishment Why Do We Punish?  Because it works  Punishment is effective for approximately 95% of our students  It’s quick  Punishment produces a rapid (but often temporary) suppression of behavior  It requires lower level thinking skills.
  61. 61. 62 Discipline vs. Punishment D: strives to replace an unwanted behavior with a desirable behavior P: takes away a behavior by force, but replaces it with nothing*
  62. 62. 63 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Is firm and consistent, but peaceful P: inflicts harm in the name of good*
  63. 63. 64 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Positive behavioral change is expected P: The worst is expected, and the worst is often received*
  64. 64. 65 Discipline vs. Punishment D: May may the youth angry at fist, but calls for self-evaluation and change rather than self-degradation P: Agitates and often causes anger and resentment on the part of the child (which may have caused the behavior in the first place)*
  65. 65. 66 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Takes time and energy but consequences are logical and encourage restitution P: Is immediate and high-impact but is hardly ever logical*
  66. 66. 67 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Allows child to rebuild self-esteem P: Damages fragile self-esteem*
  67. 67. 68 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Disciplinarian is in control of his/her own emotions P: Allows anger to be released physically by punisher, allowing for dangerous loss of control on adult’s part*
  68. 68. 69 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Is not threatening, dangerous or abusive P: Can be physically and emotionally dangerous*
  69. 69. 70 Discipline vs. Punishment D: Allows for reflection and restitution P: Does not allow the child to make up for his/her behavior*
  70. 70. 71 Discipline vs. Punishment D: is caring but takes time and planning P: is often “off the cuff” and emotionally charged*
  71. 71. 72 Important Aspects of a Well- Disciplined Classroom… Discipline Procedures Routines Effective teachers introduce rules, procedures, and routines on the very first day of school and continue to teach and reinforce them throughout the school year.
  72. 72. 73 The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines.
  73. 73. 74 Discipline vs. Procedures… Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVE Procedures: Concerns how things are DONE Discipline: HAS penalties and rewards Procedures: Have NO penalties or rewards A procedure is simply a method or process for how things are to be done in a classroom.
  74. 74. 75 Students must know from the very beginning how they are expected to behave and work in a classroom environment. DISCIPLINE dictates how students are to behave PROCEDURES and ROUTINES dictate how students are to work
  75. 75. 76 Procedures… Are statements of student expectations necessary to participate successfully in classroom activities, to learn, and to function effectively in the school environment Allow many different activities to take place efficiently during the school day, often several at the same time, with a minimum of wasted time and confusion Increase on-task time and greatly reduce classroom disruptions Tell a student how things operate in the classroom, thus reducing discipline problems
  76. 76. 77 A PROCEDURE is how you want something done It is the responsibility of the the teacher to communicate effectively A ROUTINE is what the student does automatically without prompting or supervision Becomes a habit, practice, or custom for the student
  77. 77. 78 A smooth-running class is the responsibility of the teacher, and it is the result of the teacher’s ability to teach procedures.
  78. 78. 79 Procedures answer questions such as… What to do when the bell rings What to do when the pencil breaks What to do when you hear an emergency alert signal What to do when you finish your work early What to do when you have a question What to do when you need to go to the restroom How to enter the classroom Where to put completed work
  79. 79. 80 Activity… Choose one of the items from handout #____ Develop a set of procedures for the item of your choice Display Gallery Walk
  80. 80. 81 Three Steps to Teach Procedures… 1. EXPLAIN. State, explain, model, and demonstrate the procedure. 2. REHEARSE. Practice the procedure under your supervision. 3. REINFORCE. Reteach, rehearse, practice, and reinforce the classroom procedure until it becomes a student habit or routine.
  81. 81. 82 Discipline with the Body…not the Mouth… 1. EXCUSE yourself from what you are doing 2. RELAX. Take a slow relaxing breath and CALMLY approach the student with a meaningful look. 3. FACE the student directly and CALMLY wait for a response. 4. If there is no response, WHISPER the student’s first name and follow with what you want the student to do, ending with “please”. RELAX and WAIT.
  82. 82. 83 6. If backtalk occurs, relax, wait and KEEP QUIET. If the student wants to talk back, keep the first principle of dealing with backtalk in mind: IT TAKES ONE FOOL TO TALK BACK. IT TAKES TWO FOOLS TO MAKE A CONVERSTAION OUT OF IT. 7. When the student responds with the appropriate behavior say, “Thank you,” and leave with an affirmative SMILE. If a student goes so far as to earn an office referral, you can deliver it just as well RELAXED. After all, ruining your composure and peace of mind does not enhance classroom management. -Adapted from Fred Jones, Positive Classroom Discipline and Positive Classroom Instruction
  83. 83. 84 Beginning and Ending Routines… Entering Class  Goal: Students will feel welcome and will immediately go to their seats and start on a productive task.  Greet the students at the door.  Have a task prepared for students to work on as they sit down.  Do your “housekeeping”.  Keep tasks short (3-5 min.)  When you’ve finished, address the task.
  84. 84. 85 Beginning and Ending Routine, cont. Ending Routine  Goal: Your procedures for ending the day/class will:  Ensure that students will not leave the classroom before they have organized their own materials and completed any necessary clean-up tasks.  Ensure the you have enough time to give students both positive and corrective feedback, and to set a positive tone for ending the class.
  85. 85. 86 Beginning and Ending Routines, cont. Dismissal  Goal: Students will not leave the classroom until they are dismissed by you (not the bell).  Explain that the bell is a signal for you.  Excuse the class when things are reasonably quiet and all “wrap up” activities are completed.  General Rule:  Dismiss primary students by rows  Dismiss older students by class
  86. 86. 87 Student Work Design efficient procedures for assigning, monitoring, and collecting student work. 5 Major Areas of Managing Student Work:  Assigning Class Work and Homework  Managing Independent Work Periods  Collecting Completed Work  Keeping Records and Providing Feedback  Dealing with Late/Missing Assignments
  87. 87. 88 Ponder This… You don’t build your football team on the day of the game. You don’t drill a well when you get thirsty. And you don’t discuss procedures once an emergency has begun.
  88. 88. 89 Classroom Management Plan…
  89. 89. 90 Classroom Management Plan… 8 Components: 1) Level of Classroom Structure – based on risk factors of your students. 2) Guidelines for Success – attitudes, traits, or behaviors to help achieve success. 3) Rules – specific, observable, and measurable behavioral objectives 4) Teaching Expectations – What, how, and when expectations will be taught
  90. 90. 91 Classroom Management Plan… 5) Monitoring – How you will monitor the progress of the expectations. 6) Encouragement Procedures – How you will encourage students to demonstrate motivated and responsible behavior. 7) Correction Procedures – How you will respond to irresponsible behavior. 8) Managing Student Work – What procedures and systems you will use to manage student work.
  91. 91. 92 CHAMPS video…
  92. 92. 93 For Every Activity… Make sure students know your behavioral expectation. Consider the CHAMPs level of structure:
  93. 93. 94 CHAMPs… Conversation: Under what circumstances, if at all, can the students talk to each other during the activity.  Can students engage in conversations with each other during this activity?  If yes, about what?  How many students can be involved in a single conversation?  How long can the conversation last?
  94. 94. 95 CHAMPs, cont. Help – How do students get their questions answered during the activity?  How do they get your attention?  If students have to wait for help, what should they go while they wait?
  95. 95. 96 CHAMPs, cont. Activity – What is the activity?  What is your expected “end product”?  This will likely change daily, according to your lesson plans.
  96. 96. 97 CHAMPs, cont. Movement – Under what circumstance, if at all, can students move about during the activity?  If yes, for what?  Pencil Restroom  Drink Hand in/pick up materials  Other…  Do they need permission from you?
  97. 97. 98 CHAMPs, cont. Participation – What does appropriate student work behavior during the activity look/sound like?  What behaviors show that students are participating fully and responsibly?  What behaviors show that a student in not participating?
  98. 98. 99 Dealing with Anger…
  99. 99. 100 How do YOU deal with an angry student?
  100. 100. 101 Angry Students Goal: To help channel and direct the student to constructive outcomes.  Assist the child in learning acceptable ways of expressing this emotion. Caution!!  Caution should be taken to avoid repressing or destroying the feeling of anger.
  101. 101. 102 Anger Anger may be…  A defense to avoid painful feelings  Associated with failure  Associated with low self-esteem  Associated with feelings of isolation  Related to feelings of anxiety over where the child has no control
  102. 102. 103 Anger vs. Sadness Child – anger and sadness closely related.  Expresses sadness as anger. Adult – expresses sadness as sadness.
  103. 103. 104 Angry Child Interventions 1) Catch the child being good. Tell what behaviors please you.  Respond to positive efforts and reinforce good behavior.  “Thanks for sitting in your seat quietly.”  “You worked hard on that project, and I admire you effort.”
  104. 104. 105 Angry Child Interventions 2) Deliberately ignore inappropriate behavior that can be tolerated.  Tell child what you are doing.  If attention seeking, it will get worse before better.  Be consistent
  105. 105. 106 Angry Child Interventions 3) Provide physical outlets and other alternatives.  Pre-plan opportunities for child to release stored energy  Consider meaningful work
  106. 106. 107 Angry Child Interventions 4) Manipulate the surroundings.  Look for triggers both inside/outside your class.  Re-examine your rules.  Consider the child’s physical space.
  107. 107. 108 Angry Child Interventions 5) Use closeness and touching.  Move physically closer to the child  Consider gently placing your hand on the child’s shoulder  Works best with younger children
  108. 108. 109 Angry Child Interventions 6) Express interest in the child’s activities.  Develop the relationship  Teachers are often the best therapists
  109. 109. 110 Angry Child Interventions 7) Ease tension through humor.  Attempt to “joke” the child out of an episode.  This will help “save face”.  Be careful to distinguish between humor and teasing.  If sarcastic tone, child may become more angry.
  110. 110. 111 Angry Child Interventions 8) Explain situations to the child.  Assist the child in understanding what situations can contribute to their anger  Assist the child in learning appropriate alternative responses.  Allow for practice/role play
  111. 111. 112 When An Explosion is Pending… The Crisis Cycle:  StimulusThoughtsFeelings  ActionConsequence
  112. 112. 113 The Curve of Explosion Stimulus- initiates the process. Period of Escalation- child calls on available coping skills.  Anger will resolve or escalate  Begins to think less and feel more  Try to get child to talk  Use Active Listening skills  Monitor your Para-Verbal Communication  Assume a Calm Demeanor
  113. 113. 114 The Curve of Explosion, cont. Do’s  DO use positive expectations.  DO use “I” statements.  DO reflect the emotion you hear.  DO use non-verbal affirmation.  DO try to direct the youth into a problem solving mode.
  114. 114. 115 The Curve of Explosion, cont. Don’ts  Don’t lead with the rules.  Don’t lead with the consequences.  Don’t begin statements with the word, “You”.  Don’t ask “Why” questions.
  115. 115. 116 The Curve of Explosion, cont. Out of Control- behavior is driven by emotion.  Thought process is repressed.  Avoid threats of disciplinary sanctions.  All youth to “vent” safely.  Physical restraint may be required.
  116. 116. 117 The Curve of Explosion, cont. Period of De-escalation.  Thought processes begin to stabilize.  Emotional control is re-established.  Student may be tired.  Student may request to be left alone.
  117. 117. 118 Behavior Modification…
  118. 118. 119 Pre-Corrections “Thank you for not smoking.” Serves as a gentle reminder of expectations. Gives students an opportunity to mentally prepare before an activity. Always respond to sincere efforts to comply.
  119. 119. 120 Classroom Behavior Modification using: “Pre-Correction for Classroom” Seven steps:  “1) Identify the context and the likely problem behavior.  2) Specify the expected behaviors.  3) Systematically modify the context.  4) Conduct behavioral rehearsals.  5) Provide strong reinforcement for expected behaviors.  6) Prompt expected behaviors.  7) Monitor the plan.
  120. 120. 121 Pre-Correction Scenario 1) Context – students entering classroom immediately after recess.  Predictable behavior – students shouting, laughing, and pushing before complying with teacher direction. 2) Expected Behavior – Entering the room quietly, go to desks, begin task, keep hands to self.
  121. 121. 122 Pre-Correction Scenario, cont. 3) Context modification – Teacher meets students at door, has them wait and then go to desk to begin entry tasks. 4) Behavior rehearsal – Teacher reminds students just before recess of expected behaviors. Asks “student” to tell what are expected behaviors.
  122. 122. 123 Pre-Correction Scenario, cont. 5) Strong reinforcement – Students are told that if they cooperate with teacher requests, they will have additional break and 5 extra minutes for recess. 6) Prompts – Teacher gives signals at the door to be quiet and points to activity on Chalkboard. Teacher says “ssshh” to noisy students and praises students who are beginning work.
  123. 123. 124 Pre-Correction Scenario, cont. 7) Monitoring plan – Teacher uses a watch to measure how long it takes for all students begin their tasks immediately (within 10 seconds).
  124. 124. 125 5 Steps to Correction 1) List Previous Positive Behavior.  “Elizabeth, yesterday you did such a good job staying in your seat and paying attention. I really appreciate how you behaved.” 2) State Current Behavior.  “However, today Elizabeth, you’ve been out of your seat, disrupting class several times.”
  125. 125. 126 5 Steps to Correction, cont. 3) State Expectations.  “Elizabeth, what I expect from you is, for you to go to your seat, sit in your seat, pay attention, and only talk to your neighbors when I give you permission.” 4) Child Repeats.  “You want me to go to my seat, sit down, listen, and keep my mouth shut.”
  126. 126. 127 5 Steps to Correction, cont. 5) Praise Any Efforts.  Acknowledge any compliance  Be positive  Be sincere  Be encouraging  You need a positive relationship with the student to use this effectively.
  127. 127. 128 If you want it…teach it. If you expect to maintain it, encourage it, acknowledge it, and reinforce it.  source unknown
  128. 128. 129 Post-Correction Adapted from the “Life Space Interview” model, Fritz Redl. Allows the child an opportunity to process and learn from the experience. Should be done by the adult who witnessed the incident. Should be done within 24 hours. (As soon as both parties are calm)
  129. 129. 130 5 Steps to Post-Correction 1) Youth’s Perception-  Adult should:  Listen  Refrain from judgments and corrections  Ask questions which help student with description  Attempt to find out what student was trying to achieve
  130. 130. 131 5 Steps to Post-Correction, cont. 2)Adult’s Perception-  Discuss what parts of incident you see same and differently  Provide reality base 3)Connection Incident to Pattern of behavior  Assist student in seeing a behavior pattern he/she has developed
  131. 131. 132 5 Steps to Post-Correction, cont. 4) Explore Alternative Behaviors-  Prompts may be used  Important to let student find options 5) Develop A Plan-  May use behavior contract  Assure student of adult commitment  Discuss consequences for next incident
  132. 132. 133 “Always say what you mean, and mean what you say…but don’t say it in a mean way.”  Nicholas Long
  133. 133. 134 Classroom Environment…
  134. 134. 135 “No improvement will occur in instruction until the classroom climate improves.” “Classrooms have personalities just like people.” -63 Ways of Improving Classroom Instruction (Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons)
  135. 135. 136 Classroom Environment Polsky’s Diamond – Dr. Howard Polsky  The Five Ranks of Social Power:  Leaders  Lieutenants Members  Status Seekers  Scapegoats
  136. 136. 137 Polsky’s Diamond, cont. The Social Interaction with-in diamond is prompted by the need for 3 things…. 1)Power – influence over one’s own life 2)Affiliation – belonging 3)Achievement – status
  137. 137. 138 ….so their behaviors look like:  Social functions of Behavior:  Attention Seeking (adult/peer)  Power/control  Fear of failure/frustration  Imitation  Other functions of Behavior:  Getting something (sensory input)  Revenge or retaliation  Avoidance (person/activity, demands or requests)  Feels Good/Play
  138. 138. 139 Social Skills… How do “Tough Kids” meet these needs?  Behavioral Excesses-  Aggression Arguing  Hitting Fighting  Shouting Teasing  Blaming Provoking  Behavioral Deficits-  Using self-control Cooperating  Problem Solving Helping  Sharing Making good decisions
  139. 139. 140 Need for Social Skills In order to assist the child in meeting the 3 needs, effective social skills instruction should be employed. Social Skills: Basic skills needed to successfully interact with adults and peers.
  140. 140. 141 Effective Social Skills Program 1) Rationale 2) Modeling 3) Concept Teaching 4) Role Playing/Behavior Rehearsal and Practice 5) Coaching 6) Contingent Reinforcement
  141. 141. 142 Social Skill Topics Basic Social Skills:  Body Basics- (FEVER)  Face person  Eye contact  Voice volume/tone/rate  Expression should match  Relaxed posture  Starting, Joining, and Maintaining a Conversation  With Adults  With Peers
  142. 142. 143 Social Skills Topics, cont. Basic Social Skills:  Recognizing and Expressing Feelings  Playing Cooperatively  Solving Problems  Using Self-Control  Solving Arguments  Dealing with Teasing  Dealing with Being Left Out  Accepting “NO”  Following Directions
  143. 143. 144 Social Skill Topics, cont. Intermediate to Advanced Skills:  Accepting negative feedback  Learning how to say “NO”.  Assertiveness  Resisting peer pressure  Resisting teasing  Managing anger  etc.
  144. 144. 145 Social Skills Assessment Social Skills Survey  Can be completed by student  May be determined by age/maturity  Can be completed by teacher  Can be completed by parent  Average and rank scores  Deliver necessary Social Skills Instruction
  145. 145. 146 Social Skills Programs Second Steps Skill Streaming Tough Kid Series SCORE Skills
  146. 146. 150 Designing Lessons to Enhance Student Learning…
  147. 147. 151 Why Plan? Plan Ahea d
  148. 148. 152 The Correct Question… DON’T ASK: “What am I going to cover tomorrow?” DO ASK: “What are my students going to learn, achieve, and accomplish tomorrow?” The role of the teacher is not to cover. The role of the teacher is to UNCOVER.
  149. 149. 153 Learning has nothing to do with what the teacher COVERS. Learning ahs to do with what the student ACCOMPLISHES.
  150. 150. 154 What is a lesson plan? Teacher’s guide Design for the learning of the student Series of student centered learning Focused on what the student needs to know and be able to do Covers one day or several days Allows for the teachable moment
  151. 151. 155 Experienced Teacher Standards 1. Demonstrates Professional Leadership 2. Demonstrates Knowledge of Content 3. Designs/Plans Instruction 4. Creates and Maintains Learning Climate 5. Implements/Manages Instruction 6. Assesses and communicates Learning Results 7. Collaborates with Colleagues/Parents/Others 8. Engages in Professional Development
  152. 152. 156 Performance Criteria Standard 3 Focuses instruction on one or more of KY’s learning goals and academic expectations Develops instruction that requires students to apply knowledge, skills, and thinking processes Integrates skills, thinking processes, and content across disciplines Creates/utilizes learning experiences that challenge, motivate, and actively involve the learner Creates and uses learning experiences that are developmentally appropriate for learners
  153. 153. 157 Performance Criteria Standard 3 Develops and incorporates strategies that address physical, social, and cultural diversity and that show sensitivity to others Arranges the physical classroom to support the types of teaching and learning to occur Includes creative and appropriate use of technology to improve student learning Develops and implements appropriate assessment processes
  154. 154. 158 Performance Criteria Standard 3 Secures/uses a variety of appropriate school and community resources to support learning Develops/incorporates learning experiences that encourage students to be adaptable, flexible, resourceful, and creative Uses knowledge required from past teaching experiences to anticipate instructional challenges
  155. 155. 159 Thinking About Lesson Planning Who Am I Planning For? What Am I Supposed To Do?
  156. 156. 160 Two Types of Assignments… Ineffective Assignments:  The teacher tells the class what is to be covered  Chapter 7; Moby Dick; long division; ecosystems Effective Assignments:  The teacher tells the students what they are to have accomplished or mastered at the end of the lesson  Teach with the end in mind
  157. 157. 161 Creating Effective Assignments… Think what you want the students to accomplish Write each step as a single sentence. Write in simple language Duplicate the list of steps and give it to the students
  158. 158. 162 Effective Assignments… Must have structure and be precise Structure  The assignment must have a consistent and familiar format that the students can recognize as their assignment  The assignment must be posted daily in a consistent location BEFORE students enter the room Preciseness  The assignment must state clearly and simply what the students are to ACCOMPLISH
  159. 159. 163 To teach for learning, use words, especially verbs, that show learning has taken place. Bloom’s Taxonomy  Knowledge  Comprehension  Application  Analysis  Synthesis  evaluation
  160. 160. 164 If the classroom is a fish bowl… Piranha Catfish Goldfish
  161. 161. 165 Piranha….. Are usually the “trouble-makers” Can be passive aggressive or overtly aggressive Have negative attitude Have attendance problems Are “at risk” Etc., etc., etc……
  162. 162. 166 Catfish….. Go with the flow Are usually good-natured, but have limited motivation Are social beings Tend to cooperate; follow MOST rules Perform to the average or just enough to stay out of trouble with mom/dad Etc., etc., etc……
  163. 163. 167 Goldfish….. Are in the top 10-15% of their class Are “teacher pleasers” Are highly motivated to perform well Show enthusiasm for learning May be “over achievers” and /or high achievers Etc., etc., etc…….
  164. 164. 168 Pre-Planning Strategies 1. Determine the learning styles of your students 2. Determine reading levels/skills of students 3. Inventory access to technology 4. Connect writing to what is being taught 5. Focus on academic expectations and core content 6. Establish a variety of instructional strategies
  165. 165. 169 Essential Questions What do I want all students to know and be able to do at the end of this lesson? What will I do to cause this learning to happen? What will students do to facilitate this learning? How will I assess to find out if this learning happened? What will I do for those who show through assessment that the learning did not take place?
  166. 166. 170 Think-Pair-Share “Best Practices” in Lesson Planning Some Guiding Principles Adapted From: 63 Ways of Teaching or Learning Anything by Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons
  167. 167. 171 Thinking It Through… Lesson Content Learning Level Instructional Methods, Materials, Activities Student Activities Evaluation Tools, Strategies, Activities
  168. 168. 172 The Lesson Plan Rubric Academic Focus Instructional Strategies Student Engagement Writing Strategy Reading Strategy Technology Strategy Assessment Strategy
  169. 169. 173 Unmotivated Students…
  170. 170. 174 The Unmotivated Student… Problems often emerge during late elementary or middle school. Often initiated by early academic problem. Begins to see school as a place of “drudgery”. Will most often become discipline problem. At risk of becoming a “drop out”.
  171. 171. 175 Unmotivated Student, cont. Factors That Influence Motivation:  Fear of Failure – “Better to look bad, than stupid”. Safer not to try.  Lack of Meaning – May not see relevance to assignments.  Emotional Distress – Anxiety/Depression from influences at home.  Learning Disability – Give up in frustration.
  172. 172. 176 Unmotivated Student, cont.  Lack of Challenge  Desire for Attention – look helpless to teacher  Peer Concern – not cool to like school  Low Expectation – no encouragement from home  Expression of Anger – due to pressure from parents
  173. 173. 177 Unmotivated Student Interventions Assess the origin,(records, teachers, etc) Talk with the Student Privately – develop the relationship. Provide a Warm, Accepting Climate Stay Close to the Student Introduce the Lesson with Enthusiasm Give Clear Direction and Feedback Present Tasks in Manageable Doses Orchestrate the Student’s Success Highlight the Student’s Talents
  174. 174. 178 Unmotivated Student Interventions, cont.  Vary Your Teaching Style  Relate Instruction to Student’s Interests  Make Instruction Relevant to Real World  Provide Hands-on Activities  Apply “Meaningful Work”…CHAMPs  Allow Student Some Control over What and How He Learns  Praise Student’s Efforts and Accomplishments  If Student is Too Cool, consider incentives, rewards, group recognition ( spark some competition)  Challenge the Student
  175. 175. 179 HYPERACTIVITY… Constant movement Easily distracted Lack of control Verbal Does not attend to cues Provide structured high activity tasks Allow for control movement Reward on-task behaviors Use color codes for recognitions of behaviors
  176. 176. 180 INATTENTION… Passive Minimal problem- solving skills Dependent learner Views ability versus effort as a problem Focus attention on key elements of activity Develop and mental map with student Facilitate routine success Help the student self- monitor performance
  177. 177. 181 IMPULSIVITY… Speaks before thinking out answers Cannot monitor behavior Impatient with repetition Avoids anxiety Provide short and specific directions Reflective evaluation Develop problem- solving Model expected behaviors Allow behavior outlets
  178. 178. 182 DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR… Refuses to do work Defy authority Intimidates other students Distract teaching through verbal or physical means Reinforce positive behavior Use high interest personally relevant material Provide short successes
  179. 179. 183 Key Ideas…
  180. 180. 184 Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area of Behavior Management The classroom is organized in a manner that encourages order, participation, independence, and continuous learning There is a small number of meaningful rules Students understand and enforce rules The teacher is constantly teaching independent behavior management skills The teacher spends an appropriate amount of time at the beginning of the school year establishing the culture and climate for positive acceptable behavior Student’s demonstrating appropriate behaviors constantly receive positive reinforcement
  181. 181. 185 Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area of Behavior Management The teacher handles inappropriate behavior in a firm, fair, consistent, and caring manner The teacher’s interactions with students are positive and reinforce the importance of student success The teacher has several motivators that reinforce and shape student positive behaviors Classroom instruction is well organized, meaningful, and allows for student differences (individual and group) Classroom management strategies are appropriate to the environment and needs of the students
  182. 182. 186 Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom that Reflects Excellent Instruction in the Area of Behavior Management There is an established communication between home and school Students receive constant positive reinforcement for doing good work and encouragement to do better Student work is displayed throughout the classroom and behavior and learning reinforcers are visible throughout the room
  183. 183. 187 Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement The teacher has the ability to KNOW and effectively RELATE to his/her students  Establishes rapport and trust  Separates unacceptable behavior from student as a person  Knows total student in and out of school  Knows student’s interests/likes/dislikes
  184. 184. 188 Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement The teacher has practical and current KNOWLEDGE of behavior management strategies  Classroom design  Classroom management  Establishing baseline data  Developing a behavior plan
  185. 185. 189 Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement The teacher APPLIES behavior management strategies in a FLEXIBLE and TIMELY manner  Ability to quickly analyze situation and appropriately apply techniques  Has good timing-when and where to react and respond
  186. 186. 190 Descriptors of a Teacher Who is Successful at Behavior Instruction and Reinforcement The teacher is CONSISTNET, has good FOLLOW-THROGUH, and FOLLOW- UP WITH STUDENTS  Is clear and predictable from day 1  Communicates expectations often  Can re-establish respect after encounters  constantly reinforces expected behavior
  187. 187. 191 Teachers who are successful at behavior instruction and reinforcement… Have a keen AWARENESS of the classroom ATTEND to more than one matter at a time Train students to follow established classroom PROCEDURES/ROUTINES without disturbing others PACE their instruction without unnecessary delays Use a variety of techniques to keep students INTERESTED and INVOLVED Use various techniques to check student INVOLOVEMNT, LEARNING, and ATTENTION Use EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES with individual students that guide other student’s behavior
  188. 188. 192 Word Wall Activity… In your group, discuss the term(s) that you have chosen. Think about what we have discussed about this item today. Share:  Your thoughts and  A factual statement
  189. 189. 193 Now What? Where do I go from here?
  190. 190. 194 Resources
  191. 191. 195 Contacting Today’s Presenters…. Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant Upper Cumberland Special Education Cooperative Phone: 606-337-3555 Email: Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant Upper Cumberland Special Education Cooperative Phone: 606-364-4673 Email:
  192. 192. 196 UPPER CUMBERLAND SPECIAL EDUCATION COOPERATIVE STAFF Ginger Brashear, Director Phone: 549-7000 ext 34 Email: Carla Jordan, Complex Needs/AT Phone: 606-546-3111157 Email: Gary Smith, Due Process Phone: 606-337-3555 Email: Keith Lakes, Behavior Phone: 606-364-4673 Email: Angela Bray, Instruction Phone: 606-679-1123 Email: Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Phone: 606-337-3555 Email: