A Review Of Chemical And Physical Principles For Human Physiology This review is provided as a basic minimum coverage of t...
The Atomic Theory <ul><li>All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are, in turn, made up...
THE CARBON ATOM + - PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON ORBIT OR SHELL NUCLEUS
ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ARE IN THE NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONS  ARE IN ORBITS AROUND THE NUC...
THE CARBON ATOM ORBIT OR SHELL NUCLEUS There are 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons in this atom
ATOMIC MASS <ul><li>PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ARE FAR MORE HEAVY THAN ELECTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>THE UNIT OF ATOMIC MASS IS TH...
ATOMIC NUMBER <ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER OF AN ELEMENT IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS N THE NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>THE ATOMIC NUMB...
THE CARBON ATOM CARBON HAS ATOMIC NUMBER 6 AND ATOMIC WEIGHT 12 ORBIT OR SHELL NUCLEUS There are 6 protons, 6 electrons, a...
CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED ELEMENTS
Chemical Bonds and Chemical Compounds <ul><li>The shells or orbits which contain the electrons have characteristic occupan...
THE IONIC BOND Na Cl SODIUM HAS AN EXCESS ELECTRON, CHLORINE LACKS ONE
THE IONIC BOND Cl ORBITS BECOME COMPLETE BY DONATION OF AN ELECTRON POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION Na
THE COVALENT BOND ORBITS BECOME COMPLETE BY SHARING ELECTRONS C H H H H = C H H H H
CHEMICAL REACTIONS PROCESSES IN WHICH CHEMICAL BONDS ARE FORMED OR BROKEN ARE CALLED CHEMICAL REACTIONS CH 4  +  2O 2   CO...
ENZYMES <ul><li>ENZYMES ARE BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS </li></ul><ul><li>CATALYSTS MAKE REACTIONS GO FASTER </li></ul><ul><li>TH...
MOLECULAR WEIGHTS <ul><li>THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT IS THE SUM OF THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE MOLECULE </li><...
THE MOLE <ul><li>THE WEIGHT IN GRAMS EQUIVALENT TO THE ATOMIC OR MOLECULAR WEIGHT IN ATOMIC MASS UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>A...
SOLUTIONS <ul><li>A SOLUTION IS A HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE  </li></ul><ul><li>IT CONTAINS A RELATIVELY LARGE AMMOUNT OF ONE SUB...
WATER AS SOLVENT <ul><li>WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL BIOLOGICAL SOLVENT </li></ul><ul><li>WATER HAS UNIQUE PROPERTIES UNEQUALED...
ELECTROLYTE  SOLUTIONS METAL SALTS FORM  IONS UPON DISSOLVING IN WATER NaCl  Na +   +  Cl - CaCl 2  Ca +   +  2Cl -
MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>LARGE MOLECULES CAN BE FORMED WITH COVALENT BONDS BETWEEN SMALLER SUBUNITS </li></ul><ul><li>IN CHE...
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>LIPIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEIC A...
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS <ul><li>ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF REACTIVE PARTS OF THE MOLECULES CALLED FUNCTIONAL G...
ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS <ul><li>CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS  CAN BE PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTON DONORS ARE A...
ACID/BASE REACTIONS  HCl  +  NaOH  NaCl  +  H 2 O ACID  +  BASE  SALT  +  WATER
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>CONTAIN C, H AND O (nCH 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS ARE MONOSACCHARIDES (GLUCOSE, GALACTOSE...
LIPIDS <ul><li>FATTY ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>TRIGLYCERIDES </li></ul><ul><li>PHOSPHOLIPIDS </li></ul><ul><li>STEROIDS </li...
PROTEINS <ul><li>POLYMERS MADE FROM 20 AMINO ACIDS JOINED IN PEPTIDE BONDS </li></ul><ul><li>MANY IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL FUN...
PROTEIN STRUCTURE <ul><li>PRIMARY: THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS CODED IN DNA </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY: FOLDING INTO HELI...
NUCLEIC ACIDS <ul><li>DNA: A DOUBLE HELIX FORMED BY TWO POLYMERS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>RNA: A SINGLE POLYMER ...
ENERGY CURRENCY ATP, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE,  IS A HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND  WHICH STORES AND TRANSFERS  ENERGY A-P-P  -  P  A...
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A review of chemical and physical principles for human physiology

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A review of chemical and physical principles for human physiology

  1. 1. A Review Of Chemical And Physical Principles For Human Physiology This review is provided as a basic minimum coverage of the physical and chemical organization of matter in living systems
  2. 2. The Atomic Theory <ul><li>All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are, in turn, made up of three fundamental particles, protons, neutrons, and electrons </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE CARBON ATOM + - PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON ORBIT OR SHELL NUCLEUS
  4. 4. ATOMIC STRUCTURE <ul><li>PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ARE IN THE NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONS ARE IN ORBITS AROUND THE NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>THERE ARE EQUAL NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE CARBON ATOM ORBIT OR SHELL NUCLEUS There are 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons in this atom
  6. 6. ATOMIC MASS <ul><li>PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ARE FAR MORE HEAVY THAN ELECTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>THE UNIT OF ATOMIC MASS IS THE MASS OF A PROTON OR NEUTRON </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON HAS AN ATOMIC MASS OF 12, THE TOTAL OF PROTONS PLUS NEUTRONS </li></ul>
  7. 7. ATOMIC NUMBER <ul><li>ATOMIC NUMBER OF AN ELEMENT IS THE NUMBER OF PROTONS N THE NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>THE ATOMIC NUMBER IDENTIFIES THE ELEMENT AND DISTIGUISHES IT FROM ALL OTHER ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>THUS CARBON IS THE ELEMENT WITH ATOMIC NUMBER 6 </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE CARBON ATOM CARBON HAS ATOMIC NUMBER 6 AND ATOMIC WEIGHT 12 ORBIT OR SHELL NUCLEUS There are 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons in this atom
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED ELEMENTS
  10. 10. Chemical Bonds and Chemical Compounds <ul><li>The shells or orbits which contain the electrons have characteristic occupancy capacity </li></ul><ul><li>The first three are 2, 8, and 8 respectively </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms tend to combine chemically forming either ionic or covalent bonds so that the outer orbits are complete </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE IONIC BOND Na Cl SODIUM HAS AN EXCESS ELECTRON, CHLORINE LACKS ONE
  12. 12. THE IONIC BOND Cl ORBITS BECOME COMPLETE BY DONATION OF AN ELECTRON POSITIVE ION NEGATIVE ION Na
  13. 13. THE COVALENT BOND ORBITS BECOME COMPLETE BY SHARING ELECTRONS C H H H H = C H H H H
  14. 14. CHEMICAL REACTIONS PROCESSES IN WHICH CHEMICAL BONDS ARE FORMED OR BROKEN ARE CALLED CHEMICAL REACTIONS CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O
  15. 15. ENZYMES <ul><li>ENZYMES ARE BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS </li></ul><ul><li>CATALYSTS MAKE REACTIONS GO FASTER </li></ul><ul><li>THEIR NAMES USUALLY END IN “ASE” </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: ATPASE, KINASE, OXIDASE, ETC. </li></ul>
  16. 16. MOLECULAR WEIGHTS <ul><li>THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT IS THE SUM OF THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE MOLECULE </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: WATER (H 2 O), THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT IS 16 + 1.01 +1.01= 18.02 ATOMIC MASS UNITS </li></ul>
  17. 17. THE MOLE <ul><li>THE WEIGHT IN GRAMS EQUIVALENT TO THE ATOMIC OR MOLECULAR WEIGHT IN ATOMIC MASS UNITS </li></ul><ul><li>A MOLE OF WATER HAS A WEIGHT OF 18.02 GRAMS </li></ul><ul><li>A MOLE OF ANY SUBSTANCE CONTAINS AVAGADRO’S NUMBER OF PARTICLES (6.02 x 10 23 ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. SOLUTIONS <ul><li>A SOLUTION IS A HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE </li></ul><ul><li>IT CONTAINS A RELATIVELY LARGE AMMOUNT OF ONE SUBSTANCE, CALLED THE SOLVENT </li></ul><ul><li>IT MAY CONTAIN ANY NUMBER OF SOLUTES IN A FAR LESSER QUANTITY </li></ul>
  19. 19. WATER AS SOLVENT <ul><li>WATER IS THE UNIVERSAL BIOLOGICAL SOLVENT </li></ul><ul><li>WATER HAS UNIQUE PROPERTIES UNEQUALED IN NATURE </li></ul><ul><li>WATER IS A POLAR COMPOUND AND IS A GOOD SOLVENT FOR IONS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER DOES NOT MIX WITH NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES SUCH AS OILS </li></ul>
  20. 20. ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS METAL SALTS FORM IONS UPON DISSOLVING IN WATER NaCl Na + + Cl - CaCl 2 Ca + + 2Cl -
  21. 21. MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>LARGE MOLECULES CAN BE FORMED WITH COVALENT BONDS BETWEEN SMALLER SUBUNITS </li></ul><ul><li>IN CHEMISTRY THESE ARE CALLED POLYMERS </li></ul>
  22. 22. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>LIPIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEINS </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEIC ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH ENERGY BIOMOLECULES (ATP) </li></ul>
  23. 23. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS <ul><li>ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE CLASSIFIED IN TERMS OF REACTIVE PARTS OF THE MOLECULES CALLED FUNCTIONAL GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>ONE IMPORTANT FUNCTIONAL GROUP IS THE ORGANIC ACID </li></ul>
  24. 24. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS <ul><li>CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CAN BE PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTON DONORS ARE ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTON ACCEPTORS ARE BASES </li></ul><ul><li>ACIDS AND BASES REACT TO NEUTRALIZE EACH OTHER FORMING SALTS </li></ul>
  25. 25. ACID/BASE REACTIONS HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O ACID + BASE SALT + WATER
  26. 26. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>CONTAIN C, H AND O (nCH 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS ARE MONOSACCHARIDES (GLUCOSE, GALACTOSE, FRUCTOSE) </li></ul><ul><li>SUGARS FORM POLYMERS: STARCH OR GLYCOGEN (USUALLY A STORAGE FORM) </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE SUGARS ARE WATER SOLUABLE </li></ul>
  27. 27. LIPIDS <ul><li>FATTY ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>TRIGLYCERIDES </li></ul><ul><li>PHOSPHOLIPIDS </li></ul><ul><li>STEROIDS </li></ul><ul><li>CHOLESTEROL </li></ul>
  28. 28. PROTEINS <ul><li>POLYMERS MADE FROM 20 AMINO ACIDS JOINED IN PEPTIDE BONDS </li></ul><ul><li>MANY IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS INCLUDING ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>THE RESULT OF THE GENETIC CODE IN DNA </li></ul>
  29. 29. PROTEIN STRUCTURE <ul><li>PRIMARY: THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS CODED IN DNA </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY: FOLDING INTO HELICAL OR SHEET STRUCTURES DUE TO HYDROGEN BONDING AND OTHER FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>TERTIARY: SIDE CHAINS INTERACT </li></ul><ul><li>QUATENARY: AGGREGATES FORM </li></ul>
  30. 30. NUCLEIC ACIDS <ul><li>DNA: A DOUBLE HELIX FORMED BY TWO POLYMERS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>RNA: A SINGLE POLYMER OF NUCLEIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEMENTARY PAIRS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS ENABLE MOLECULES TO DUPLICATE OR COPY EACH OTHER, THE BASIS FOR THE GENETIC CODE </li></ul>
  31. 31. ENERGY CURRENCY ATP, ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE, IS A HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND WHICH STORES AND TRANSFERS ENERGY A-P-P - P A-P-P + P + ENERGY

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