==== ====YOU COULD BE WRONG about hypertension, you could be DEAD WRONG!http://f02bd-522aswks2ixjmdietkrm.hop.clickbank.net/==== ====WHAT IS HYPERTENSION?Hypertension is derived from two root words; Hyper meaning High and Tension meaningPressure. Hypertension simply means high blood pressure. Pressure is the force generated whenthe heart contracts and pump blood through the blood vessels that conduct the blood to variousparts of the blood.Although hypertension does not mean or result from excessive emotional tension, but evidenceshows that stress and emotional tension do cause increase in blood pressure, and if continuous,could be sustained.High blood pressure is therefore generally defined as a blood pressure exceeding 140/90mmHgconfirmed on multiple occasions. The top number (140) is called the SYSTOLIC PRESSURE, andit represents the pressure in the blood vessels (arteries) as the heart contracts and pump bloodinto circulation. The bottom number (90) is called DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, and it represents thepressure in the blood vessels as the heart relaxes after contraction. These figures measured inmillimeters of Mercury (mmHg) reflect the highest and lowest pressures the heart and bloodvessels are exposed to during circulation. The generally accepted normal value for blood pressureis 120/80mmHg. Above this value but less than 140/90mmHg is not considered to be hypertensiveyet but signals danger, it is therefore called High normal.An elevation of the blood pressure (Hypertension) increases the risk of developing Heart (Cardiac)diseases such as Heart Failure and Heart attack, Kidney diseases, Vascular diseases likeathelosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of blood vessels), Eye damage and Stroke (braindamage).These complications called End organ damage arise as a result of long standing (chronic)hypertension. But victims of hypertension are not aware, at an early stage, that they have thedisease, until these complications start appearing. This is because hypertension shows virtually nosigns/symptoms at the early stage. For this reason, it is generally referred to as the Silent Killer.The damage caused by hypertension increases in severity as the blood pressure increases.Based on this hypertension can be classified as follows:CATEGORY SYSTOLIC(mmHg)DIASTOLIC(mmHg)Normal Less than 130Less than 85High Normal130 - 13985 - 89Mild Hypertension140 - 15990 - 99Moderate Hypertension160 - 179100 - 109Severe Hypertension180 - 209110 - 119
Very Severe HypertensionGreater than 210Greater than 120BORDERLINE HYPERTENSION.Borderline Hypertension is defined as mildly elevated blood pressure that is found to be higherthan 140/90mmHg at some times and lower than that at other times.Patients with borderline value need to have their blood pressure monitored more frequently. Theyalso need to assess end organ damage to be aware of the significance of their hypertension.It should, however, be emphasized that patients with borderline hypertension have a highertendency to develop a more sustained hypertension as they get older. They stand a modest risk ofhaving heart related diseases. A close monitoring of their blood pressure and lifestyles could bevery useful in this regard.WHITE COAT HYPERTENSIONA single elevated blood pressure reading in the doctors office could be misleading, because theelevation might only be temporary. Evidence over the years has shown that anxiety related to thestress of the examination and fear of the result often result in blood pressure elevation noticed inthe doctors office only. Infact, it has been suggested that one out of every four persons thought tohave mild hypertension, actually may have normal blood pressure outside the physicians office.This sort of elevated blood pressure noticed in the physicians office is called White CoatHypertension. Suggesting that the white coat, symbolic of the physician, induces the patientsanxiety and a passing increase in blood pressure. Accordingly, monitoring of blood pressure athome, when in a more relaxed state of mind, can provide a more reliable estimate of the frequencyand/or consistency of blood pressure changes.WHAT CAUSES HYPERTENSION?The Blood pressure is determined by two major parameters; Cardiac output i.e. the volume ofblood pumped by the heart, and the Total peripheral resistance i.e. the resistance of the bloodvessels through which blood flows. Hypertension is therefore an end result of either increasedforce of pumping by the heart, or constriction/narrowing of blood vessels causing increasedresistance to blood flow or both.Using the cause of hypertension as a yardstick, two major types of hypertension can be described;Essential HypertensionSecondary hypertensionThe former also called Primary or Idiopathic hypertension is by far the most prevalent type ofhypertension. It accounts for over 90% of all hypertension cases. No clear cut cause(s) can beidentified for this type of accommodation, hence the name Idiopathic.The later accounts for less than 10% of all cases. In this case, the hypertension is secondary to anexisting abnormality in one or more systems or organs of the body. The most common causes arerelated to kidney and hormonal problems. The persistent uncontrolled use of contraceptives,
especially in females over 35years of age fall under hormonal causes of hypertension.Since no clear-cut cause(s) can be adduce for the most common types of hypertension, as withthe case with most non-communicable diseases, we therefore talk in terms of Risk Factors andnot causes. These Risk Factors are actions/inactions that increases chances of getting a disease.Several researches over the years have shown that some factors are directly or indirectly relatedto the occurrence of hypertension. Some of the factors include:HEREDITARY: High blood pressure tends to run in some families and races. It is believed thatsome inherited traits predispose some people to hypertension. For example, high blood pressuretends to be more prevalent in blacks than whites.A family history of hypertension increases one chances of high blood pressure. Regular monitoringof blood pressure becomes very vital.HIGH SALT INTAKE: High intake of Sodium Chloride (table salt) has being linked to high bloodpressure. The condition develops mostly in societies or communities that have a fairly high intakeof salt, exceeding 5.8grams daily. In fact, salt intake may be a particularly important factor inrelation to essential hypertension that is associated with advancing age, black racial background,hereditary susceptibility, obesity and kidney failure. Research has shown that:a.Rise in blood pressure with age is directly related to increase level of sat intake, especially inblacks.b.People who consume little sodium chloride develop no high blood pressure when they consumemore, hypertension appears.c.Increased Sodium is found in the blood vessels and blood of most hypertensives.Cutting down on salt intake is therefore a reasonable step in preventing hypertensionOBESITY:A close relationship exists between hypertension and obesity. In fact it is believed that mosthypertensives are more than 10% overweight. Fat accumulation in the trunk or abdomen is notonly related to hypertension but also to diabetes and hyperlipideamia (excess fat in the body).Obesity can contribute to hypertension in several ways. For one thing, obesity leads to a greateroutput of blood, because the heart has to pump more blood to supply the excess tissues. Theincreased cardiac output then can raise the blood pressure. For another thing, obese hypertensiveindividuals have a greater stiffness (resistance) in the peripheral arteries throughout the body.Finally, obesity may be associated with a tendency for the kidneys to retain salt in the body.Weight loss may help reverse problems related to obesity while also lowering blood pressure. Ithas been estimated that the blood pressure can be decreased 0.32mmHg for every 1kg(2.2pounds) of weight loss.The International standard for measuring overweight and obesity is based on a value called BODYMASS INDEX (BMI). This value is derived by dividing the body weight (in Kilograms) by thesquare of height (in Metres).
i.e. BMI = Body weight (Kg)Height2 (Metres).Note: 1ft = 0.305metres.For adults, a BMI less than 25kg/m2 is preferred.25 - 29kg/m2 is considered overweight and above 30kg/m2 is Obesity.LACK OF EXERCISE:Sedentary normal individuals have a 20 - 50% higher risk of developing hypertension whencompared to very active individuals. Exercise lowers both systolic and diastolic blood pressures.For example dynamic exercises such as brisk walking or jogging, swimming or bicycle ridding for30 - 45mins daily or 3-5times a week may lower blood pressure by as much as 5 - 15mmHg.Moreover, there appears to be a relationship between the amount of exercise and the degree towhich blood pressure is lowered. Thus, to a point, the more you exercise, the more you lower yourblood pressure. Provided you do not over strain yourself. Normally, a particularly type of exerciseis started, and gradually built up to a satisfactory level over time. Regular exercise reduces bloodpressure, burn out unnecessarily fat and also makes the body healthier.ALCOHOL AND SMOKING:These two constitute the social factors most related to high blood pressure. People who drinkalcohol excessively (over two drinks per day) have a one and half to two times increase in thefrequency of hypertension. The association between alcohol and high blood pressure becomesparticularly noticeable when the alcohol intake exceeds the above per day. Moreover, theconnection is a dose related phenomenon. In other words, the more alcohol consumed, thestronger the chances of hypertension. This, probably will explain the prevalence of hypertension inpopulations where alcohol consumption is a habit.Although smoking increases the risk of vascular complications (for example, heart diseases andstroke) in people who already have hypertension, it cannot be directly linked with increase in thedevelopment of hypertension. Nevertheless, smoking a cigarette can repeatedly produce animmediate, temporary rise in blood pressure of 5 - 10mmHg, but a permanent increase cannot beestablished. However, it is known that some substances in cigarette, e.g. nicotine, alters thecomposition of the blood and also affects the blood vessels.Smoking and alcohol control are integral part of any effort towards the primary control ofcardiovascular diseases in any population.STRESS: Although the role of stress and other emotional factors in hypertension is difficult todefine. However, it is known that stress causes a physiological rise in blood pressure and thiscould be sustained if the stress becomes chronic (prolonged).A STICH IN TIMESince lifestyle components such as dietary patterns, obesity, physical activity, alcohol andsmoking have been recognized as important risk factors, steps to reduce the occurrence ofhypertension or to alleviate the condition (for those who are hypertensives) should involve lifestylemodification.
Dietary modifications include restricting salt intake cutting down or cutting out alcohol, reduced fatconsumption, and reducing weight if overweight. The American Heart Association recommends adaily consumption of less than 6grams of table salt for normal individuals, and less than 4gramsfor hypertensives.A regular exercise program such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling e.t.c.for 30 - 45mins daily or 3-5 times a week could be very helpful.Conclusively, it is very important to remember that the only way to know if ones blood pressure ison the high side is by taking your blood pressure frequently. Normally, your doctor would do thatfor you. But for a more consistent and reliable monitor of blood pressure, a self-operated bloodpressure monitor is crucial. Being very handy and always around, it allows you to follow up yourblood pressure regularly and report an increase immediately.Finally, always remember the WHO slogan "Know your Blood Pressure, if its high have it treated".A healthy Heart adds life to years.A stitch in time, they say, saves nine.Mr. Adefemi Kazeem is a graduate of Human Anatomy from a Nigerian University and who wishesto specialize in Public Health, soon. You can contact him by e-mail Â– firstname.lastname@example.org;Phone Â– 234-803-613-6741.Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Kazeem_Adefemi==== ====YOU COULD BE WRONG about hypertension, you could be DEAD WRONG!http://f02bd-522aswks2ixjmdietkrm.hop.clickbank.net/==== ====