Urban governance in vidyavihar research methodology


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Urban governance in vidyavihar research methodology

  1. 1. Chapter No: 1 Introduction Page 1
  2. 2. 1.1 Introduction Infrastructure is one among most important factors for any citizen. A large number of population stays in Mumbai. As large number of population stays in Mumbai so we find many types of infrastructure. In Mumbai not only infrastructure is important there are different things which drive people crazy for Mumbai. Most of the people like to come to Mumbai due to various facilities like gardens, parks, beautified lake, greenery, continuous supply of electricity, continuous supply of water, etc. The Municipal Corporation is a body which under takes different initiatives to maintain the infrastructure in Mumbai. Municipal Corporation takes much initiative but is unsuccessful because the initiative it takes does not fulfill the needs as what the citizens require. Most of the time many of the Municipal Corporation officials indulge in corruption which indirectly leads to failure or deteriorated infrastructure for the citizens. Best example is the roads of Mumbai, which gets flooded during rains and potholes are formed. None of the Mumbai citizens are happy with the work done by Municipal Corporation. Not only the roads have problem but even the drainage system is not good. The MC officials just fill their pockets rather than working satisfactorily for the wellbeing of the citizens. Many of the people always keep on complaining about the MC. We always keep on blaming them but we never take any initiatives to solve the problem. Many times we hear different people complaining about the work of MC but never see any one doing anything for those issues. Even the young generation people just keep on complaining but we never see them doing anything for the city. 1.2 About Municipal Corporation: Bombay was the first British Indian possession, which came as a part of the royal dowry in 1661 to King Charles II of England on his marriage to the Portuguese princess, Infanta Catherine de Braganza. Ironically enough, Bombay also set the stage for the birth of the country's historic freedom movement, as well as for some of its major landmarks, including Gandhiji's 1942 call to the British to "Quit India". It was in Bombay that the Indian National Congress was born in 1885. It led the country's struggle for political independence and indirectly to the liquidation of the British Empire. The name "Bombay" was changed to "Mumbai" by the Corporation Resolution No.512 dated August 12, 1996, Maharashtra Act, XXV of 1996 Page 2
  3. 3. During the period between the rise and fall of the British Empire, Bombay gradually developed into a town, a city and a metropolis of world renown. Today, the Brihanmumbai Mahanagarpalika covers an area of 480.24 sqkms. with a population of 1,19,14,378 as per the census of 2001. The metropolis accounts major portion of India's international trade and government revenue, from being one of the foremost centers of education, science and technological research and advancement It is also pertinent to note that Mumbai's all-round growth owed a lot to the early development of the system of local government under British rule. 1.3 Services Offered by MC: In order to bring transparency and smooth collaboration within various departments of MCGM and for the benefit of the citizens MCGM has embraced E-Governance and facilitating most essential citizen services through this Portal. The portal offers information about various aspects of the city, its governance and facilitates citizen services such as Birth/Death Certificate, registration of complaints, etc. Initially those services, which do not require any documentation, will be offered on this portal, other services will be offered subsequently in a phased manner. On this portal, Citizens can file online complaints and subsequently track the status of their complaints. Citizen can apply online for Birth and Death certificate, provided the Birth Registration data of the applicant is available with MCGM and the data is post 1995. It is also possible to pay property and water taxes through electronic clearance system. Citizens can search for the licenses & registrations given by MCGM through the link "Data Lookup". In addition to the services mentioned above soon it will be possible for a Citizen to apply for Shop and Establishment registration, apply for Trade License under section 394, 313, 328A, apply for Heath License u/s section 394, 412 and MPFA License, apply for factory permit, etc. Data Lookup Health Services Page 3
  4. 4. Shops and Establishments Licenses Building and Factory Garden and Trees Maintenance Water Works Market Department Check Application Status 1.4 Objective: The main objective of doing this project is as follows: To know different view of people regarding work of MC To know different suggestions To know actual progress of MC To know whether people actually expect from MC Page 4
  5. 5. Chapter No: 2 Review of Literature Page 5
  6. 6.  Governance in general and urban governance is the flavor of the season. In this piece we take the view that it has to do with the strategies that deal with identification of the lacunae and to make operational (including the ability to do so from economic/ financial point of view) the policy initiatives to be undertaken given the objectives of the government. The framework of policy regimen is constructed through principles of governance. The focus of this article is on Mumbai (MCGM). We argue that what is required is a massive capacity building exercise requiring a change in mindsets, creation of a feeling on the part of all the agents of being real stakeholders with the end-result of improved governance. Further, we argue that the governance process has to be Simple, Transparent, Accountable, Responsive, and Technology enabled. What is clearly of essence is that we must exercise the political will – whether inherently available or externally injected – to START the process of getting governance right! (http://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=T3uPiVabNEEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA125&dq=Stu dies+on+Urban+Governance+in+Mumbai+by+Municipal+Corporation&ots=MYR8nsOW2j&si g=Pw4H18ToWaG0hvFR4DpaajCO46M#v=onepage&q=Studies%20on%20Urban%20Governa nce%20in%20Mumbai%20by%20Municipal%20Corporation&f=false)  The operative term needs to move from “managing” Mumbai to “governing” Mumbai, because this not only encompasses the function of managing but also locates it in a larger context. The problems of urban governance in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region are not trivial. There are technical issues, such as urban planning, design and management of mass transport systems, and access to such resources as water and power along with their pricing and distribution. There are public finance issues of ensuring that the local bodies in the region get access to the resources they need to provide services of acceptable quality. There are regional issues too: how does Mumbai relate to the larger region in which it is located and the other local bodies in the region, and how can the relationship between these be managed? Examples of gaps that arise out of these “governance” related issues include: → Affordable housing: the lack of sufficient affordable housing is driven by a complex set of inter-related issues: 1. Complexity of current regulations and control on urban land 2. Social issues of the poor and how they are oppressed 3. Challenges in enforcement, due to political interference and criminal politician nexus 4. Poor urban planning that extends from the neighborhood to the metropolitan level Page 6
  7. 7. 5. Weak design and implementation of urban infrastructure projects, resulting in time and financial costs 6. Lack of opportunities for citizens to participate 7. Insufficient financial resources available to urban local bodies  Due to the increasing gap between infrastructure demands of urban citizens and their actual provision, Indian cities are confronted with an immense pressure. Most cities in India have a deficient sewerage and sanitation infrastructure that cause enormous damage to the natural environment and public health. Even in metropolitan cities such as Mumbai, only a small amount of wastewater is collected and treated adequately before its disposal into rivers, lakes and the sea. Furthermore, especially underprivileged urban citizens such as pavement and slum dwellers suffer from lacking or inadequate sanitation facilities. Despite Mumbai’s status of being the most important economic and financial centre of India, the sewerage and sanitation infrastructure is far behind in meeting the needs of the urban citizens. The existing sewerage infrastructure is not able to cope with the huge amount of incoming sewage which is thus discharged mostly untreated into water bodies. Furthermore, half of Mumbai’s citizens are faced with inadequate sanitation facilities within the slum areas. In 1993, an additional constitution article was implemented at the federal level to improve the urban governance of Indians cities. The implementation of this 74thConstitution Amendment Act aims to strengthen the participation of urban dwellers in city management, especially in infrastructure provision. This is embedded in a worldwide debate about the disputing top-down city planning, specifically infrastructure provision.This Master’s Thesis is focused on the analysis of the governance form of Mumbai’s wastewater and sanitation sector. The aim of the study is to deliver insight into the governance structure of Mumbai’s wastewater and sanitation sector by analyzing two ongoing wastewater and sanitation projects, the Technical Sewage Project and the Slum Sanitation Project. The study is based on the following questions: to what extend have the ideas of the theoretical concepts of urban and adaptive governance been implemented in the ongoing wastewater projects in Mumbai? In addition, the focus is concentrated on the question of how these governing forms of the projects have influenced the sewerage and sanitation infrastructure in Mumbai. In order to find answers to these questions, the main assumptions about the theoretical concepts of urban and adaptive governance are used Page 7
  8. 8. and transferred in governing dimensions which can be analyzed in the wastewater projects. These dimensions were investigated by interviewing 22 experts who are involved in the TSP and the SSP and have the best knowledge about their governing forms. Furthermore, 20 interviews were conducted with local people from Mumbai in order to get an impression about their experiences and perceptions of the wastewater sector. The analysis of the two projects shows that they differ in their governing forms. The SSP meets many more of the governance criteria than the TSP, which has a considerable lack of integrating actors from civil society within the decision-making processes. In contrast, the SSP is based on the participation of actors from civil society such as NGOs and CBOs and would never achieve success without their involvement. Despite their different governing forms, the SSP as well as the TSP are faced with some difficulties such as conflicts in goal setting, lacking accountability of the involved actors and the existence of uncertainties and complexities within the project. On the other hand, all of the involved actors have clear responsibilities, are legitimized by the political system and accepted by the actors. In order to be able to cope with difficulties and challenges within the project, the actors of the SSP and the TSP must improve in managing and governing the projects more flexibly and adaptively. Another considerable difference of the projects can be seen in their solution approaches. While the TSP only integrates hardware approaches to improve the sewerage infrastructure (such as the construction of wastewater treatment plants), the SSP combines software approaches like capacity-building approaches along with the construction of slum toilets. The experience shows that the combination of these approaches has more prospects for success. The analysis of the governing dimensions of the TSP and the SSP shows that their performances have noticeable influence on the projects’ outcomes and therefore on Mumbai’s sewerage and sanitation infrastructure. The lacking integration of civil society within the TSP caused enormous time delay, which could lead to unfinished work steps in infrastructure provision at the end of the project. In contrast, even if the involvement of environmental NGOs was not intended by the key players of the project, their participation results in the implementation of more adaptive wastewater treatment plants. Through the participation of civil society within the SSP and their implementation of software approaches, the acceptance of the project was increased. However, this acceptance of the design of the SSP could have been better if the process of choosing the toilet design was more adaptive and more participatory. It is Page 8
  9. 9. fair to mention that the implementation of the SSP and the TSP will not make a significant change in the wastewater and sanitation sector if these efforts are not going to be continued with subsequent projects.(http://www.eawag.ch/forschung/cirus/lehre/diplommaster/abgeschlossene_arbei ten/pdf/masters_thesis_keller_sum.pdf) Page 9
  10. 10. Chapter No: 3 Sample Descriptions Page 10
  11. 11. Through our survey we administered 10 individual residing in the Vidyavihar’s Central Railway Quarters. I formed a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. Apart from getting the information for Urban Governance or Promotion measures of Municipal Corporation I also collected information based on their gender, age, income, years of residence, occupation, family members, etc. 3.1 Distribution as per Years of Resident in an area {Table: 3.1} Area No of years of Residence No of Persons 1-5 2 5-10 2 20-25 2 26-27 1 30-34 2 35-40 1 Central Railway Quarters Table 3.1 shows the number of years a person is resident in the location selected by me which is Central Railway Quarters. The highest year is 35-40 & the lowest is 1-5. 3.2 Distribution as per gender {Table: 3.2} Male Female No of Persons 9 1 10 90% 10% 100% Table 3.2 shows the sample distribution gender wise. In this study I interviewed 9 Males & 1 female. 3.3 Distribution as per age {Table: 3.3} Age Range 18-34 35-44 45 & Above No of People 6 1 3 Table 3.3 shows the distribution based on the different range of age of the respondents. Page 11
  12. 12. 3.4 Distribution as per occupation Occupation Student Home Maker Service Business Practice Retire No of People 8 1 1 - Table 3.4 shows the distribution based on the different occupation of the respondents. 3.5 Distribution as per family Members No of Family Members Upto 4 Upto 5 Upto 6 No of People 2 6 2 Table 3.5 shows the distribution on the basis of the number of members in the family. 3.6 Distribution as per Income Income Bracket Upto 5,000 5,001- 10,000 10,001-20,000 20,001-40,000 40,001-60,000 60,001-80,000 No. of Persons 1 4 3 1 - Percentage 10% 40% 30% 10% - Above 80,000 1 10% Table 3.6 shows the distribution of the sample on the basis of the income earned by them. Page 12
  13. 13. Chapter No: 4 Data Analysis Page 13
  14. 14. 4.1 Urban Governance Index {UGI} 4.1.1 Index of Physical Infrastructure: Sr. No Activities Availability of Flyovers, bridges, subways Condition of Roads 1 2 Availability of Parking 3 Excellent Very Good - - 2 4 4 18/50*100 - - 1 6 3 18/50*100 36 - - - 3 7 13/50*100 26 49/150*100 32.67% Good Average Total Poor Ranking 36 8 7 6 5 4 Good 3 Average Poor 2 1 0 Availability of Flyover, Bridges & Subways Condition of Roads Availability of Parking Table: 4.1.1 Page 14
  15. 15. 4.1.2 Index of Social Infrastructure: Sr. No 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 Activities Availability of Water Supply of Electricity Quality of Education in Municipal Schools Availability of Super Specialty Services in Municipal Hospitals Progress of Slum redevelopment and improvement program Maintenance of Public Toilets Availability of Garbage Bins Effectiveness of Ghanta Gadis Excellent Very Good Good Average Poor - 4 1 3 2 27/50*100 54 - 3 5 2 - 31/50*100 62 - - - 6 4 16/50*100 32 - - 1 2 7 14/50*100 28 - - - 3 7 13/50*100 26 - - - 2 8 12/50*100 24 - - 3 6 1 22/50*100 44 - - 1 3 6 15/50*100 30 150/400*100 37.5 Total Ranking Page 15
  16. 16. 9 8 7 6 5 Very Good 4 Good 3 Average 2 Poor 1 0 Availability o Water Supply of Electricity Quality of Education in Municipal Schools Services in hospitals Progress of Maintenance Slum of Public Toilets Table: 4.1.2 4.1.3 Index of Environmental Infrastructure: Sr. No Activities Excellent Very Good Good Average Poor 9 Availability & maintenance of green spaces - 3 6 - 1 Ranki ng 31/50*100 Page 16 62
  17. 17. 7 6 5 4 Very Good 3 Good Poor 2 1 0 Availability of Green Spaces Table: 4.1.3 4.2 Index of Awareness for some projects & services as listed below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ranking (10 Persons) I Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 II Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 III Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 10 IV No No No No No No No No No No 0 V Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9 VI No No No No No No No No No No 0 VII No No No No No No No No No No 0 VIII No No No No Yes No Yes No No Yes 3 Sr. No Activities IIIIIIIVVVIVIIVIII- Separation of Dry & Wet garbage Collection of garbage done by private consultants Dumping Grounds in Municipal Corporation Area Artificial ponds created for immersion of Ganapati idols Tree saplings provided to citizens & schools for plantation Environment status report for city Attending complaints of the citizens personally every month MC encourages private sector participation for projects like road building, improvement of traffic islands, development of Nature Park, conservation of creeks. Page 17
  18. 18. 10- Very Good, 9- Good, 3- Poor 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Very Good Good Poor Table: - 4.2 4.3 Index for the projects known & visited {Distribution as per data collected} Garden/ Park Respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ranking Lake Joggers Park 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 4 Page 18
  19. 19. 4.4 Index for willingness to raise fund for extension Yes Contribution No No of person 4 50-100 6 10 60% 100% 40% 4.5 Index for agency Preferred for Infrastructure extension Agency MC I NGO MC & I MC & NGO I & NGO Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ranking 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 - 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 MC- Municipal Corporation I- Industry NGO- Non Voluntary Organization 0-3: Poor, 4-5: Average, 6-8: Good, 9-10: Very Good Page 19
  20. 20. 4.6 Index for Rating Municipal Corporation Excellent Very Good Good Avg/ Moderate Poor Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 - Ranking - - 2 6 2 6 5 4 Good 3 Average Poor 2 1 0 Municipal Corporation Page 20
  21. 21. Chapter No: 5 Interpretations Page 21
  22. 22. 5.1 Places Visited:  I visited the Central Railway Quarters 5.2 Suggestions:  They should avoid corruption. The amount of money sanctioned by government & the amount received through taxes should be utilized only in wellbeing of the citizens.  They should not fill their pockets by the money which they collect.  The raw materials used for building or constructing should be good there should not be any type of mixing or use of poor quality of materials.  If poor quality of materials is used for building towers or apartments it can impact the people staying in those houses.  The materials used to make roads should also be of good quality no mixing of any unwanted substance or degraded quality of material.  The drainage system should be cleaned after a gap of 3 months & mostly before the commencement of the monsoons which can avoid flooding and over flowing or blockage.  The Municipal Corporation should undertake such programs which motivate people to plant more and more trees and this should not only be on paper but should be implemented also.  The quality of education provided in the Municipal Corporation is very poor so they should employ highly qualified Teachers to teach them & also provide them with different facilities which should be given them.  Proper & healthy meals should be given to them.  The services provided by the Municipal Hospital should also be improved. If they work more properly then they can become more specialized.  Environmental and other essential report should be published not only on websites but also in Newspaper as many of them are not aware of the Report published.  Water harvesting measures should be undertaken. This can help to use the rain water properly rather than facing the problem of floods.  They should also work hard for the remote areas.  If the Municipal Corporation is unable to know what exactly should be the infrastructure which can help the citizens then they should do some research work like they should do surveys in small areas and then they can make report and can work Page 22
  23. 23. with other Industry or any NGO or any other body to improve the infrastructure (Physical, Social & Environmental) 5.3 Conclusions: The UGI indicates the following: a) Physical Index denotes the following: The review of the respondents for this index is below average. The respondents have given very poor rating for the physical infrastructure. So as per the analysis individual rating is above 50% but overall rating is average. b) Social Infrastructure denotes the following: The ratings given by the respondents are not as good as the respondents are not satisfied by the performance of the Municipal Corporation. They need to improvise more on this area as it is important to gain the confidence of the people in the society. c) Environmental Infrastructure denotes the following: Over here the ratings given are more than half. But the people staying in the chawls don’t have the same as compared to the people staying in a good area. Page 23