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AIRLINE RESERVATION
SYSTEM
Project by :
Dimpy Chugh
Drishti Bhalla
Shweta Arya
OBJECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT
The Aim of our project is to design and develop a software which would automate
the major airline operations like providing the facilities for the reservation of online
air tickets or any other operations through an effective and yet simple GUI for a
normal passenger intending to travel through airways.
PROPOSED RESERVATION
SYSTEM
This Airline Reservation System Project will provide the user with the following
functions:
• Flight Booking System: The system allows the airline passenger to search for
flights that are available between the two travel cities, namely the “Departure city”
and “Arrival city” for a particular departure date. The system gives the list of
available flights with certain flight details and allows customer to choose a particular
flight suiting his comforts. If the seats are available in a particular flight, then the
system allows the passenger to book a seat of his/her choice. Otherwise it asks the
user to choose another flight. He can also cancel the current reservations without
any problem.
• Flight Status System: Our system allows the registered users to check the flight
status if there is any delay in their flight timings due to inclement weather or any
other reason. It automatically notifies by sending a voice message to the authorised
passengers who have their tickets booked.
• User Accounts System: Creating and maintaining an online account on the
system, in order to see status and updates on booked flights. A User can login
into his account by providing its authorised username and password and
alternatively a new user can register into the system and hence become an
authorised user.
• Web Check-In: Passengers can get their boarding pass in advance through
web check in and go straight to the baggage drop-counter. This will surely save
their time.
After all the necessary details needed for reservation are provided by the
passenger, the screen then takes the traveller to confirm details and online pay the
payment by online transaction screen.
ADVANTAGES OF THE
PROPOSED SYSTEM
• Results are received very quickly.
• It uses concept of user friendliness.
• Increases security, speed, storing and accuracy.
• Customer services can not only be satisfied but also enhanced to the extent that
one can obtain or cancel a reservation from anywhere.
• Managing and maintaining data becomes easier.
• Provide convenience to travellers.
PROCESS MODEL
We have used LINEAR SEQUENTIAL MODEL or WATERFALL MODEL for
our system which is a software development model in which development is seen
as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of
requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing .
We have used this process model because of the following reasons:-
• As our system proceeds from one phase to another in sequential and
systematic manner i.e. the phases are well segregated and only after the
completion of one phase, the development of software moves to the next
phase.
• As our system is simple to implement and represents processes which are easy
to manage and measure.
• All the requirements stated by the user are known before hand and are well
understood .
• As this is a short duration project.
PROJECT SCHEDULING
• The degree of rigor is a function of many project characteristics .
• Various Task sets are designed to accommodate different types of projects and
different degrees of rigor.
• Our project is basically a New application development project (NDev.) which
is undertaken as a consequence of a specific customer request.
• Structured Degree of Rigor- The process framework activities will be applied
for this project. Framework activities and related tasks appropriate to the project
type will be applied and umbrella activities necessary to ensure high quality will
be applied. Software Quality Assurance (SQA), Software Configuration
Management (SCM), documentation, and measurement tasks will be conducted
in a streamlined manner.
Task set selector value for degree of rigor (Structured)
1.0<TSS<3.0
COMPUTING THE TASK SET
SELECTOR TABLE
ADAPTATION CRITERIA GRADE WEIGHT
ENTRY
POINT
MULTIPLIER
NDEV.
PRODUCT
Size of project 2 1.20 1 2.40
Number of users 2 1.10 1 2.20
Business criticality 1 1.10 1 1.10
Longevity 2 0.90 1 1.80
Stability of requirements 2 1.20 1 2.40
Ease of communication 1 0.90 1 0.90
Maturity of technology 0 0.90 1 0.00
Performance constraints 2 0.80 1 1.60
Embedded 2 1.20 1 2.40
Project staffing 1 1.00 1 1.00
Interoperability 0 1.10 1 0.00
Reengineering factors 0 1.20 0 0.00
Task set selector(TSS) 1.32
Task set selector (TSS) = [∑ (Product)]/12]
=[15.8/12]
= 1.32
HARDWARE INTERFACES
• Our software is compatible with Microsoft Windows based machines.
• The database connectivity requires a hardware configuration with a fast
database system running on hard-disk permitting back-up systems to support
the primary goal of reliability.
• The system must interface with the standard output device, keyboard and
mouse to interact with the software.
SOFTWARE INTERFACES
 FRONT END DESCRIPTION
• The Front End for ARS is designed using HTML. The front end contains a
very user-friendly interface.
• It contains various screens such as -
1. Login
2. Registration
3. Online Reservation
4. Reservation Form
5. Online Transaction
6. Flight Status
7. Web Check-In
8. Cancel Reservation.
Screen Name Description
Login Allows to login as an administrator or a user.
Registration Interface for registering a new member.
Online Reservation Allows user to search flights by specifying
journey details and accordingly reserve
seats.
Reservation Form Asks for user details and preferred seat
location for booking.
Online Transaction Enables the user to make online payment by
providing card details.
Flight Status Accepts flight details as input and display
current status of flight in accordance with
them.
Web Check-in Allow to acquire a print of boarding pass by
verifying reservation details.
Cancel Reservation Interface which enables the user to cancel
reservation by providing e-ticket number.
SCREEN 1
LOGIN SYSTEM
SCREEN 2
REGISTRATION
SCREEN 3
ONLINE RESERVATION
SCREEN 4
RESERVATION FORM
SCREEN 5
ONLINE TRANSACTION
SCREEN 6
FLIGHT STATUS
SCREEN 7
WEB-CHECK IN
SCREEN 8
CANCEL RESERVATION
 BACK END DESCRIPTION
• The Back End for ARS is designed using MS Access. This includes passenger,
reservation, flights, flight status, account info, web check-in, payment and
cancellation relations.
• The account info relation contains the information of the users like its valid
username and password, first name, last name, email-id, contact no and gender.
• The passenger relation will contain unique e-ticket number, first name, last
name, gender, D.O.B, seat no, flight no, departure date, e-contact no, booking
username.
• The flights relation contains the information about all the flights available
between different cities such as flight number, the two cities to which the flight
connects i.e. the origin and destination, total seats and the days on which it flies.
• The web check-in relation includes the e-ticket number corresponding to which
the boarding pass has been printed.
• The reservation relation will include the e-ticket numbers corresponding to which
reservations have been made.
• The payment relation contains the transaction Id, the total fare calculated and the
username using which the booking was done.
• The cancellation relation consists of e-ticket numbers corresponding to which the
reservations have been cancelled due to some reasons and the amount refunded to
the user.
• The flight status relation contains flight no, status, departure date, arrival date,
scheduled departure and arrival time and estimated/actual departure and arrival
time of different available flights.
DATA DICTIONARY
SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description
1 USERNAME Alpha-numeric 20 Primary Key A name that
Uniquely identifies
each user.
2 PASSWORD Alpha-numeric 20 Not Null Password of the User
for secure account.
3 FIRST NAME String 20 Not Null First Name of the User.
4 LAST NAME String 20 Not Null Last Name of the User.
5 GENDER Character 5 Not Null Gender of the
User.
6 CONTACT NO. Numeric 20 Not Null Contact Number
Of Passenger.
7 E-MAIL ID Alpha-numeric 20 - E -Mail Address
Of the User.
ACCOUNT INFO
PASSENGER
SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description
1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key Unique Ticket No.
generated at the time
of reservation.
2 FIRST NAME String 20 Not Null First Name of the
Passenger.
3 LAST NAME String 20 Not Null Last Name of the
Passenger.
4 GENDER Character 5 Not Null Gender of the
Passenger.
5 DOB Numeric 20 Not Null Date of Birth
of Passenger .
6 BOOKING_USERN
AME
Alpha-numeric 20 Foreign Key A unique username
under which
reservations(s) were
made.
7 FLIGHT NUMBER Alpha-numeric 10 Foreign Key Unique Id /No. of a
Particular Flight.
8 SEAT NUMBER Integer 3 Not Null Specific number
for identification of
every seat.
9 DEPARTURE DATE Numeric 20 Not Null Date of Departure of
Flight.
10 E-CONTACT NO. Numeric 20 Not Null Emergency Contact
Number Of Passenger.
RESERVATION
SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description
1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign
Key
Unique Ticket No.
generated at the
time of reservation.
FLIGHT
SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description
1 FLIGHT NUMBER Alpha-numeric 10 Primary Key Unique Id /No. of a
Particular Flight.
2 ORIGIN String 20 Not Null The Place From Where
The Flight Will Depart.
3 DESTINATION String 20 Not Null The Place Where The
Flight is Destined to
Reach.
4 TOTAL SEATS Numeric 5 Not Null Total No. of Seats in a
Particular Flight.
5 DAYS String 10 Not Null Days when the flight
departs.
WEB CHECK-IN
SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description
1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign Key Unique Ticket No.
generated at the
time of reservation.
SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description
1 TRANSACTION ID Alpha-numeric 20 Primary Key Unique Id generated
at the time of
payment.
2 BOOKING_USERNA
ME
Alpha-numeric 20 Foreign Key A unique username
under which
reservations(s) were
made.
3 TOTAL FARE
GENERATED
Integer 10 Not Null Total Price of the
Reservations made.
PAYMENT
SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description
1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign Key Unique Ticket No.
generated at the
time of reservation.
2 REFUNDED
AMOUNT
Integer 10 - Amount refunded(if
any ) to the user.
CANCELLATION
SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description
1 FLIGHT NUMBER Alpha-numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign
Key
Unique Id /No. of a
Particular Flight.
2 DEPARTURE DATE Numeric 20 Primary Key Date of Departure of
Flight.
3 ARRIVAL DATE Numeric 20 Not Null Date of Arrival of Flight.
4 SCHEDULED
DEPARTURE TIME
Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is
scheduled to depart.
5 SCHEDULED
ARRIVAL TIME
Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is
scheduled to arrive.
6 ESTIMATED
/ACTUAL
DEPARTURE TIME
Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is
estimated to depart or
departed.
7 ESTIMATED
/ACTUAL ARRIVAL
TIME
Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is
estimated to arrive or
arrived.
8 STATUS String 30 Not Null Status of the Flight.
FLIGHT STATUS
DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS
• Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of
data through an information system. A DFD is created to provide an
overview of the system.
CONTEXT LEVEL DIAGRAM
LEVEL -1 DFD
LEVEL -2 DFD OF LOGIN
LEVEL -2 DFD OF ONLINE
RESERVATION
LEVEL -2 DFD OF ONLINE
TRANSACTION
LEVEL -2 DFD OF WEB CHECK -IN
LEVEL -2 DFD OF FLIGHT STATUS
LEVEL-2 DFD OF CANCELLATION
FUNCTION POINT METRICS
Information Weighting Factor
Domain Value Count Average
Number of external inputs 45 X 4 = 180
Number of external outputs 10 X 5 = 50
Number of external inquiries 3 X 4 = 12
Number of internal logical files 1 X 10 = 10
Number of external interfaces 1 X 7 = 7
Count total------------------------------------------------------------------------------> 259
Function-point (FP) metric can be used effectively as a means for measuring the
functionality delivered by a system.
∑ (Fi) = (2+2+0+0+2+4+2+2+0+0+2+2+2+0) = 20
FP = count total x [0.65+0.01 x ∑ (Fi)]
= 220.15
EFFORT ESTIMATION
The COCOMO model or the Constructive Cost Model is a method for evaluating
and estimating the cost /effort of software development product based on inputs
relating to the size of the software and a number of scale factors that effect
productivity.
COMPLEXITY WEIGHTING TABLE
OBJECT TYPE
NUMBER OF
INSTANCES
COMPLEXITY WEIGHT:
MEDIUM
Screens 8 X 2 16
Reports 1 X 5 5
Objects
Point (Total)
21
NOP = (Object points) x [(100-%reuse)/100] [NOP = new object points]
= 21 x [(100-0)/100] [%reuse = 0]
= 21 x 1
=21
PRODUCTIVITY RATES TABLE
The Productivity rate for different levels of developer experience and development
environment maturity is Low that is 7.
Estimated effort = NOP/PROD
= 21/7
= 3 person-month
Developer’s experience/capability Low
Environment maturity/capability Low
PROD 7
RISK ANALYSIS
• A risk analysis is a series of steps that help a software team to understand and
manage uncertainty.
• A risk is a potential problem which should be identified, its probability of
occurrence should be assessed, its impact should be estimated and a contingency
plan should be prepared.
DEVELOPING A RISK TABLE
RISK NAME CATEGORY PROBABILITY IMPACT
Staff
inexperienced
ST 50% 3
Delivery deadline
will be tightened
BU 60% 3
Customer will
change
requirements
PS 20% 3
WHITE- BOX TESTING
White-box testing, sometimes called glass-box testing is a test case design method
that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases.
ALGORITHM FOR LOGIN SCREEN
1. Identify role.
2. If role = administrator and username and password are valid
Then
3. Proceed to administrator functions
Else
4. If role = user and username and password are valid
Then
5. Proceed to either online reservation screen or cancel reservation screen or Flight
status screen
Else
6. Display error message
7. Else If user has no account and registration details entered are valid
Then
8. Create account and then login
Else
9. Display error message and enter the details again
FLOW CHART OF LOGIN SCREEN
FLOW GRAPH OF LOGIN SCREEN
CYCLOMATIC COMPLEXITY
1. Number of regions of flow graph = 6
2. V (G) = E-N+2 [where E = no. of edges, N = no. of nodes]
= 15-11+2 [where E = 15, N = 11]
= 6.
3. V (G) = P+1 [where P = predicate nodes]
= 5+1 [where P = 5(1, 2, 3, 6, 10)]
= 6
Therefore, the Cyclomatic Complexity of the flow graph is 6.
TEST CASES
Test case ID Input value Actual output Expected output
1.
For user
Username U
Password xxxxxx
(valid input)
To be observed after
execution
Proceed to online
reservation or cancel
reservation or flight status.
2.
For user
Username U
Password xxxxxx
(invalid input)
To be observed after
execution
Display error message
and login again.
3.
For administrator
Username U
Password xxxxxx
(valid input)
To be observed after
execution
Proceed to administrator
functions.
4.
For administrator
Username U
Password xxxxx
(invalid input)
To be observed after
execution
Display error message
and login again.
5.
For new user
Enter Registration details
(valid input)
To be observed after
execution
Account created and
proceed to login.
6.
For new user
Enter details
(Invalid input)
To be observed after
execution
Display error message.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Software Engineering - A Practitioner's Approach by R. S. Pressman,
McGraw-Hill, Ed-7, 2010.
 An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering by P. Jalote, Narosa
Publishing House, Ed-3, 2011.
THANK YOU!!!

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Airline Reservation System - Software Engineering

  • 1. AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM Project by : Dimpy Chugh Drishti Bhalla Shweta Arya
  • 2. OBJECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT The Aim of our project is to design and develop a software which would automate the major airline operations like providing the facilities for the reservation of online air tickets or any other operations through an effective and yet simple GUI for a normal passenger intending to travel through airways.
  • 3. PROPOSED RESERVATION SYSTEM This Airline Reservation System Project will provide the user with the following functions: • Flight Booking System: The system allows the airline passenger to search for flights that are available between the two travel cities, namely the “Departure city” and “Arrival city” for a particular departure date. The system gives the list of available flights with certain flight details and allows customer to choose a particular flight suiting his comforts. If the seats are available in a particular flight, then the system allows the passenger to book a seat of his/her choice. Otherwise it asks the user to choose another flight. He can also cancel the current reservations without any problem. • Flight Status System: Our system allows the registered users to check the flight status if there is any delay in their flight timings due to inclement weather or any other reason. It automatically notifies by sending a voice message to the authorised passengers who have their tickets booked.
  • 4. • User Accounts System: Creating and maintaining an online account on the system, in order to see status and updates on booked flights. A User can login into his account by providing its authorised username and password and alternatively a new user can register into the system and hence become an authorised user. • Web Check-In: Passengers can get their boarding pass in advance through web check in and go straight to the baggage drop-counter. This will surely save their time. After all the necessary details needed for reservation are provided by the passenger, the screen then takes the traveller to confirm details and online pay the payment by online transaction screen.
  • 5. ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM • Results are received very quickly. • It uses concept of user friendliness. • Increases security, speed, storing and accuracy. • Customer services can not only be satisfied but also enhanced to the extent that one can obtain or cancel a reservation from anywhere. • Managing and maintaining data becomes easier. • Provide convenience to travellers.
  • 6. PROCESS MODEL We have used LINEAR SEQUENTIAL MODEL or WATERFALL MODEL for our system which is a software development model in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing .
  • 7. We have used this process model because of the following reasons:- • As our system proceeds from one phase to another in sequential and systematic manner i.e. the phases are well segregated and only after the completion of one phase, the development of software moves to the next phase. • As our system is simple to implement and represents processes which are easy to manage and measure. • All the requirements stated by the user are known before hand and are well understood . • As this is a short duration project.
  • 8. PROJECT SCHEDULING • The degree of rigor is a function of many project characteristics . • Various Task sets are designed to accommodate different types of projects and different degrees of rigor. • Our project is basically a New application development project (NDev.) which is undertaken as a consequence of a specific customer request. • Structured Degree of Rigor- The process framework activities will be applied for this project. Framework activities and related tasks appropriate to the project type will be applied and umbrella activities necessary to ensure high quality will be applied. Software Quality Assurance (SQA), Software Configuration Management (SCM), documentation, and measurement tasks will be conducted in a streamlined manner. Task set selector value for degree of rigor (Structured) 1.0<TSS<3.0
  • 9. COMPUTING THE TASK SET SELECTOR TABLE ADAPTATION CRITERIA GRADE WEIGHT ENTRY POINT MULTIPLIER NDEV. PRODUCT Size of project 2 1.20 1 2.40 Number of users 2 1.10 1 2.20 Business criticality 1 1.10 1 1.10 Longevity 2 0.90 1 1.80 Stability of requirements 2 1.20 1 2.40 Ease of communication 1 0.90 1 0.90 Maturity of technology 0 0.90 1 0.00 Performance constraints 2 0.80 1 1.60 Embedded 2 1.20 1 2.40 Project staffing 1 1.00 1 1.00 Interoperability 0 1.10 1 0.00 Reengineering factors 0 1.20 0 0.00 Task set selector(TSS) 1.32 Task set selector (TSS) = [∑ (Product)]/12] =[15.8/12] = 1.32
  • 10. HARDWARE INTERFACES • Our software is compatible with Microsoft Windows based machines. • The database connectivity requires a hardware configuration with a fast database system running on hard-disk permitting back-up systems to support the primary goal of reliability. • The system must interface with the standard output device, keyboard and mouse to interact with the software.
  • 11. SOFTWARE INTERFACES  FRONT END DESCRIPTION • The Front End for ARS is designed using HTML. The front end contains a very user-friendly interface. • It contains various screens such as - 1. Login 2. Registration 3. Online Reservation 4. Reservation Form 5. Online Transaction 6. Flight Status 7. Web Check-In 8. Cancel Reservation.
  • 12. Screen Name Description Login Allows to login as an administrator or a user. Registration Interface for registering a new member. Online Reservation Allows user to search flights by specifying journey details and accordingly reserve seats. Reservation Form Asks for user details and preferred seat location for booking. Online Transaction Enables the user to make online payment by providing card details. Flight Status Accepts flight details as input and display current status of flight in accordance with them. Web Check-in Allow to acquire a print of boarding pass by verifying reservation details. Cancel Reservation Interface which enables the user to cancel reservation by providing e-ticket number.
  • 21.  BACK END DESCRIPTION • The Back End for ARS is designed using MS Access. This includes passenger, reservation, flights, flight status, account info, web check-in, payment and cancellation relations. • The account info relation contains the information of the users like its valid username and password, first name, last name, email-id, contact no and gender. • The passenger relation will contain unique e-ticket number, first name, last name, gender, D.O.B, seat no, flight no, departure date, e-contact no, booking username. • The flights relation contains the information about all the flights available between different cities such as flight number, the two cities to which the flight connects i.e. the origin and destination, total seats and the days on which it flies.
  • 22. • The web check-in relation includes the e-ticket number corresponding to which the boarding pass has been printed. • The reservation relation will include the e-ticket numbers corresponding to which reservations have been made. • The payment relation contains the transaction Id, the total fare calculated and the username using which the booking was done. • The cancellation relation consists of e-ticket numbers corresponding to which the reservations have been cancelled due to some reasons and the amount refunded to the user. • The flight status relation contains flight no, status, departure date, arrival date, scheduled departure and arrival time and estimated/actual departure and arrival time of different available flights.
  • 23. DATA DICTIONARY SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description 1 USERNAME Alpha-numeric 20 Primary Key A name that Uniquely identifies each user. 2 PASSWORD Alpha-numeric 20 Not Null Password of the User for secure account. 3 FIRST NAME String 20 Not Null First Name of the User. 4 LAST NAME String 20 Not Null Last Name of the User. 5 GENDER Character 5 Not Null Gender of the User. 6 CONTACT NO. Numeric 20 Not Null Contact Number Of Passenger. 7 E-MAIL ID Alpha-numeric 20 - E -Mail Address Of the User. ACCOUNT INFO
  • 24. PASSENGER SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description 1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key Unique Ticket No. generated at the time of reservation. 2 FIRST NAME String 20 Not Null First Name of the Passenger. 3 LAST NAME String 20 Not Null Last Name of the Passenger. 4 GENDER Character 5 Not Null Gender of the Passenger. 5 DOB Numeric 20 Not Null Date of Birth of Passenger . 6 BOOKING_USERN AME Alpha-numeric 20 Foreign Key A unique username under which reservations(s) were made. 7 FLIGHT NUMBER Alpha-numeric 10 Foreign Key Unique Id /No. of a Particular Flight. 8 SEAT NUMBER Integer 3 Not Null Specific number for identification of every seat. 9 DEPARTURE DATE Numeric 20 Not Null Date of Departure of Flight. 10 E-CONTACT NO. Numeric 20 Not Null Emergency Contact Number Of Passenger.
  • 25. RESERVATION SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description 1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign Key Unique Ticket No. generated at the time of reservation. FLIGHT SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description 1 FLIGHT NUMBER Alpha-numeric 10 Primary Key Unique Id /No. of a Particular Flight. 2 ORIGIN String 20 Not Null The Place From Where The Flight Will Depart. 3 DESTINATION String 20 Not Null The Place Where The Flight is Destined to Reach. 4 TOTAL SEATS Numeric 5 Not Null Total No. of Seats in a Particular Flight. 5 DAYS String 10 Not Null Days when the flight departs.
  • 26. WEB CHECK-IN SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description 1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign Key Unique Ticket No. generated at the time of reservation. SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description 1 TRANSACTION ID Alpha-numeric 20 Primary Key Unique Id generated at the time of payment. 2 BOOKING_USERNA ME Alpha-numeric 20 Foreign Key A unique username under which reservations(s) were made. 3 TOTAL FARE GENERATED Integer 10 Not Null Total Price of the Reservations made. PAYMENT
  • 27. SNO. Attributes Data type Field length Constraints Description 1 E-TICKET NUMBER Numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign Key Unique Ticket No. generated at the time of reservation. 2 REFUNDED AMOUNT Integer 10 - Amount refunded(if any ) to the user. CANCELLATION SNO. Attributes Data Type Field Length Constraints Description 1 FLIGHT NUMBER Alpha-numeric 10 Primary Key, Foreign Key Unique Id /No. of a Particular Flight. 2 DEPARTURE DATE Numeric 20 Primary Key Date of Departure of Flight. 3 ARRIVAL DATE Numeric 20 Not Null Date of Arrival of Flight. 4 SCHEDULED DEPARTURE TIME Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is scheduled to depart. 5 SCHEDULED ARRIVAL TIME Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is scheduled to arrive. 6 ESTIMATED /ACTUAL DEPARTURE TIME Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is estimated to depart or departed. 7 ESTIMATED /ACTUAL ARRIVAL TIME Timestamp 10 Not Null Time when the Flight is estimated to arrive or arrived. 8 STATUS String 30 Not Null Status of the Flight. FLIGHT STATUS
  • 28. DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS • Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. A DFD is created to provide an overview of the system. CONTEXT LEVEL DIAGRAM
  • 30. LEVEL -2 DFD OF LOGIN
  • 31. LEVEL -2 DFD OF ONLINE RESERVATION
  • 32. LEVEL -2 DFD OF ONLINE TRANSACTION
  • 33. LEVEL -2 DFD OF WEB CHECK -IN
  • 34. LEVEL -2 DFD OF FLIGHT STATUS
  • 35. LEVEL-2 DFD OF CANCELLATION
  • 36. FUNCTION POINT METRICS Information Weighting Factor Domain Value Count Average Number of external inputs 45 X 4 = 180 Number of external outputs 10 X 5 = 50 Number of external inquiries 3 X 4 = 12 Number of internal logical files 1 X 10 = 10 Number of external interfaces 1 X 7 = 7 Count total------------------------------------------------------------------------------> 259 Function-point (FP) metric can be used effectively as a means for measuring the functionality delivered by a system. ∑ (Fi) = (2+2+0+0+2+4+2+2+0+0+2+2+2+0) = 20 FP = count total x [0.65+0.01 x ∑ (Fi)] = 220.15
  • 37. EFFORT ESTIMATION The COCOMO model or the Constructive Cost Model is a method for evaluating and estimating the cost /effort of software development product based on inputs relating to the size of the software and a number of scale factors that effect productivity. COMPLEXITY WEIGHTING TABLE OBJECT TYPE NUMBER OF INSTANCES COMPLEXITY WEIGHT: MEDIUM Screens 8 X 2 16 Reports 1 X 5 5 Objects Point (Total) 21
  • 38. NOP = (Object points) x [(100-%reuse)/100] [NOP = new object points] = 21 x [(100-0)/100] [%reuse = 0] = 21 x 1 =21 PRODUCTIVITY RATES TABLE The Productivity rate for different levels of developer experience and development environment maturity is Low that is 7. Estimated effort = NOP/PROD = 21/7 = 3 person-month Developer’s experience/capability Low Environment maturity/capability Low PROD 7
  • 39. RISK ANALYSIS • A risk analysis is a series of steps that help a software team to understand and manage uncertainty. • A risk is a potential problem which should be identified, its probability of occurrence should be assessed, its impact should be estimated and a contingency plan should be prepared. DEVELOPING A RISK TABLE RISK NAME CATEGORY PROBABILITY IMPACT Staff inexperienced ST 50% 3 Delivery deadline will be tightened BU 60% 3 Customer will change requirements PS 20% 3
  • 40. WHITE- BOX TESTING White-box testing, sometimes called glass-box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. ALGORITHM FOR LOGIN SCREEN 1. Identify role. 2. If role = administrator and username and password are valid Then 3. Proceed to administrator functions Else 4. If role = user and username and password are valid Then 5. Proceed to either online reservation screen or cancel reservation screen or Flight status screen Else 6. Display error message 7. Else If user has no account and registration details entered are valid Then 8. Create account and then login Else 9. Display error message and enter the details again
  • 41. FLOW CHART OF LOGIN SCREEN
  • 42. FLOW GRAPH OF LOGIN SCREEN
  • 43. CYCLOMATIC COMPLEXITY 1. Number of regions of flow graph = 6 2. V (G) = E-N+2 [where E = no. of edges, N = no. of nodes] = 15-11+2 [where E = 15, N = 11] = 6. 3. V (G) = P+1 [where P = predicate nodes] = 5+1 [where P = 5(1, 2, 3, 6, 10)] = 6 Therefore, the Cyclomatic Complexity of the flow graph is 6.
  • 44. TEST CASES Test case ID Input value Actual output Expected output 1. For user Username U Password xxxxxx (valid input) To be observed after execution Proceed to online reservation or cancel reservation or flight status. 2. For user Username U Password xxxxxx (invalid input) To be observed after execution Display error message and login again. 3. For administrator Username U Password xxxxxx (valid input) To be observed after execution Proceed to administrator functions. 4. For administrator Username U Password xxxxx (invalid input) To be observed after execution Display error message and login again. 5. For new user Enter Registration details (valid input) To be observed after execution Account created and proceed to login. 6. For new user Enter details (Invalid input) To be observed after execution Display error message.
  • 45. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Software Engineering - A Practitioner's Approach by R. S. Pressman, McGraw-Hill, Ed-7, 2010.  An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering by P. Jalote, Narosa Publishing House, Ed-3, 2011.