IVMS-THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT 75 YEARS LATER

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THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT
75 YEARS LATER

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IVMS-THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT 75 YEARS LATER

  1. 1. Compiled, Designed and Presented by Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.In 1972 the Tuskegee Study was broughtto public and national attention by awhistleblower, who gave information tothe Washington Star and the New YorkTimes. Heller of PHS still defended theethics of the study, stating: "The mensstatus did not warrant ethical debate.They were subjects, not patients; clinicalmaterial, not sick people."From: Research Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuskegee_Study_of_Untreated_Syphilis_in_the_Negro_Male
  2. 2. Syphilis - Topic Overview What is syphilis? Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). If it’s not treated by a doctor, it can get worse over time and cause serious health problems.4 Stages of SyphilisSyphilis is often called "the greatimitator" because it has varyingsymptoms and these symptomsusually resemble those of manyother diseasesThe bacteria usually follows a fourstage pattern that at times canoverlap The Treponema pallidum bacterium 2
  3. 3. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum It can also be passed from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth causing a disease called congenital syphilishttp://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=719&pid=23160 http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/120-1250/2448/ 3
  4. 4. Primary stage: One of the first signs is a painless open sore called achancre (say "SHANK-er"). Because syphilis is usually spread whenpeople have sexual contact, chancres are often found in the mouth,the anus, or the genital area. They may also be found wherever thebacteria entered the body.http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/tc/syphilis-topic-overview Source of images: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/sosarafova/Assets/Bio307/stdouglass/Page%2002.htm 4
  5. 5. Secondary stage: A skin rash and other symptoms mayshow up 4 to 10 weeks after a person is infected. At thisstage, it is very easy to spread the disease through contactwith the mouth, the anus, the genitals, or any area wherethere is a skin rash. Source of images: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/sosarafova/Assets/Bio307/stdouglass/Page%2002.htm 5
  6. 6. Latent stage: After the rash clears, aperson may have a period with nosymptoms.This is often called the "hidden stage."Even though symptoms go away, thebacteria that cause syphilis are still inthe body and begin to damage theinternal organs.This stage may be as short as1 year or last from 5 to 20 years. Often, a woman with latent-stagesyphilis doesnt find out that she has thedisease until she gives birth to a childwith syphilis. 6
  7. 7. Late (tertiary) stage: If syphilis is not found and treated in theearly stages, it can cause other serious health problems. Thesecan include blindness, problems with the nervous system andthe heart, and mental disorders. It can also cause death. Source of image: Source of images: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/sosarafova/ http://marshall.csu.edu.au/CNMI/CNMIBIB/Photos/Leber_Syphilis.html Assets/Bio307/stdouglass/Page%2002.htm 7
  8. 8. The Tuskegee syphilis experiment (also known as the Tuskegee syphilis study or Public HealthService syphilis study) was a clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee,Alabama, by the U.S. Public Health Service. Investigators recruited 399 impoverished African-American sharecroppers with syphilis for research related to the natural progression of theuntreated disease, in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks. 8
  9. 9. Vanessa Northington Gamble, M.D., Ph.D., is Associate Professor at Johns HopkinsUniversity, and is an internationally recognized expert on ... all » the history of race and racismin American medicine, cultural competence, and diversity. She discusses the enduring causesand consequences of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Series: "LeNoir/NMA Memorial Lecture” 9
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  25. 25. From the report "SCARY MEDICINE:Exposing the dark side of vaccines." http://shop.wnd.com/store/item.asp?ITEM_ID=2083 25
  26. 26. From the report "SCARY MEDICINE: Exposing the dark side of vaccines."Questions we must ask and facts we must consider: "Do vaccines cause cancer?" – the startling but indisputable story of how 10 to 30 million Americans received polio shots tainted with monkey virus linked to cancers "Medical terrorists on your doorstep" by Barbara Simpson, who shows how todays vaccine mania is pumping healthy children full of dozens of foreign antigens, without their parents being fully informed about the shots "Newborn vaccinated over parents objections" by Diana Lynne, who documents the Orwellian nightmare of a young couple as armed guards forced their infants vaccination against a sexually transmitted disease "Civilians could face mandatory anthrax shots" by Bob Unruh, on credible evidence tying the controversial shots to Gulf War Syndrome, and quoting an expert warning that civilians could be required to received the governments 10 million "emergency" doses 26
  27. 27. From the report "SCARY MEDICINE: Exposing the dark side of vaccines."Questions we must ask and facts we must consider: "New study links mercury to autism," documenting how the incidence of the common disorder dropped dramatically after a controversial mercury-based preservative was removed from most vaccines "Feds conflict of interest over vaccines?" by Jon Dougherty, on the history of "incestuous" ties between drug-makers and the federal government "Doctors group opposes all vaccine mandates." The 4,000-member Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, established in 1943, has called for a moratorium on the government forcing any vaccines on the American people, warning, "Our children face the possibility of death or serious long-term adverse effects" "Vaccinations and the right to refuse” 27
  28. 28. TEXTBOOKS- CLICK TO LOOK INSIDEIVMS is the ultimate medical student Web 2.0companion. This SDL-Face to Face hybrid courseware isa digitally tagged and content enhanced replication ofthe United States Medical Licensing ExaminationsCognitive Learning Objectives (Steps 1, 2 or 3).Including authoritative reusable learning object (RLO)integration and scholarly Web Interactive PowerPoint-driven multimedia shows/PDFs. Comprehensivehypermedia BMS learning outcomes and detailed,content enriched learning objectives. 28
  29. 29. TEXTBOOK FOR FURTHER STUDY- CLICK TO LOOK INSIDEIVMS is the ultimate medical student Web 2.0companion. This SDL-Face to Face hybrid courseware isa digitally tagged and content enhanced replication ofthe United States Medical Licensing ExaminationsCognitive Learning Objectives (Steps 1, 2 or 3).Including authoritative reusable learning object (RLO)integration and scholarly Web Interactive PowerPoint-driven multimedia shows/PDFs. Comprehensivehypermedia BMS learning outcomes and detailed,content enriched learning objectives. 29
  30. 30. DOWNLOAD AND INSTILL TOOLBAR/CAMPUS MAP Imhotep Virtual Medical SchoolCourseware Learners/Teachers Manual 30

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