Cadmium inpower tool batteriesThe possibility and consequences of a ban            report 5901 • january 2009
Cadmium in power tool batteries       The possibility and consequences of a ban        THE SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL          ...
Orders                             Order tel: +46 8505 933 40                            Order fax: + 46 8505 933 99      ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                     Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries1 PrefaceIn 2006, t...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries                     4
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                     Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesContents1 PREFACE  ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                  Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries8 REFERENCES          ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries2 Summary2.1 Can N...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                             Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries           ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                     Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries3 Background3.1 The...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries3.4 The Battery Di...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesThe task is limite...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries4 Consequences of ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                             Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesbatteries m...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                          Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesIn contrast, t...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                         Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesequipped with a...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries4.2.4 WeightLi-Ion...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                             Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries2008). In h...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriessame way as other ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                           Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriessuch as the r...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                          Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesCadmium is cur...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries5 Experience from ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                          Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries              ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries5.2 Frequency, use...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                         Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesThe only partia...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                     Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesSo what is the sign...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries6 Summary of inter...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                      Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries7 Conclusions and ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                     Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesdeparture for moder...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                    Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries8 ReferencesThe Batt...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                    Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesScrosati, B. New che...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                             Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsAnnex. Summary ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                          Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsSt...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                              Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsWhat consequen...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                             Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsHow will sales ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                        Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsThe TAC questionnair...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                     Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsIf cadmium batteries in...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                    Annex. Summary of questionnaire results       I...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                     Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsBara po...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                     Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsMinskad...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                    Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsmängden ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                    Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultssom slit...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                                    Annex. Summary of questionnaire results        ...
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY                            Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsKan inte svara p...
Cadmium in                                                                                                                ...
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  1. 1. Cadmium inpower tool batteriesThe possibility and consequences of a ban report 5901 • january 2009
  2. 2. Cadmium in power tool batteries The possibility and consequences of a ban THE SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
  3. 3. Orders Order tel: +46 8505 933 40 Order fax: + 46 8505 933 99 E-mail: natur@cm.se Postal address: CM Gruppen AB, Box 110 93, 161 11 Bromma, Sweden Internet: www.naturvardsverket.se/bokhandeln The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Tel + 46 8698 10 00, fax + 46 820 29 25 E-mail: registrator@naturvardsverket.sePostal address: The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, SE-106 48 Stockholm Internet: www.naturvardsverket.se ISBN 978-91-620- 5901-9.pdf ISSN 0282-7298 Digital publication © The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 2009 Printed by: CM Gruppen AB Coverpicture: Pär Ängerheim
  4. 4. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries1 PrefaceIn 2006, the EU established a Battery Directive that banned the use of cadmium inbatteries when an alternative was available. However at the time they were not ableto agree upon if an acceptable alternative for power tools was available which is acondition for replacing NiCd in these batteries. The major part of this report isconsequently spent comparing the various types of batteries that can be used inpower tools. The report also covers other consequences that a ban on cadmiumcould be expected to cause. This report has been prepared in response to government instructions for use asbackground information for the work of the EC Commission on the decision as towhether cadmium is to be allowed in power tool batteries. This process will beginin 2009 and the EC Commission will take a decision on this issue in 2010.Östersund, November 2008Implementation and Enforcement Department 3
  5. 5. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries 4
  6. 6. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesContents1 PREFACE 32 SUMMARY 72.1 Can NiCd in power tools be replaced 72.2 Easier to replace NiCd in power tools today 72.3 Arguments for replacing NiCd 83 BACKGROUND 93.1 The task 93.2 Aim 93.3 Method 93.4 The Battery Directive and positions on cadmium 103.5 Scope and delimitations 103.6 Terminology 114 CONSEQUENCES OF A BAN ON CADMIUM IN BATTERIES FOR POWERTOOLS 124.1 Advantages and disadvantages of different types of battery 12 4.1.1 NiCd 12 4.1.2 Li-Ion 12 4.1.3 NiMH 13 4.1.4 Facts about batteries 134.2 Technical consequences 13 4.2.1 Development 13 4.2.2 Financial situation 14 4.2.3 Energy losses when charging 15 4.2.4 Weight 16 4.2.5 Capacity, memory effect and management 16 4.2.6 Temperature 16 4.2.7 Summary of battery characteristics 174.3 Other consequences 17 4.3.1 Stakeholders 17 4.3.2 Consequences of the use of cadmium 195 EXPERIENCE FROM SWEDEN AND THE NORDIC COUNTRIES 215.1 Environmental charges on NiCd in Sweden 215.2 Frequency, use and collection of NiCd batteries in Sweden 235.3 NiCd in Norway 246 SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS 267 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION 27 5
  7. 7. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries8 REFERENCES 29Annexes Summary of questionnaire results 31 6
  8. 8. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries2 Summary2.1 Can NiCd in power tools be replacedThe Battery Directive (2006/66/EC) contains regulations concerning a ban on theuse of cadmium in batteries. The decision as to whether cadmium is to be allowedin batteries for power tools has been postponed till 2010. This report will providebackground material on which to base this decision. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been tasked by governmentto study whether it is possible, and what the consequences would be to, fully orpartially, removing the derogation for cadmium in batteries that applied accordingto Article 4.3 of the European Parliament and Council’s Directive 2006/66/EC,especially for cordless power tools. This study is to be carried out using an EUperspective and must consider the Swedish experience of replacing NiCd (nickelcadmium batteries) with a more environmentally sound alternative. It must bepossible to use this report within the review of the Directive that the ECCommission is expected to initiate in 2009.2.2 Easier to replace NiCd in power tools todayEU, UN and WHO are in agreement that cadmium may cause considerable,damaging effects to the environment and to health. The EU has stated inconnection with the review of the Battery Directive that if there are alternatives tocadmium for batteries available, the substance should be banned in this context.Swedish experience shows that there are currently competitive alternatives to NiCdbatteries for power tools, something that could not be determined when theDirective was initially negotiated. During the last few years developments have moved very rapidly, primarily asconcerns Li-Ion batteries (lithium ion batteries) that are low weight, have highcapacity level and a competitive price. Today these batteries, together with NiMH(nickel metal hydride batteries), are fully acceptable alternatives to NiCd (nickelcadmium batteries) for power tools. Professional users want lightweight tools thatare strong and lie well in the hand. Workers who use cordless power tools on aregular basis often have no idea which type of batteries they have in their tools. Forprivate, hobby carpenters who do not use their tools on a daily basis then NiMH isa good alternative to NiCd. Table 1 below shows a comparison between thedifferent types of batteries available for power tools. 7
  9. 9. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries NiCd NiMH Li-IonPurchase price cheapest medium most expensivePrice per kWh medium most expensive cheapestWeight heaviest medium lightest 1Memory effect yes marginal noCapacity least medium greatestFor professionals OK OK bestFor hobby users good good uncertainTemperature best good goodTable 1. A comparison of the functions of the different battery types.2.3 Arguments for replacing NiCdThere are currently a handfull manufacturers of NiCd for power tools inEurope. These will be affected by a ban as will the mining companies whosupply the primary cadmium raw material. Other stakeholders regardthemselves as affected on a secondary level only. Batteries are currently responsible for a little more than 75 percent of the use ofcadmium in the world. A considerable amount of this cadmium is used in batteriesfor cordless power tools. Even if the collection of spent batteries lives up to therequirements of the Battery Directive which is 45 percent collected by 2016, thismeans that more than half of all the cadmium in portable batteries will not becollected and dealt with in a secure fashion. The consequence of a ban would bethat the cadmium leakage into the environment from spent batteries would decreaseand would, in the long term, cease.1 The memory effect is primarily connected to NiCd but not all NiCd batteries are affected by thephenomenon. Modern batteries often have a structure that counteracts the crystal effect andconsequently also the memory effect. 8
  10. 10. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries3 Background3.1 The taskIn connection with its Government Directives for 2008, the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency was given the following task by the Ministry ofthe Environment:Cadmium in batteriesThe Swedish Environmental Protection Agency will study whether it possible, andwhat the consequences would be to, from an EU perspective, fully or partiallyremove the derogation on cadmium in batteries. This derogation is stated in Article4.3 of the European Parliament and Council’s Directive 2006/66/EC from 6September 2006 on batteries and accumulators and spent batteries andaccumulators and on the cancellation of Directive 91/157/EEC, especially asconcerns cordless electrical power tools. The study is to be carried out from an EU perspective, taking into considerationthe Swedish experience of replacing nickel cadmium batteries with moreenvironmentally sound alternatives. It must be possible to use this report in thereview of the Directive that the EC Commission is expected to initiate in 2009. Thereport is to be submitted by 31 December 2008 at the latest (Ministry of theEnvironment 2007).3.2 AimIn 2009 the EC Commission is expected to initiate a review of the derogation forcadmium batteries in power tools. The aim of this report is to provide backgroundinformation for this review. Important target groups for this information includeconsultants and decision-makers within the EU who, in various ways, participate inthe work of the review. Consequently it is proposed that this report form the basisof dissemination of results outside Sweden through the establishment of a specialCommunication Plan.3.3 MethodInformation has been primarily obtained from reports and websites (please refer toreference list for further information). In addition a questionnaire was sent to alarge number of stakeholders (please refer to Annex 2). The conclusions drawnfrom the questionnaire have then been further explored via telephone interviews(please refer to Chapter 6). In addition to interviews, discussions have been heldwith several different stakeholders within this field, often concerning specificissues discussed in the report. 9
  11. 11. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries3.4 The Battery Directive and positions on cadmiumDirective 2006/66/EC on batteries regulates, among other areas, the use ofcadmium in batteries. Article 4 of the Directive forbids the use of cadmium inbatteries for household appliances. However the decision was postponed asconcerns cordless power tools and instead the Directive states that the ECCommission will take a decision in 2010 as to whether cadmium is to be permittedin power tool batteries. For industrial batteries, medical equipment and inemergency and alarm systems, cadmium will also continue to be permitted (theBattery Directive). Certain priorities were made when the EC Commission established thisdirective. There were alternatives to cadmium batteries that filled the same functionfor household appliances. As the EU had previously established that cadmium wasa metal that was to be limited in use as far as possible, a decision could be taken toban cadmium in these batteries (European Commission, 2003). For cadmium industrial batteries and for certain other equipment (medicalequipment plus emergency and alarm systems) an assessment was made that therewere no alternative battery types that could be used as replacements (EuropeanCommission, 2003).For cadmium in batteries for cordless power tools, the EC Commission assessedthat it was uncertain whether there were fully acceptable alternatives. Consequentlythe decision on this issue was postponed until 2010 (European Commission, 2003).In November 2004 the EC Council determined that there was no doubt as concernsthe following basic factors: • Cadmium is dangerous. • Batteries form an important source of the cadmium found in the environment. • Batteries form a risk factor as far as emissions of cadmium into the environment are concerned (EC Council, 2004).The UN has also taken a position on this issue and has determined that cadmium isthe cause of considerable environmental and health problems (UNEP, 2008). TheWorld Health Organisation (WHO) also regards cadmium as an environmentalproblem (Inchem, 1992).3.5 Scope and delimitationsOne point of departure for this report is the position previously adopted by the EUwhich states that cadmium is an extremely poisonous metal and that its use shouldbe limited as far as is possible. Consequently this report will not describe howcadmium, or the substances in alternative batteries, affect human beings and theenvironment. 10
  12. 12. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesThe task is limited to reviewing the consequences of extending the cadmium ban toinclude power tools only. In other words, the Swedish Environmental ProtectionAgency has not examined the results of extending the ban on cadmium within anyother area except that of power tools. The report focuses on consequences within Europe. Discussing consequencesfor parts of the world not encompassed by EU regulations would be far toospeculative. Areas of use other than batteries, in which cadmium may possibly be used in thefuture, were not included in the framework of the task. This is due to the fact thatthese areas should be regulated in other legislation. In this report when different types of batteries are compared, the following aretypes are intended - nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH) andlithium ion (Li-Ion), as these are the batteries normally used in power tools.3.6 TerminologyList of concepts and abbreviations used in the report: • NiCd: Nickel cadmium batteries, please refer to Chapter 4.1.1. • Li-Ion: Lithium ion batteries, please refer to Chapter 4.1.2. • NiMH: Nickel metal hydride batteries, please refer to Chapter 4.1.3. • Li-P: Lithium polymer batteries are a type of batteries currently under development. These batteries do not yet form a viable alternative for power tools. • Capacity: The amount of current (Ah) that can be stored in a battery. • Ah: Ampere per hour is a unit of measurement for electrical charge. Somewhat simplified it can be said that a battery is able to deliver a certain number of amperes for a certain period of time. A battery that has 75 Ah is able to deliver current of 75 A for one hour. • kWh: Kilowatt hours is a unit of energy. 1 kWh is the equivalent of 1 000 Wh or 3.6 MJ (mega joules) and may, for example, be used to power a light bulb of 60 W for 16 hours • Memory effect: Batteries that are recharged several times without ever being empty may suffer from the memory effect. They then lose the ability to be charged up to full level. Please refer to Chapter 4.2.5. • Energy density: How much energy it is possible to store in a battery per weight unit. • Power tools: Cordless electrical power tools are portable apparatus that are powered by a battery and that are intended for use in maintenance, construction and industrial operations or for gardening activities. • Portable battery: Batteries that are sealed, portable and are not defined as industrial or automotive batteries. 11
  13. 13. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries4 Consequences of a ban oncadmium in batteries for powertoolsIn order to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the various types ofbatteries, each type is separately described in Chapter 4.1. A comparison of thedifferent types of battery divided according to function is given in Chapter 4.2.4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of different types of battery4.1.1 NiCd4.1.1.1 ADVANTAGESNiCd is a well-proven technology that is established and well developed. Thesebatteries can survive rough treatment. For example they can be totally exhaustedwithout any negative effects in contrast to, for example, Li-Ion. NiCd has a longerlifetime as they can be charged up more times than other types of batteries. NiCdwork well at temperatures down to -40°C while alternatives work only down to-20°C. Additional NiCd advantages are that they are the cheapest batteries to buyand that they can be charged up more quickly than other batteries (BatteryUniversity 2008).4.1.1.2 DISADVANTAGESOne decisive negative factor of NiCd is that cadmium emissions lead to large scaleenvironmental and health damage when the spent batteries are not processed in asatisfactory manner. Other negative factors include the NiCd’s memory effect, highweight levels and low energy density (the Swedish Battery Association 2008, theBattery University 2008).4.1.2 Li-Ion4.1.2.1 ADVANTAGESLi-Ion is the latest type of batteries for power tools, which indicates that there isstill development potential for these batteries. Li-Ion batteries are lightweight withhigh energy density. There is no memory effect and self-discharging is less than forother types of batteries. Li-Ion is not regarded as environmentally dangerous (theSwedish Battery Association 2008, the Battery University 2008).4.1.2.2 DISADVANTAGESLi-Ion batteries are more expensive to buy than the alternatives, among otherreasons because they have to be equipped with safety circuit to protect fromoverheating and total discharging. Other disadvantages include the fact that the 12
  14. 14. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesbatteries must be used regularly and that they age even if they are not used (BatteryUniversity 2008).4.1.3 NiMH4.1.3.1 ADVANTAGESOne of the major advantages of NiMH is that they possess a greater energy densitythan the alternatives. For example the NiMH has an approximately 50 percentlonger operational period than NiCd. NiMH has improved its performance levelsince its introduction onto the market at the end of the 1980s. Its lower weight incombination with higher capacity and longer operational period are the reasonswhy the NiMH has generally replaced the NiCd. NiMH is not considered to beenvironmentally dangerous (the Swedish Battery Association, 2008).4.1.3.2 DISADVANTAGESOne disadvantage of NiMH is that it takes longer to charge than the alternatives.This is partially dependent on the fact that they are sensitive to overheating whichmeans that it is not possible to charge these batteries to the same effect as NiCd.The longer charging up time is also dependent on the fact that the NiMH has agreater energy density than the NiCd. The NiMH batteries also self-discharge to agreater extent than the alternatives and can manage a smaller number of charges(the Swedish Battery Association, 2008).4.1.4 Facts about batteriesTable 1 shows the differences between the different types of batteries. NiCd NiMH Li-IonEnergy/weight (Wh/kg) 45–80 60–120 150–190Self-discharge (percent/month) 10 30 5–10Number of charging cycles 2 000 500–1 000 1 200Cell voltage (V) 1.2 1.2 3.6Temperature interval (°C) -40–+60 -20–+60 -20–+60 2Charge efficiency (percent) 70–90 66 99.9(Battery University 2008).4.2 Technical consequences4.2.1 DevelopmentNiMH, and especially Li-Ion, have been developed during the last few years andcurrently enjoy considerably more competitive edge than five years ago. This isalso reflected in sales as both Li-Ion and NiMH are capturing increasingly largemarket shares at the cost of the NiCd batteries which is illustrated in Figure 1(Pillot, 2006).2 Charge efficiency is defined as how the share of energy supply is utilised by the battery 13
  15. 15. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesIn contrast, the development of cadmium batteries has tailed off dramatically,which is due to the fact that even the industry regards the NiCd as a type of batterythat is on its way out. This has led to alternative types of batteries within severalareas already surpassing the NiCd as far as performance is concerned. One reasonfor using NiCd could be merely habit (interview with power tool manufacturer).Figure 1. The number of million cells in the world of the various types of battery from 1995 andcalculated levels for 2015. Li-P, lithium polymer is a new type of lithium battery that is currently notused in power tools (Pillot, 2006).Another sign that the development of the Li-Ion has been rapid during the last fewyears is that their price has decreased by approximately 70 percent between 1999and 2006 (Figure 2).4.2.2 Financial situationIt is difficult to assess which types of batteries are cheapest or most expensive forthe user. Of the three types (NiCd, Li-Ion and NiMH) Li-Ion costs more to buy ascompared to the alternatives. This is partially due to the fact that the Li-Ion must be 14
  16. 16. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesequipped with a safety circuit to ensure that they do not overheat and explode.NiCd is currently somewhat cheaper to buy than NiMH. There are several factors that need to be considered in order to be able toprovide a picture of which batteries are cheapest when their entire lifecycle isexamined. This concerns how many times it is possible to recharge the battery, itscapacity per charge, how robust it is if used wrongly and so on. How the battery isused is also extremely important for its length of life, which in turn affects its cost.Aspects to consider are whether the batteries are to be used on a daily basis or moreirregularly and if the batteries are totally or partially emptied before a new chargingprocess is initiated (Battery University 2008). Figure 2 illustrates price development for batteries in Japan stated in $/kWh forthe period 1999–2006. The figure shows that Li-Ion prices have changed frombeing almost twice as expensive in 1999 to being somewhat cheaper that thealternatives in 2006. NiMH and NiCd prices follow each other quite well althoughthat NiMH is generally somewhat more expensive than NiCd. The costs reported in the figure are influenced by different factors. For examplecosts for the safety circuit that is essential for the Li-Ion (please refer to Chapter4.1.2.2 or 4.2.5) have not been included. Costs to the final consumer may thereforediffer from what is stated in the figure below. The conclusion is that Li-Ion is alsocurrently competitive as far as price is concerned.Figure 2. Price trends for small rechargeable battery cells for the period 1999 to 2006 (Scrosati,2008).4.2.3 Energy losses when chargingWhen a battery is charged there will be a certain loss of energy e.g. in the form ofheat. The level of loss varies between the different types of batteries. NiMH havethe highest losses while those of the Li-Ion are almost negligible. Please refer toFacts in Chapter 4.1.4 (Battery University, 2008). 15
  17. 17. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries4.2.4 WeightLi-Ion is lighter than both the other alternatives. NiMH is somewhat lighter thanNiCd, but the difference in this case is not as great. When choosing batteries fortools, the user considers ergonomics or “how well it lies in the hand” to be animportant factor (Nordic Council of Ministers 2005). The weight of the powertools, and consequently also the batteries, should therefore form an important partof this assessment.4.2.5 Capacity, memory effect and managementNiMH possesses a higher capacity than NiCd. In two equally sized batteries thereis room for approximately 50 percent more energy in NiMH than in NiCd. Li-Ionhas the highest capacity (Battery University, 2008). The memory effect is defined as the fact that batteries maintain a memory ofhow many times they have been changed and emptied. If a battery is only chargedup to 50% capacity for a couple of charges then the battery will remember this andit may then be difficult to charge to higher than this level later. However this effectis reversible if the battery is then fully charged and emptied repeatedly. Othereffects that are caused by older batteries or by poor management of batteries(overcharging, wrongly charging, exposure to overly high temperatures etc.) aresometimes termed, somewhat erroneously, memory effect (Linden 2002). NiCd are the batteries that experience the greatest problems with memoryeffect, while Li-Ion do not have this problem at all. NiMH show certain memoryeffects problem. These problems occur because crystals form within the NiCd.Modern NiCd have a structure that decreases susceptibility to memory effect andmany users of power tools never even notice this effect (Linden 2002). Li-Ion provide full effect until they are spent. Other types normally lose effectas they empty and must consequently be charged before they are totally empty(Battery University 2008). Li-Ion has a characteristic that means that batteries age even if they are notused. In addition, the Li-Ion batteries must be used regularly and equipped with asafety circuit to protect against overheating and total emptying (Battery University,2008). In summary Li-Ion possesses great capacity but is also more sensitive to poormanagement. NiCd has a smaller capacity and may experience problems withmemory effect but otherwise requires little attention. NiMH has a fairly largecapacity and minimal requirements for management.4.2.6 TemperatureFor working in extreme temperatures there is a distinction between the differenttypes of batteries. NiMH and Li-Ion can be used in temperatures down to -20°Cand NiCd in temperatures down to -40°C (Battery University 2008). Thesedifferences, however, may be disregarded if the batteries are taken inside forcharging overnight (Interview with the Swedish Power Tools Association, July 16
  18. 18. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries2008). In hot environments all types may be used in temperatures up to 60°C(Battery University, 2008). In a survey (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2005) a limited number ofprofessional users were questioned, some living in Kiruna in northern Sweden, andit could be observed that most of them were not aware of the type of batteries theyhad in their power tools. Rather they choose tools of a certain brand, a brand thatthey had already used with good results. The tool had to be strong and had to “liewell in the hand” as well. The professional users in the survey primarily used toolswith NiMH batteries, even if some still had older tools with NiCd. The study alsoproved that all of them had had good experiences with NiMH and that they couldnot observe any performance drop between NiMH and NiCd.4.2.7 Summary of battery characteristicsThe three different types of batteries all have their advantages and disadvantages.Table 2 shows the differences. NiCd NiMH Li-IonPurchase price cheapest medium most expensivePrice per kWh medium most expensive cheapestWeight heaviest medium lightestMemory effect yes 3 marginal noCapacity least medium greatestFor professionals OK OK bestFor hobby users good good uncertainTemperature best good goodTable 2. A comparison of the functions of the different battery types.4.3 Other consequences4.3.1 StakeholdersDifferent groups will be affected in different ways by the ban on cadmium inbatteries for power tools. The groups examined here are mining companies,recycling companies, battery manufacturers, agents, power tool manufacturers,professional users and private users. All groups except the users and manufacturersregard themselves as secondary stakeholders.4.3.1.1 PROFESSIONAL USERSWe have asked professional users about their experience and use of NiCd. As coldhas been stated as a competitive advantage for NiCd – they are not affected in the3 The memory effect is primarily connected to NiCd but not all NiCd batteries are affected by thephenomenon. Modern batteries often have a structure that counteracts the crystal effect andconsequently also the memory effect. 17
  19. 19. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriessame way as other batteries – we have primarily interviewed professional users inthe north of Sweden where temperatures are amongst the lowest in Europe. These interviews show that the use of batteries in power tools varies, but thatthe professional users surveyed currently use NiMH and Li-Ion. None of themselect a tool based on the type of battery in them; the battery is something that isincluded in the purchase. The factors that influence the purchase or selection oftools are the brand name, its performance or capacity and the weight of the handtool. They have previously worked with a certain tool and the experience theygained from that tool affects their further choices. Whether the price is higher or lower depending on battery type does not make agreat deal of difference according to those interviewed. Quality is decisive andwhat is important is whether the tools last well. However price is of importance if aprivate person is buying the tool. Interviews of professional users proved that theydo not consider the specific battery that the machine contains when they buy it. Professional users are unanimous about the fact that NiCd are heavy to workwith which is a disadvantage. In addition, NiCd has problems with its memoryeffect: if they are not totally empty they do not give optimal effect when nextcharged. One professional user indicated that Li-Ion can be difficult to chargewhen it is cold but that NiMH are just as easy to charge as NiCd when it is cold.4.3.1.2 BATTERY MANUFACTURERSThere are a total of six NiCd battery producers in Europe (interview with theSwedish Power Tools Association). Not all of these manufacture batteries forpower tools. Producers in Japan, or those that are owned by Japanese companies,are responsible for more than 60 percent of NiCd production (Noréus, 2000). A clearly dominant proportion of the world’s Li-Ion batteries are produced inJapan. A ban on NiCd in Europe will probably mean that NiCd batteries, which arecurrently produced to a certain extent in Europe, will be replaced by Li-Ionbatteries produced in Japan.4.3.1.3 MININGIn a telephone conversation with the professional association of the miningindustry a statement was made that the industry was a secondary stakeholder andconsequently will not be significantly affected by a ban on cadmium in batteries forpower tools (telephone interview with mining industry association, 8 September2008).4.3.1.4 RECYCLING COMPANIESRecycling of NiCd often occurs in the same facility as recycling of NiMH. The aimof recycling is primarily to remove the nickel that is found in both types of battery.In Europe there are three companies who recycle NiCd and all of these facilitiesalso receive NiMH. In a telephone conversation with NiCd recyclers it was statedthat they do not regard a possible ban as a problem and that at this stage it wouldnot be useful to place too much emphasis on a secondary stakeholder business area 18
  20. 20. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriessuch as the recycling business (telephone interview with NiCd and NiMH recyclingcompany, 13 October).4.3.1.5 MANUFACTURERS AND AGENTSManufacturers and agents of power tools have been contacted with questionnairesand interviews. Several said that a ban on Cadmium would be positive for them,partially because a ban would speed up the development of other types of batteries,especially the Li-Ion, partially because goodwill is enhanced when cadmium isremoved from their product range. Arguments given for future sales of NiCd areprimarily concerned with the need to replace batteries in older machines run onNiCd and that NiCd manages extreme temperatures better. The problem ofreplacement batteries for older machines can be solved by the application ofinterim regulations.4.3.2 Consequences of the use of cadmiumA considerable amount of the cadmium used in the world is used for batterymanufacture, please refer to Figure 3.(Batterier = Batteries, Pigment = Pigment, Ytbehandling = Surface Treatments, Stabilisering =Stabilisation, Legeringar/övrigt = Alloys/Other)Figure 3. Use of cadmium in the world by manufacturing area (ICdA 2005).Of the cadmium used in batteries, a considerable share was used in batteries forcordless power tools between 2000 and 2004 (Figure 4). Even if these figures arenot completely up-to-date there is no doubt that a considerable part of the cadmiummarket is batteries for power tools. As a point of information for Figure 4 it can bestated that all other types of equipment there are included in the householdappliances product group and have consequently already been banned from usingcadmium batteries in the Battery Directive of 2006. 19
  21. 21. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesCadmium is currently not mined as an individual metal but is a by-product,primarily of zinc mining. Consequently the production of cadmium will probablynot decrease in the same manner as the demand for it is expected to do. So what is going to happen to the cadmium that is currently used in batteries forpower tools if the ban is implemented? There is reason to believe that the price ofcadmium will decrease with reduced demand. It is, however, important toremember that there is already a surplus of cadmium on the market and that whenmining zinc, companies normally look for ores with the lowest possible levels ofcadmium (information from mining company, 12 June 2008). Most machines using cadmium were banned a long time ago; however it isimpossible to foresee any new areas of use that may occur in the future. It is,however, a reasonable point of departure to assume that new areas of use forcadmium will be covered by other legislation and consequently are not affect theterms of reference of this project.(Videokameror= Camcorders, Mobiltelefoner= Mobile phones, Bärbart ljud/bild = Portablesound/image, Hushåll/hobby = Household/hobby, Trådlöstelefoni= Cordless telephony, Sladdlöshandverktyg = Cordless power tools)Figure 4. Distribution of use of NiCd batteries in the world by apparatus, stated in million cells.(ICdA 2005).If cadmium is to continue to be used in batteries, a good collection system isdecisive. The cadmium that is not collected and recycled in an acceptable mannercould cause considerable damage to health and the environment. The collectiontargets for the Battery Directive - 25 percent in 2012 and 45 percent in 2016 -means that more than half of all batteries will not be collected in the long-term. 20
  22. 22. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries5 Experience from Sweden and the Nordic countriesThe main argument against expanding the ban on NiCd batteries to include powertools has been that there was no fully satisfactory alternative. Based on the Swedishexperience it is, however, possible to draw another conclusion, namely that thereare acceptable alternatives to NiCd in power tools. This conclusion is based on theresults of the environmental charges that were introduced on NiCd in Sweden in1997, in combination with the information presented in previous sections of thisreport. This chapter describes how the Swedish environmental charge has affectedsales of NiCd in Sweden. The chapter also reports on the NiCd market in Norway.5.1 Environmental charges on NiCd in SwedenIn 1997 an environmental charge the equivalent of SEK 300/kg on NiCd waslevied in Sweden, a charge which still remains in force. Producers and companieswho manufacture or import batteries containing NiCd pay this charge into a fundadministered by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. This charge isintended to cover the costs society pays for collecting, sorting, transporting andremoving NiCd. This charge has radically affected the sales of NiCd in Sweden. Sales statisticsindicate a dramatic reduction in sales the same year the charge was introduced. Thefollowing year sales continued to decrease and are still doing so today. At nationallevel sales of NiCd decreased to one third of previous levels between 1997 (328tons) and 2004 (87 tons) (Figure 5). In 2007, 56 tons of NiCd batteries were sold inSweden. Collection of NiCd has been maintained at a reasonably stable level since1997, even if it is continuing to increase (1997: 141 tons, 2007: 168 tons). NiCdhas an extremely long lifetime and collection of these batteries will continue for along period into the future. In 2007 three times more NiCd batteries were collectedin comparison to what were sold in Sweden (Source: Swedish EnvironmentalProtection Agency statistics). 21
  23. 23. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries Försäljning NiCd 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006(Försäljning = Sales)Figure 5. Sales of cadmium batteries in tons between 1997 and 2006. There is a clear, majordecrease in sales between 1997 and 1998 when the charge was radically increased (Source:Swedish Environmental Protection Agency statistics).The example of the environmental charge on NiCd batteries in Sweden and itsnational effects indicates that it is possible to replace them. When sales of aproduct are reduced by two-thirds over the course of a few years then it is probablethat there are alternatives that are able to replace the product, or that it was alreadysurplus to requirements from the start. In the case of NiCd batteries, the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency has made the assessment that sales of NiCddecreased dramatically due to the fact there were acceptable substitutes available;otherwise the environmental charge on them would not have had such a significantimpact. Where the tipping point lies as concerns influencing behaviour patterns isconcerned, i.e. how large the price increase needs to be to result in the productlosing market shares, varies from product to product. The Swedish environmentalcharge on NiCd batteries exerted a major effect. At the end of the 1990s a chargewas levied on NiCd batteries in Denmark which was at a considerably lower levelthan that in Sweden. This Danish levy never exerted the same effect as itsequivalent in Sweden. Another interesting example of Swedish environmental charges is the one leviedon lead in batteries which was introduced at the same time as the charge on NiCd.This charge disappeared in connection with Battery Directive 2006/66/EC on 1January 2006. The lead environmental charge did not have nearly the same effectas the one on NiCd. Its level was considerably lower which is probably why itnever had the same result. Another reason could be the fact that there were nocompetitive alternatives to lead in (start) batteries when the charge was first levied. 22
  24. 24. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries5.2 Frequency, use and collection of NiCd batteries in SwedenThe conclusion is that the use of NiCd has decreased drastically in Sweden for tworeasons: there are alternatives to NiCd for power tools and the environmentalcharge in Sweden proved to be a successful financial control mechanism that hasspurred on technical developments. In the case of NiCd it is clear that it was thefinancial incentive that was decisive for the radical reduction of sales over thecourse of a few years. However, if there had been no viable alternative to NiCdwhen the environmental charge was introduced in 1997 then the situation wouldhave been different. Until recently the use of NiCd in Sweden primarily occurred in cordlessapparatus such as drills, electric screwdrivers, dust busters, grass strimmers,electrical tooth brushes and various types of shavers (Göteborg Municipality 2005).When Directive 2006/66/EC on batteries was introduced on 1 January 2006, NiCdbatteries were banned in some of these products, but not in power tools. In a survey carried out in Göteborg in 2005 it was observed that a transfer fromNiCd to the less environmentally hazardous NiMH or Li-Ion had already occurredwithin many areas of use e.g. in the home electronics business. The transfer wasclearly observable for mobile phones, digital cameras and computers (GöteborgMunicipality 2005). The same survey showed that there were, within the same type of machine e.g.electric screwdrivers, integrated batteries of all three types - NiCd, NiMH and Li-Ion. This should mean that it is possible to achieve the same functional level withbatteries other than the NiCd, assuming that the tools are of the same quality.However, considering the discussion in a previous section concerning thefunctioning of the different types of battery, the issue is a little more complex thanthat. According to Swedish Environmental Protection Agency statistics, in 2006approximately 870 tons of batteries were not collected. Of all the batteries sold inSweden, around 8 percent consisted of rechargeable batteries containing cadmiumand 8 percent of 870 tons is 70 tons. It is not possible to state with certainty that 8percent of the uncollected batteries are NiCd type; however this estimate may givean indication of how many NiCd batteries that are never collected. Neither can it bestated with any certainty that all batteries that are not collected end up in householdgarbage as it is known that end users often store their batteries for some timebefore getting rid of them. On the other hand these batteries have been used forsuch a long period of time that this storage effect is really not a good explanation asto why a proportion of them are not collected. The batteries that have been storedthe longest should have been left for collection. Even if recycling of NiCd fromcollected batteries is at a high rate, all NiCd should be collected in order to avoidthis substance from spent batteries being emitted into the air when, for example,garbage is incinerated. 23
  25. 25. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesThe only partial collection of NiCd batteries contributes to emissions of cadmiumto air, primarily through garbage incineration. Sweden has among the best trackrecords in Europe as far as collection of spent batteries is concerned. In spite of thisthere are many batteries that are never brought to municipal collection points.5.3 NiCd in NorwayNorway levies no environmental charge on NiCd batteries the equivalent to theSwedish system. Even if there are certainly other differences between Sweden andNorway, for example Norway is not a member of EU, possible differences betweenthe countries’ sales of NiCd in relationship to alternative batteries does depend to agreat degree on the environmental charge. In Norway the trend over the last few years is that sales of alternative batteriessuch as NiMH and Li-Ion are increasing. The NiMH market share is currentlygreater in Sweden than in Norway. The Li-Ion share is also greater Sweden than inNorway, even if the trend is towards an increase of Li-Ion in both countries. Below are figures provided by the Swedish Power Tools Association who,according to their own information, represent approximately 70 percent of themarket in Sweden and somewhat more in Norway. 300000 250000 200000 Cd 150000 NiMH Li 100000 50000 0 Swe06 Nor06 Swe07 Nor07Figure 6. Distribution of battery types in power tools sold by members of the Swedish Power ToolsAssociation in Sweden and Norway, 2006 and 2007. The figures state number of batteries.The figure above demonstrates that sales of NiCd in Norway are approximatelythree times as high as in Sweden. Between 2006 and 2007 the NiCd market sharein Norway decreased by around 5 percent and in Sweden by approximately 8percent. In spite of the fact that sales of NiCd in Norway were three times as high,the decrease was greater in Sweden. 24
  26. 26. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesSo what is the significance of the Swedish environmental charge to the sales ofNiCd today? Difficult to say but as battery technology develops and is refined it isprobable that the environmental charge will become less important as NiCd losesmarket share. There is much that indicates that alternatives to NiCd simply performbetter. 25
  27. 27. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries6 Summary of interviewsDuring the course of the project, interviews have been carried out in order toprovide more in-depth information than is possible to obtain using questionnairesalone. In total six people were interviewed who represent manufacturers of powertools and professional associations within the battery and power tools businesses. Interview questions concerned the effects of a ban on cadmium in batteries forpower tools may have on:1) The performance of power tools.2) The business, i.e. the companies who use or sell power tools or batteries.3) Other actors.Interviews were of a discussion character, consequently an exact compilation ofanswers cannot be provided. Below is a general summary. There were different answers concerning the performance of power tools. Mostof the interviewees were in agreement that there are suitable alternatives to NiCdon the market today for professional users. Generally the users’ representativeswere more negative towards a ban than the producers’ representatives were. Thosewho opposed the ban said that they wanted freedom of choice for the consumer andthat the focus should be on increasing collection rates instead. One producer feltthat hobby users would be harder hit than professional users. Respondents were totally in agreement on the fact that a ban would be atemporary problem for the business which in all probability would not lead to anydecisive damage. There were varying views on other effects, for example that Li-Ion batterieswere still too expensive to fully replace NiCd. One respondent felt that NiCd is amore sturdy technology than the alternatives, that can be charged more quicklythan competitors at the same time as NiMH possesses greater energy density,which means longer period of use per charge. One respondent thought that a ban onNiCd would be totally positive as it would speed up the development of alternativebatteries. 26
  28. 28. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries7 Conclusions and discussionThe most important conclusions: • The EC Council, UN and WHO all state that cadmium is a problem for health and the environment. • In connection with the preparation of the Battery Directive it was observed that as soon as there were fully acceptable alternatives, cadmium would be banned for these products. • Batteries are responsible for a considerable part of cadmium use in the world. • There are currently competitive alternatives to NiCd batteries for power tools, both as concerns price and performance. • Swedish experience of levying an environmental charge proves that it is possible to replace NiCd in power tools. • The development of the Li-Ion has progressed extremely rapidly over the last few years. These batteries possess low weight and a high level of capacity. • Professional users want light tools that are strong and lie well in the hand. Many users are not aware of the type of batteries they have in their tools. • There are a handfull manufacturers of NiCd batteries intended for power tools in Europe. Other stakeholders consider themselves to be secondary stakeholders only.The task that forms the basis of this report was to study whether it was possible,and what the consequences would be, of removing the derogation at EU levelconcerning permitting cadmium in batteries for power tools. The consequences ofbanning cadmium in these batteries can be divided up into consequences forprofessional users and consequences for other actors. For professional users theprimary task is to study if power tools are perceived as performing less well as theresult of a ban. The other actor group consists mainly of actors in the battery andpower tool markets. The conclusion of this project is that the consequences for both professionalusers and other actors will be limited in scope and temporary in nature. An examination of consequences for actors on the battery market shows that allactors, with the exception of battery producers, regard themselves as secondarystakeholders. Consequences for battery producers should be regarded in a broaderperspective. Companies who wish to survive in the long term must followdevelopments and adopt new technologies as they appear. A ban on cadmium inbatteries for power tools probably means that the three or four producers in Europewill be forced make new investments in order to adapt production or will have toclose down their operations. Retaining cadmium in a product because it affects ahandful of producers in the short term can, however, not be a reasonable point of 27
  29. 29. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesdeparture for modern, European environmental legislation. As the EC Council, UNand WHO have all stated that cadmium may cause major health and environmentaldamage then the focus should instead be on these consequences and theconsequences for the end users of the power tools. The list of advantages and disadvantages of the different types of batteriesshows that they all have both. However the conclusion must be that Li-Ion andNiMH are today fully competitive alternatives to NiCd, both as concerns price andperformance. Experience of Swedish environmental charges has proved that there are fullycompetitive alternatives to NiCd batteries on the market today with just as highperformance rates. The decrease in sales experienced by NiCd in Sweden duringthe years after the environmental charge was introduced in 1997 prove that, givensufficient financial incentives, NiCd batteries could have already been replacedthen. 28
  30. 30. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteries8 ReferencesThe Battery Directive, Directive issued by the European Parliament andEuropean Council. Directive 2006/66/EC from 6 September 2006 onbatteries and accumulators and spent batteries and accumulators and on thecancellation of Directive 91/157/EC.The Swedish Battery Association, www.batteriföreningen.se, 2008-10-28Batteriprojekt del 1 – cadmium i varor med laddbara batteries, PM 2006:4,Göteborg Municipality, 2005Battery University, http://www.batteryuniversity.com/, 2008-10-28Commission staff working paper, Directive of the European Parliament andthe Council on batteries and accumulators and spent batteries andaccumulators, extended impact assessment, EC Commission 2004.Council of the European Union, Interinstitutional file 2003/0282 (COD) p. 7Cordless Power Tools in the Nordic Countries, Tema Nord 2005:535,Nordic Council of Ministers 2005European Union Risk Assessment Report, Cadmium Metal,http://ecb.jrc.ec.Europe.eu/documents/Existing-Chemicals/RISK_ASSESSMENT/REPORT/cdmetalreport303.pdfInchem, International programme on chemical safety, Environmental healthcriteria 134, Cadmium, 1992http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc135.htmLinden D, Reddy, T. Handbook of Batteries, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill2002Noreus D, Substitution of rechargeable NiCd batteries, Aug 2000ICdA 2005, Cadmium and Trends (p. 5), 16 June 2008,http://www.chem.unep.ch/pb_and_cd/SR/Files/Submission%20NGO/ICdA/MARKET%20Review%20Sept2005-1.pdfMinistry of the Environment, Government directives for the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency 2008, 2007Pillot, C. Batteries 2006, Paris, June 2006 29
  31. 31. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Report 5901 Cadmium in power tool batteriesScrosati, B. New chemistries in Lithium Ion batteries, InternationalConference on Battery Recycling, Düsseldorf, September 2008United Nations Environment Programme DTIE/Chemicals, Interim Reviewof Scientific Information on Cadmium, March 2008Van Assche, Frank, 1998, The relative contributions of differentenvironmental sources to human exposure and the EU cadmium riskassessment, in Session II—Regulatory, Health and Environmental Issues, thInternational Nickel Cadmium Conference, 8 Prague, September 21-22,1998, Proceedings, p 12. 30
  32. 32. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsAnnex. Summary of questionnaireresultsIn connection with a commission from government concerning cadmium in batteries forpower tools, a questionnaire was distributed to the actors involved. The aim of thisquestionnaire was to gain in-depth knowledge of how the business and the variousstakeholders regarded the issues that had arisen in connection with this project.In total 75 people responded to the questionnaire on three different forms. The standardquestionnaire in Swedish (SWE) was answered by 65 people, the standard questionnairein English (ENG) was answered by 3 people and the special questionnaire for TAC 1representatives (TAC) was answered by 7 people.The questionnaire was distributed in the form of an e-mail with a link to a unique page foreach respondent. The respondents were given around two months to answer thequestionnaire. During this period two reminders were also sent to people who had notresponded.The respondents played different stakeholder roles as one of the objectives of thequestionnaire was to achieve as wide a spread as possible. The roles were distributed as inFigure 1. 50 40 30 20 10 0 Producer User Govt. Agency Bus . Org OtherFigure 1. Role distribution among respondentsBelow the answers to the TAC questionnaire will be discussed in a separate chapterwhile the standard questionnaires in Swedish and English will be dealt with together.1 TAC means Technical Advisory Committee and the TAC Group, consisting of representatives fromall the EU countries, meets twice annually to discuss technical issues as concerns the new BatteryDirective 2006/66/EC. 31
  33. 33. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsStandard questionnaire (Swedish and English)If a cadmium ban is implemented, how do you think battery prices will beaffected? 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Pris går upp Pris går ner Påverkas ej(Pris går upp = Price will increase, Pris går ner = Price will decrease, Påverkas ej = No effect)Comments: Half of respondents felt that prices would rise while half thought that they wouldremain unchanged.How do you think that the function of power tools will be affected if acadmium ban is implemented? 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Negativt Påverkas ej Positivt(Negativt = Negatively, Påverkas ej= Not affected, Positivt = Positively)Comments: The great majority of the respondents assessed that the tools’ functionwould not be affected at all i.e. that there are fully acceptable alternatives tocadmium. 32
  34. 34. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsWhat consequences would there be for the battery business generally if acadmium ban were implemented? 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Negativt Påverkas ej Positivt(Negativt = Negative, Påverkas ej= Not affected, Positivt = Positive)Comments: A considerable majority of the respondents assess that the batterybusiness would generally be affected positively or not at all.How will sales of cadmium batteries be affected by a cadmium ban? 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Ökar Påverkas ej Minskar(Ökar = Increase, Påverkas ej = Not affected, Minskar = DecreaseComments: The fact that the greater majority of the respondents assess that sales ofcadmium batteries will decrease if a ban is introduced is expected. However thatsuch a large number feel that sales will not be affected is a sign that they assess thatthe alternatives to cadmium in batteries are so developed that the cadmium willdisappear irrespective of whether a ban is imposed or not. 33
  35. 35. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsHow will sales of NiMH (Nickel metal hydride) batteries be affected by acadmium ban? 20 16 12 8 4 0 Ökar Påverkas ej Minskar(Ökar = Increase, Påverkas ej = Not affected, Minskar = DecreaseComments: Here there was a wide spread of answers. Some believe that sales willincrease which is probably due to the fact that cadmium is being replaced by thesebatteries. Many answer that sales will fall which may appear to be the expectedreaction. However this could be interpreted that either they feel that a cadmium banwill speed up the development of lithium batteries, which in the long-term willreplace both NiMH and cadmium batteries, or that batteries in general will becomemore expensive which will lead to decreased sales.How will sales of Li-Ion batteries be affected by a cadmium ban? 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Ökar Påverkas ej Minskar(Ökar = Increase, Påverkas ej = Not affected, Minskar = DecreaseComments: A practically unanimous respondent group feels that Li-Ion battery saleswill increase in the future.TAC Questionnaire 34
  36. 36. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsThe TAC questionnaire was answered by 7 people who represent 7 different EUcountries. Most TAC representatives are employed at the relevant Ministry in theircountry although some work at central government agencies. Answers weredistributed as follows:If cadmium batteries in power tools are banned, which effect will this have onthe price of power tool batteries? 4,5 4 3,5 3 2,5 2 1,5 1 0,5 0 Decrease No effect IncreaseIf cadmium batteries in power tools are banned, what would theconsequences be for the battery industry in your country? 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Negative No effect Positive 35
  37. 37. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsIf cadmium batteries in power tools are banned, what would be theconsequences be for the environment? 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Negative No effect PositiveIf cadmium batteries in power tools are banned, how would this affect themarket for cadmium batteries? 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Decrease No effect Increase 36
  38. 38. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire results If cadmium batteries in power tools are banned, how would this affect the market for NiMH batteries? 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Decrease No effect Increase If cadmium batteries in power tools are banned, how would this affect the market for Li-Ion batteries? 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Decrease No effect Increase Summarised comments on TAC questionnaire: Comments The questionnaire also included open-ended questions without multiple choice answers. These answers are reported below. WHAT CONSEQUENSES WOULD IT BE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT OR PUBLIC HEALTH IF THESE IS A BAN AGAINST CADMIUM IN POWER TOOLS?SvarsalternativMindre kadmiumPositiva konsekvenser inom båda områden.Positiva.Marginell positiv hälsoaspekt.Positivt så klart!Då kadmium är giftigt både för hälsa och miljö, så ett förbud kan i förlängningen enbart medföra positivakonsekvenser. 37
  39. 39. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsBara positiva effektervet ejTroligtvis marginella eftersom vi har en hög insamlingsprocent/återvinning när det gäller batterierKan ej avgöra dettaBättre miljöPositiva, då det är bra att minimera användandet av dessa.Inge aningTror att fler (oseriösa) återförsäljare än idag kommer att importera batterier som inte nödvändigtvis präglasmed rätt identitetBra för miljönMindre spridning av kadmium i miljönVi tar bort en riskfaktorFörbättrad hälsa/miljöpositivaMindre kadmium i naturen.Jag kan nämna ett exempel:Borås kommun har källsortering via brännbararespektive rötningsbara sopor. Rötningen görs på deras stora anläggning utanför Borås som kallas Sobacken.Det har visat sig genom betydande prover att det finns ingen jord som innehåller så mycket tungmetaller somjust deras jord som bildas efter färdig rötning. Ta bort användandet av alla tungmetaller så tar vi bort de farligaprodukterna som bildas genom tex rötning.Bättre miljö?Endast förbättringar. Har svårt att se något negativt.bättremindre kadmium i miljönI den mån kadmium är en miljöfara så kommer det naturligtvis att minska mängden kadmium.Naturligtvis bra att få bort kadmiumFörbättringNaturligtvis skulle det bli bättre ur miljö/hälsosynpunktVet ej. Ej expert.Det kadmium som finns i batterier kommer att hamna någon annanstans, var det hamnar avgör vilkakonsekvenser det blir.Bättre för miljön.Bättre för både miljö samt hälsa för de som hanterar kadmium vid tillverkning och destrueringHar ej kompetens att besvara frågan. Fråga en expert.Minskad risk för cd utsläpp.Bättre miljö.Enbart positivaFörmodligen positivt för miljön.Färre farliga ämnen i omlopp!!!Bättre för miljön/hälsanMin kadmium i naturenFörhoppningsvis blir det mindre kadmium i djur och natur.PosivtKadmium försvinnerberor på vad de ersätts med...bättreförbättrad miljöMindre Kadmium i naturenPositivtPositivtPOSITIVA EFFEKTER FÖR MILJÖN & HÄLSOSYNPUNKTER.Beror på vad det ersätts med. Går det att ersätta med enbart metallhydrid-batterier så bör det bli en positivförändring. 38
  40. 40. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsMinskad spridning av kadmium, vilket på sikt kan minska human exponeringBara positivt!If only Li-Ion is allowed, lesser waste since it lasts longerIt is our considered view that NiCd batteries, when accurately recycled, are a responsible solution: - The environment. NiCd batteries are 100% recyclable, the alternatives are not. - Consumers. NiCd batteries are a cost-efficient alternative, offer excellent quality and a high level of technical performance. - Professional users. For some applications, to retain the same level of quality and technical performance, the only viable alternative would be a corded product, i.e. exposure to 230 V in the working environment.The health issues associated with the use of Cadmium in batteries are small and should be put into context inorder to be fully understood. The majority of the general public’s exposure to Cadmium comes from othersources, such as phosphate fertilizers, see attachment, picture 2. Cadmium in NiCd batteries represents lessthan 1% of the general public’s exposure to Cadmium. The Cadmium used in batteries is also fully recyclable.Robust collection and recycling would thus raise the collection rates and divert NiCd batteries away from otherwaste streams. Securing a successful and effective collection would also ensure that batteries already sold willbe taken care of. According to Recharge, 2555 tonnes of portable NiCd batteries were collected in Europe(Europe 15+Norway and Switzerland) in 2006.The EU targeted risk assessment report on the use of Cadmium in batteries has confirmed that batteriesrepresent less than 1% of the sources of human exposure to the metal. This report was endorsed by the EUember States authotities. In addition the Risk Reduction Strategy that is implemented at EU level does nottarget cordless tools batteries as they are not identified as a risk of exposure for usersOTHER COMMENTS ABOUT THE CONSEQUENSES OF A BAN PF CADMIUM IN BATTERIES IN POWER TOOLS?SvarsalternativFör de personer/företag som har köpt en vara där enbart batterier med kadmium kan användas kommer nogatt uppleva det negativt. Alla andra ser nog positivt på ett förbud.Skulle kanske bli lite problem i början för vissa typer av verktyg. Men det skulle få oss importörer att snabba påövergången till miljövänligare alternativ. (Vi behöver en spark i rätt riktning.)Sämre effektivitet i äldre verktyg.Inga.Tillverkare av handverktyg innehållande kadmium hittar andra alternativ, förhoppningsvis bättre.Vad det gäller förbud så förutsätter jag att det är totalt homogent inom hela EU. Dvs kadmiumförbudet skallstarta gälla från samma dag, överallt.Detta tvingar enligt vår mening tillverkarna att jobba fram mera miljövänliga alternativ.ingenReservdelsbatterier måste kunna få säljas över en längre period.Vissa produkter kommer inte att kunna vara tillgängliga då andra baterityper inte kan ersätta kadmium fullt ut.Sett ur Gör-Det-Själv perspektiv finns inga problemViktigt med lång övergångstid så att producenter kan gå över till miljövänligare batterier, annars kan vissaprodukter som är viktiga för industrin försvinna från marknaden.mindre inport av Kina producerade lågpris alternativ.Enbart positiva. Man tvingar fram miljövänligare alternativ för producenterna.Ingen kommentarIdag finns det Litiumbatterier som är betydligt bättre än kadmium så jag tror inte det påverkar så mycket.-måste kontrollera vad som fungerar iställetingaÄnnu ett förbud som gör det svårt för mindre företag. Små företag påläggs ett orimligt ansvar - jag tänker dåfrämst på importörer. Man bör kunna lita på tillverkarens uppgifter, men så som förbuden n ormalt utformas såär man tvungen att genomföra kostsamma laboratorianalyser för att kunna garantera att förbudet uppfylls. Föross som arbetar med mycket specialprodukter som säljs i relativts små serier innebär det att det svenskapriset blir högt - och flertalet kunder importerar då själv för eget bruk. Eftersom det inte finns någon kontroll avegenimporten så innebär det i praktiken att egenimporten av dessa produkter blir oproportionerligt stor - och 39
  41. 41. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsmängden kadmium minskar inte.Är orolig för funktion vid låga temperaturer.Ingen aningVet ejDet kan vara relevant att klargöra vilken betydelse för miljön ett förbud har i förhållande till övrigautsläppskällor och naturliga förekomster av kadmium.Känner inte till någraVi har ej salufört kadmium batterier.Säljer i dag endast Li-ion batterierMindre känslighet för användaren att behandla batteriet rätt.Mindre sortering vi återvinningInga.Tror att fokus flyttas till NiMH och Li-Ion vilket är positivt för utvecklingen.Slutanvändare och konsument drabbas ekonomsikt av högre priser.Ingaberor på vad de ersätts med...nejsämre batteriefunktinVi jobbar inte med handverktyg och vi har inte kadmium i våra produkter längre.Rättvisare konkurrens då det idag förekommeren del import av elmaskiner med kadmiumbatterier utan attmiljövårdsavgift betalas!!!!Svårt att få tag på resrvbatteri till befintliga produkterPRISER STIGER PÅ BATTERIER FUNKTIONALITETEN PÅ VEKRTYG FÖRSÄMRAS/Ingen kommentarSkulle slippa få en uppsjö av importerade "billighetsmaskiner".Concerning function, NiCd batteries have a superior performance in terms of reliability, life span, high ratedischarge, fast charge, operating temperature and toughness, see attachment, picture 1 (EPTA will send apaper copy of this questionnaire along with an attachment of additional information to the SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency). NiCd batteries are much more responsive at lower operating temperaturesthan other chemistries. The battery recovers better following overcharge and high rates of discharge. NiCdbatteries also have a longer life in terms of recharge cycles and have a good ability for fast charging.Reduction in consumers choice for a wider range of products with different performancese and prices. Inaddition, refer to the performances charts comparison for various batteries technologies in Cordless Tools assupplied by EPTA.IS THERE ANY ARGUMENTS TO ALLOW CADMIUM IN BATTERIES AND IF SO, WHICH?SvarsalternativInte i verktygTillåt kadmium i batterier under en övergångs period. Sätt press på verktygs tillverkare att ta fram verktyg medmiljövänligare batterier.NejBatteriåterlämningen fungerar mycket bra idag. Batterierna är täta och "läcker" i princip aldrig ut någonkadmium.NejNejNej. det finns fullgoda alternativ till kadmium.Tåliga batterier.NejNiMh har utvecklats mycket den senaste tiden, så också även lithium-batterier så den tekniska påverkan på tex prestanda bör vara marginell.NejRisken finns alltid om alternativen blir för dyra att man ökar användandet av bensindrivna alternativ, typgrästrimmrar o.dyl.Som agent för ett verktygsmärke måste man kunna förse sina kunder med reservdelar. Batterier är en artikel 40
  42. 42. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultssom slits väldigt fort och är därför en av dom absolut viktigaste reservdelarna på en maskin. Som producenteller importör måste man kunna förse sina kunder med reservdelar i ca 10 år efter att modellenupphört.Handverktyg med kadmium batterier minskar men Sverige styr inte marknaden. Idag tillverkas detinga batteridrivna handverktyg i Sverige, utan vi förlitar oss på import ifrån asien. Ett förbud inom EU hadegjort större och mer effektiv inverkan på producenterna.se ovanDet stora skälet är att ett fåtal maskiner behöver kadmiumbatteriet för att funktionaliteten inte skall förloras.Inte så länge det fungerar med Li-Ion batterierEndast där det är mycket viktigt för batterifunktionen och i batteritillämpningar som är mycket viktiga (t.ex.livsräddande utrustning). Handverktyg uppfyller ej detta.NejNejnejInte som jag ser det. Det finns alternativ redan idag.NejNej inte vad jag vetInga som egentligen är långsiktigt hållbara.nejHar någon dött av det ännu?Utbytes batterier till maskiner som redan finns på marknaden.Arbete utomhus vid låga temperaturer.Ingen aningNej egentligen inte. Konsumenterna måste nog offra pris/prestanda för positiv miljöpåverkanNejEtt argument skulle kunna vara att frågan inte är tillräckligt utredd med avseende på den verkliga nyttan ettförbud har för miljön.Känner inte till någraAtt dom tål kyla bättreFör vårt användningsområde nödbelysning värmetålighet vid montering av batteri i varma miljöerVet ej.nejTill batterier till verktyg där det ännu inte finns något alternativ.NejInte för oss.NejNiCd batterier fungerarbättre än andra liknande batterier i kall miljö.Ej i handverktyg.Nejprisvet intekvalitetenVet ej.NejInom försvar, polis räddningstjänst pga. köld-tålighet.Vid stark kyla är det fördel att använda kadmiumbatteri. Ganska liten marknad.JA MED ETT FANTASTISKT BRA ÅTERVINING SYSTEMOm det finns viktiga funktioner där endast kadmiumbatterier funktionsdugliga (t.ex skulle detta kunna gälla förmedicinteknik eller nödbelysning) bör det finnas undantag.Medicinska applicationer skulle behöva ha en ordentlig tilltagen tidsfrist för utvärdering av andra kemierCheaper price. The batteries are more difficult to damage than other batteries. NiCd batteries have a muchhigher energy density. 1. Superior technical performance. NiCd batteries operate much better at lower temperatures than other chemistries. They have the ability to provide a large amount of current in a short space of time and this is ideal for power tool applications. They can be fast charged and are very robust when exposed to over charging and discharging, displaying a remarkable ability to recover quickly. They have a long 41
  43. 43. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire results life with recharge cycles close to one thousand as an average lifespan. 2. NiCd batteries are 100% recyclable.IS THERE OTHER OPTIONS THEN NICD, NIMH AND LI-ION FOR BATTERIES IN POWER TOOLS?SvarsalternativVet ej.Vet ej.Brunstensbatterier.Inte vad vi harvet ejNej, inte i dagsläget.nej.Nej inte idagGammal hederlig nätström. Skall man arbeta intensivt på samma plats är detta att föredra.Li-PoVet ej.Nejvet ejVet ejnejVet ejVet ejVet ejInte som vi ser i dagsläget.vet ejJag ser laddbara litium celler som troliga alternativ i framtiden. Men man får inte glömma eftermarknaden.Ingen aningNejLitium-polymerbatterier. De är kompakta och har lång batteritid, de är främst avsedda för datorer och dyligtmen kan säkert utvecklas och bli alternativ till nuvarande batterier för handverktyg.Vet ejInte i dag men det kommer säkert.Inte vad jag känner till.Nej, troligen inte.inte för närvarandeVet ej, känner bara till dessa tre.NejInte mig veterligt.Vet ejVet ejInte mig veterligen idag.Ja, t.ex zinkvarianterinte vad jag vet till rätt prisvet intevet ejVet ejNejVet ejVET EJ 42
  44. 44. SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Annex. Summary of questionnaire resultsKan inte svara på det.LiFe kanske 43
  45. 45. Cadmium in report 5901 swedish epapower tool batteries isbn 978-91-620-5901-9 Issn 0282-7298The possibility and consequences of a banIn 2006, the EU established a Battery Directive that ban-ned the use of cadmium in batteries when an alternativewas available. However at the time they were not able toagree upon if an acceptable alternative for power toolswas available which is a condition for replacing NiCdin these batteries. The major part of this report is con-sequently spent comparing the various types of batteriesthat can be used in power tools. The report also covers other consequences that repla-cing cadmium could be expected to cause.Swedish EPA SE-106 48 Stockholm. Visiting address: Stockholm - Valhallavägen 195, Östersund - Forskarens väg 5 hus Ub, Kiruna - Kaserngatan 14.Tel: +46 8-698 10 00, fax: +46 8-20 29 25, e-mail: registrator@naturvardsverket.se Internet: www.naturvardsverket.se Orders Ordertel: +46 8-505 933 40,orderfax: +46 8-505 933 99, e-mail: natur@cm.se Address: CM-Gruppen, Box 110 93, SE-161 11 Bromma. Internet: www.naturvardsverket.se/bokhandeln

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